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Pharmaceutics and Drug Design Commons

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674 full-text articles. Page 6 of 32.

Discussing The Future Of Drug Development And The Pharmaceutical Marketplace, Brittiany Feher, Brady Giles, Gina Jones, Karen Kier, Chet Kaczor 2019 Ohio Northern University

Discussing The Future Of Drug Development And The Pharmaceutical Marketplace, Brittiany Feher, Brady Giles, Gina Jones, Karen Kier, Chet Kaczor

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

No abstract provided.


Metformin And Cancer: Pharmacoepidemiology Considerations, Sarah Kradel, Christina Spinaris, Victoria Pennington, Adam Trimble, Lara Long, Natalie DiPietro 2019 Ohio Northern University

Metformin And Cancer: Pharmacoepidemiology Considerations, Sarah Kradel, Christina Spinaris, Victoria Pennington, Adam Trimble, Lara Long, Natalie Dipietro

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

No abstract provided.


Sterile Compounding: Regulations Addressed After The Meningitis Outbreak Of 2012, Kelly M. Dye, Tara M. Tokar, Halle M. Orlinski, Heather Helsel, Marcia M. Worley 2019 Ohio Northern University

Sterile Compounding: Regulations Addressed After The Meningitis Outbreak Of 2012, Kelly M. Dye, Tara M. Tokar, Halle M. Orlinski, Heather Helsel, Marcia M. Worley

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

No abstract provided.


Pharmacogenetics: Where Are We Now?, Brittany Dye, Megan Meyer, Vincent Wu, Michael D. Kaine 2019 Ohio Northern University

Pharmacogenetics: Where Are We Now?, Brittany Dye, Megan Meyer, Vincent Wu, Michael D. Kaine

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

No abstract provided.


Phase Iv Clinical Trials: Postmarketing Surveillance Of Prescription Drugs, Morgan Belling, Jacquline Nunner, Jessica Stemen 2019 Ohio Northern University

Phase Iv Clinical Trials: Postmarketing Surveillance Of Prescription Drugs, Morgan Belling, Jacquline Nunner, Jessica Stemen

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

No abstract provided.


Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs, Kevin Stack, Eric Stack, Stelios Theophanous, Anne Gentry, Jason M. Pogue 2019 Ohio Northern University

Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs, Kevin Stack, Eric Stack, Stelios Theophanous, Anne Gentry, Jason M. Pogue

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) are becoming increasingly prevalent in the United States as concerns continue to mount regarding antimicrobial resistance and the lack of new, novel antibiotics being introduced. There are a multitude of factors that have contributed to the escalation in antimicrobial resistance, with some of the more common concerns being overly broad antimicrobial coverage and prolonged antimicrobial treatment amongst others. While antimicrobial resistance is a problem of international proportion, each health care institution remains responsible for assessing its own protocols pertinent to antimicrobial usage. ASPs have had unparalleled success in achieving their goals due to the collaboration of ...


Antidepressant Dosing In Major Depression: A Pharmacogenomic Approach, Morgan Homan, Haval Norman, Victoria Cho, Yousif Rojeab 2019 Ohio Northern University

Antidepressant Dosing In Major Depression: A Pharmacogenomic Approach, Morgan Homan, Haval Norman, Victoria Cho, Yousif Rojeab

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most predominant mental disorder in the United States, with serious and costly health risks if not successfully managed. Pharmacotherapy is a standard option for MDD treatment, but patients often require extensive therapy adjustments to find a suitable regimen. Pharmacogenomics may enable greater precision in antidepressant therapy. Genotypic variations in CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 metabolic enzymes are reliable predictors of serum drug concentration, but the complex dose-response relationship of antidepressants prevents such variations from predicting therapy success. Additionally, ABCBl has been examined for its role in P-glycoprotein efflux of antidepressants in the brain, yet it is ...


Comparison Of Long-Term Oral Anticoagulation Therapies Including Newly Approved Reversal Agent For Dabigatran, Mackenzie DeVine, Natalie Lennartz, Michaela Wolford, Rebecca Worden, Joelle Farano, Erin Petersen 2019 Ohio Northern University

Comparison Of Long-Term Oral Anticoagulation Therapies Including Newly Approved Reversal Agent For Dabigatran, Mackenzie Devine, Natalie Lennartz, Michaela Wolford, Rebecca Worden, Joelle Farano, Erin Petersen

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Anticoagulants are a well-known class of agents essential for the prevention of blood clots, which may further develop into deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or stroke. Individuals at a high risk of clotting, such as those with atrial fibrillation, multiple risk factors or recent hip/knee surgery, are in need of long-term anticoagulation therapy. The purpose of this review is to highlight the pros and cons for each available anticoagulant as well as discuss pivotal clinical trials that evaluated the safety and efficacy of these agents. Warfarin, the oldest anticoagulant, requires the patient to attend frequent appointments with a health ...


Use Of Botulinum Toxin In Central Nervous System Disorders, Julie Puvogel, Paige Torbet, Jourdan Ujlaki, Rebecca Worden, Lindsey Peters 2019 Ohio Northern University

Use Of Botulinum Toxin In Central Nervous System Disorders, Julie Puvogel, Paige Torbet, Jourdan Ujlaki, Rebecca Worden, Lindsey Peters

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin that is produced by Clostridium botulinum. At one time, this toxin was only seen as a lethal substance, but now scientists have found many medical uses for it. There are eight distinctive toxins (A-H), but only A and B currently have clinical uses. Botulinum toxin A has three different versions that are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved: onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®), incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®). Botulinum toxin B is also FDA approved as rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc®). The toxins work by inducing reversible, local, dose-dependent chemodenervation by inhibiting acetylcholine release from presynaptic terminals. These drugs are ...


Prevention And Treatment Of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis, Mackenzie DeVine, Anh Dao Le, Julie Puvogel, Victoria Cho, Michelle Musser 2019 Ohio Northern University

Prevention And Treatment Of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis, Mackenzie Devine, Anh Dao Le, Julie Puvogel, Victoria Cho, Michelle Musser

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Osteoporosis is a disease state resulting in decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fracture, specifically of the vertebrae, spine and hip. Risk factors and high risk populations for developing osteoporosis include low BMD, long-term glucocorticoid therapy, genetics, diet, postmenopausal women and patients with inflammatory or chronic disease states. A variety of signaling pathways involving hormones, cytokines and other signaling molecules are involved in bone formation and are affected by long-term glucocorticoid therapy, leading to the development of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO).

There are a variety of drugs that work efficaciously to prevent and treat GIO. Alendronate is a ...


Health Risks And Emerging Trends With The Use Of Electronic Cigarettes, Lucy Wagala, Austin Hopkins, Natalie Lennartz, Brian Heilbronner, Brittany L. Long, Natalie DiPietro Mager 2019 Ohio Northern University

Health Risks And Emerging Trends With The Use Of Electronic Cigarettes, Lucy Wagala, Austin Hopkins, Natalie Lennartz, Brian Heilbronner, Brittany L. Long, Natalie Dipietro Mager

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Cigarette smoking is associated with many health risks and complications. Despite smokers' strong desire to quit, most battle with nicotine withdrawal and relapse. Because electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) do not contain tobacco, some believe them to be safer than traditional cigarettes and have used them as a replacement or adjunct nicotine source to prevent withdrawal symptoms. Electronic cigarettes are designed to mimic traditional cigarettes and expel a vapor composed of nicotine, water, glycerol, propylene glycol and other flavorings. Many e-cigarette companies use appealing platforms, which promise smoking cessation and harm reduction, to attract consumers; however, several studies have found e-cigarettes actually ...


Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome From Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy, Elizabeth Kramer, Maria Patnella, Rachel Bulko, Allie Harrison, Hannah Lamb, Manoranjan D'Souza 2019 Ohio Northern University

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome From Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy, Elizabeth Kramer, Maria Patnella, Rachel Bulko, Allie Harrison, Hannah Lamb, Manoranjan D'Souza

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a concern for infants born to mothers receiving treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) throughout the pregnancy. The risk of NAS associated with SSRI use during pregnancy varies with the specific SSRI that is used by the patient during pregnancy. Common symptoms of NAS include premature delivery, gastrointestinal disturbances, irritability, low birth weight, short length and lack of response to various stimuli. Neonates that present with these symptoms can be scored using either the Finnegan or Lipsitz scoring tools. Neonates experiencing NAS can be calmed or treated using nonpharmacologic methods such as swaddling ...


Treatment Of Basal Cell Carcinoma With Vismodegib, Sunitha Johns, Katlyn Brown, Emily Loudermilk, Crystal Zheng, Anh Dao Le, Sophocles Chrissobolis 2019 Ohio Northern University

Treatment Of Basal Cell Carcinoma With Vismodegib, Sunitha Johns, Katlyn Brown, Emily Loudermilk, Crystal Zheng, Anh Dao Le, Sophocles Chrissobolis

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The most prevalent nonmelanoma skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (aBCC). Current, effective first-line treatments for BCC aim to remove and destroy cancerous skin cells through excision surgery, Mohs surgery, radiation therapy and cryotherapy, while treatment of aBCC remains limited. An emerging treatment option for aBCC that promotes tumor size reduction is vismodegib, a pharmaceutical product approved in 2012 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Vismodegib was approved for the treatment of aBCC, metastasized HCC (mBCC) or recurrent BCC after surgery as well as for use in adults who are ...


Triple Therapy Or Triple Threat: An Analysis Of Triple Antiplatelet Therapy Compared To Dual Antiplatelet Therapy, Isabel E. Cwikla, Kara C. Horvath, Elaina Gollmar, Austin Hilverding, Erin Petersen 2019 Ohio Northern University

Triple Therapy Or Triple Threat: An Analysis Of Triple Antiplatelet Therapy Compared To Dual Antiplatelet Therapy, Isabel E. Cwikla, Kara C. Horvath, Elaina Gollmar, Austin Hilverding, Erin Petersen

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Triple antiplatelet therapy (TAPT, or triple therapy), is an oral medication regimen designed to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events. It consists of aspirin, clopidogrel or an alternative, and an oral anticoagulant (OAC). It differs from dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) due to inclusion of an OAC. Multiple clinical studies have indicated that triple therapy is more effective at clot prevention, when compared to aspirin monotherapy and DAPT, but is associated with a higher risk of major bleeding. Pharmacists have a key role in determining candidates for DAPT and TAPT regimens. Other opportunities for pharmacists include patient monitoring, counseling and ...


Programmed Death Pathway Inhibition: Emerging Therapeutic Options For Treatment Of Advanced Or Refractory Cancers, Katherine Elsass, Morgan Homan, Jana Randolph, Brendan Rasor, David Kinder 2019 Ohio Northern University

Programmed Death Pathway Inhibition: Emerging Therapeutic Options For Treatment Of Advanced Or Refractory Cancers, Katherine Elsass, Morgan Homan, Jana Randolph, Brendan Rasor, David Kinder

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway has a significant role in the promotion of immune tolerance. The PD-1 receptor ligands are normally expressed on various inactive immune cells. When cancer cells express these ligands, they are able to interact with active T and B lymphocytes to induce this tolerance. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab are two recently approved agents that act to disrupt this binding and facilitate an immune response against cancer cells. Numerous trials, including KEYNOTE-002 and CheckMate 063, have demonstrated the superior safety and efficacy of these drugs in patients with advanced or refractory cancers. Initially approved for the treatment of ...


Pcsk9 Inhibitors: A Novel Class Of Pharmacotherapy For Hypercholesterolemia, Angela Chu, Austin Hilverding, Elizabeth Kramer, Brendan Rasor, Boyd Rorabaugh 2019 Ohio Northern University

Pcsk9 Inhibitors: A Novel Class Of Pharmacotherapy For Hypercholesterolemia, Angela Chu, Austin Hilverding, Elizabeth Kramer, Brendan Rasor, Boyd Rorabaugh

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of two new drugs, alirocumab (Praluent®) and evolocumab (Repatha®) is a breakthrough in the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia. These drugs are a part of a new class called the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors that act by increasing the number of low density lipoprotein receptors (LDL-R) recycled to hepatocyte membranes. The increased density of LDL-R facilitates greater clearance of low density lipoproteins from the blood. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of these agents, particularly for patients in whom standard cholesterol-lowering therapy is insufficient. However, data ...


Belsomra®: A Novel Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonist For The Treatment Of Insomnia, Shane Bogusz, Steven Blake, Michaela Wolford, Victoria Cho, Manoranjan D'Souza 2019 Ohio Northern University

Belsomra®: A Novel Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonist For The Treatment Of Insomnia, Shane Bogusz, Steven Blake, Michaela Wolford, Victoria Cho, Manoranjan D'Souza

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Insomnia is a disease state characterized by a persistent difficulty in falling asleep, and results in enormous health-related and economic costs to both the individual and society. Several medications are currently available for the treatment of insomnia; however, these medications are associated with several limitations including anterograde amnesia, dependence, withdrawal symptoms upon stopping the medication and rebound insomnia. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved suvorexant (Belsomra®) as a treatment for insomnia. Suvorexant is a first-in-class dual orexin receptor antagonist for the treatment of insomnia. This review will first describe the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ...


Heterogeneity And Plasticity Of Human Breast Cancer Cells In Response To Molecularly-Targeted Drugs, Emira Bousoik, Ramina Nabiee, Farideh Amirrad, Ashley Nichols, Rebecca Witt, Parvin Mahdipoor, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2019 Chapman University

Heterogeneity And Plasticity Of Human Breast Cancer Cells In Response To Molecularly-Targeted Drugs, Emira Bousoik, Ramina Nabiee, Farideh Amirrad, Ashley Nichols, Rebecca Witt, Parvin Mahdipoor, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Non-responsive subpopulation of tumor cells, and acquired resistance in initially responsive cells are major challenges for cancer therapy with molecularly-targeted drugs. While point mutations are considered the major contributing factor to acquired resistance, in this study we explored the role of heterogeneity and plasticity of selected human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and AU565) in their initial and adjusted response, respectively, to ruxolitinib, everolimus, and erlotinib. After determination of lethal concentration for 50% cell death (LC50), cells were exposed to selected drugs using three different approaches: single exposure to 4 × LC50 and collection of surviving cells, multiple exposures to ...


What Is The Smartpill®?, Christina Ciccone, Pul Lee, Kimberly Loughlin, David Koh 2019 Ohio Northern University

What Is The Smartpill®?, Christina Ciccone, Pul Lee, Kimberly Loughlin, David Koh

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The SmartPill® is a new, noninvasive technology to evaluate the gastrointestinal tract. It is a nondigestible capsule that migrates through the gastrointestinal tract to measure pH, pressure, and temperature. It was approved by the FDA in 2006 for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients with chronic constipation and to evaluate gastric transit time in patients with suspected gastroparesis. Other currently used gastrointestinal monitoring systems have some disadvantages, and the SmartPill® is suggested as an alternative. The SmartPill® has also been used for research purposes in various studies and has the potential to be used in diagnosis and monitoring ...


Combating Antibiotic Resistance In The 21st Century, Kevin Krivanek, Brian Heilbronner, Brendan Rasor, Kelsey Lindsley, Andrew Roecker 2019 Ohio Northern University

Combating Antibiotic Resistance In The 21st Century, Kevin Krivanek, Brian Heilbronner, Brendan Rasor, Kelsey Lindsley, Andrew Roecker

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Antibiotic resistance is one of the most significant challenges facing the medical community today. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created a list of the greatest antibiotic resistance threats, a number of which are gram-positive bacteria. The cell wall of these organisms has long been a favored target of antibiotic therapies, but the development of numerous resistance mechanisms has led to widespread resistance against nearly all major antibiotic compounds on the market. The medical community is faced with the task of developing better antibiotic compounds that preclude the spread of bacterial resistance and also increasing the ...


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