Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Fungi Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

259 Full-Text Articles 682 Authors 26,087 Downloads 38 Institutions

All Articles in Fungi

Faceted Search

259 full-text articles. Page 7 of 8.

A Unique Mri Presentation Of Fungal Infection In The Brain, Muhammad Bilal Salman Khan, Saad Shafqat, Ather Enam 2014 Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

A Unique Mri Presentation Of Fungal Infection In The Brain, Muhammad Bilal Salman Khan, Saad Shafqat, Ather Enam

Section of Neurology

Fungal infections of CNS are common in certain geographic locations. MRI with or without contrast is a useful prediagnostic tool. However, the findings may sometimes be misleading. In this case report, the authors present unusual imaging findings in the MRI of fungal infection in an immunocompetent host, whereby hyper-intense signals were seen on T2-weighted images and patchy post-contrast enhancement was observed with surrounding edema. These findings were suggestive of a neoplastic lesion but it was identified as aspergillosis on subsequent histopathology. This unusual MRI finding of CNS highlights the need to consider fungal infection as a differential diagnosis of all ...


A Systematic Survey Of An Intragenic Epistatic Landscape [Preprint], Claudia Bank, Ryan T. Hietpas, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Daniel N. Bolon 2014 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

A Systematic Survey Of An Intragenic Epistatic Landscape [Preprint], Claudia Bank, Ryan T. Hietpas, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Daniel N. Bolon

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Mutations are the source of evolutionary variation. The interactions of multiple mutations can have important effects on fitness and evolutionary trajectories. We have recently described the distribution of fitness effects of all single mutations for a nine amino acid region of yeast Hsp90 (Hsp82) implicated in substrate binding. Here, we report and discuss the distribution of intragenic epistatic effects within this region in seven Hsp90 point mutant backgrounds of neutral to slightly deleterious effect, resulting in an analysis of more than 1000 double-mutants. We find negative epistasis between substitutions to be common, and positive epistasis to be rare – resulting in ...


Aquastella Gen. Nov.: A New Genus Of Saprolegniaceous Oomycete Rotifer Parasites Related To Aphanomyces, With Unique Sporangial Outgrowths, Daniel P. Molloy, Sally L. Glockling, Clifford A. Siegfried, Gordon W. Beakes, Timothy Y. James, Sergey E. Mastitsky, Elizabeth S. Wurdak, Laure Giamberini, Michael J. Gaylo, Michael J. Nemeth 2014 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Aquastella Gen. Nov.: A New Genus Of Saprolegniaceous Oomycete Rotifer Parasites Related To Aphanomyces, With Unique Sporangial Outgrowths, Daniel P. Molloy, Sally L. Glockling, Clifford A. Siegfried, Gordon W. Beakes, Timothy Y. James, Sergey E. Mastitsky, Elizabeth S. Wurdak, Laure Giamberini, Michael J. Gaylo, Michael J. Nemeth

Biology Faculty Publications

The oomycete genus Aquastella is described to accommodate two new species of parasites of rotifers observed in Brooktrout Lake, New York State, USA. Three rotifer species – Keratella taurocephala,Polyarthra vulgaris, and Ploesoma truncatum – were infected, and this is the first report of oomycete infection in these species. Aquastella attenuata was specific to K. taurocephala and Aquastella aciculariswas specific to P. vulgaris and P. truncatum. The occurrence of infections correlated with peak host population densities and rotifers were infected in the upper layers of the water column. Sequencing of 18S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis of both species placed them within ...


Mamba Juice: Expression Of Exogenous Mambalgin Peptide Using The Pgapzα Vector System, Lydia Studdard, Kristin VanMouwerik, Merhawi Yigzaw, Reza Alavi 2014 Georgia State University

Mamba Juice: Expression Of Exogenous Mambalgin Peptide Using The Pgapzα Vector System, Lydia Studdard, Kristin Vanmouwerik, Merhawi Yigzaw, Reza Alavi

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Infection And Common Mycelial Network Formation On Invasive Plant Competition, Rachael Elizabeth Workman 2014 Portland State University

Effects Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Infection And Common Mycelial Network Formation On Invasive Plant Competition, Rachael Elizabeth Workman

Dissertations and Theses

Understanding the biotic factors influencing invasive plant performance is essential for managing invaded land and preventing further exotic establishment and spread. I studied how competition between both conspecifics and native co-habitants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) impacted the success of the invasive bunchgrass Brachypodium sylvaticumin early growth stages. I examined whether invasive plants performed and competed differently when grown in soil containing AMF from adjacent invaded and noninvaded ranges in order to determine the contribution of AMF to both monoculture stability and spread of the invasive to noninvaded territory. I also directly manipulated common mycelial network (CMN) formation by AMF ...


Sampling Local Fungal Diversity In An Undergraduate Laboratory Using Dna Barcoding, A. H. Harrington, A. F. Bigott, B. W. Anderson, M. J. Boone, S. M. Brick, J. F. delSol, R. A. Hotchkiss, R. A. Huddleston, E. H. Kasper, J. J. McGrady, M. L. McKinnie, M. V. Ottenlips, N. E. Skinner, K. C. Spatz, A. J. Steinberg, F. van den Broek, C. N. Wilson, A. M. Wofford, A. M. Willyard 2014 Hendrix College

Sampling Local Fungal Diversity In An Undergraduate Laboratory Using Dna Barcoding, A. H. Harrington, A. F. Bigott, B. W. Anderson, M. J. Boone, S. M. Brick, J. F. Delsol, R. A. Hotchkiss, R. A. Huddleston, E. H. Kasper, J. J. Mcgrady, M. L. Mckinnie, M. V. Ottenlips, N. E. Skinner, K. C. Spatz, A. J. Steinberg, F. Van Den Broek, C. N. Wilson, A. M. Wofford, A. M. Willyard

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Traditional methods for fungal species identification require diagnostic morphological characters and are often limited by the availability of fresh fruiting bodies and local identification resources. DNA barcoding offers an additional method of species identification and is rapidly developing as a critical tool in fungal taxonomy. As an exercise in an undergraduate biology course, we identified 9 specimens collected from the Hendrix College campus in Conway, Arkansas, USA to the genus or species level using morphology. We report that DNA barcoding targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region supported several of our taxonomic determinations and we were able to contribute 5 ...


Regional Dust Storm Modeling For Health Services: The Case Of Valley Fever, William A. Sprigg, Slobodan Nickovic, John N. Galgiani, Goran Pejanovic, Slavo Petkovic, Mirjam Vujadinovic, Ana Vukovic, Milan Dacic, Scott DiBiase, Anup K. Prasad, Hesham el-Askary 2014 Chapman University

Regional Dust Storm Modeling For Health Services: The Case Of Valley Fever, William A. Sprigg, Slobodan Nickovic, John N. Galgiani, Goran Pejanovic, Slavo Petkovic, Mirjam Vujadinovic, Ana Vukovic, Milan Dacic, Scott Dibiase, Anup K. Prasad, Hesham El-Askary

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

On 5 July 2011, a massive dust storm struck Phoenix, Arizona (USA), raising concerns for increased cases of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis, or, cocci). A quasi-operational experimental airborne dust forecast system predicted the event and provides model output for continuing analysis in collaboration with public health and air quality communities. An objective of this collaboration was to see if a signal in cases of valley fever in the region could be detected and traced to the storm - an American haboob. To better understand the atmospheric life cycle of cocci spores, the DREAM dust model (also herein, NMME-DREAM) was modified to simulate ...


Development Of Novel Antifungal Peptides Based On A Natural Model Of Histatin-5 Peptide, Duy Tu Nguyen 2013 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of Novel Antifungal Peptides Based On A Natural Model Of Histatin-5 Peptide, Duy Tu Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Our research group is working toward the development of novel antifungal peptides based on a natural model of peptide histatin-5. Histatin-5 is found in human saliva and known to protect our body against oral infections by Candida species. Candidiasis, or an infection caused by Candida species, is considered one of the most medically important fungal infections worldwide. Blood stream infections caused by Candida species are the fourth leading cause of hospital-acquired fungal infections that is associated with high mortality rates and high costs of treatment. This study investigated the modes of action of histatin-5 with the use of one 16-mer ...


Signal Transduction And Transcriptional Regulation Pathways Essential For Azole Resistance In Candida Albicans, Erin M. Vasicek 2013 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Signal Transduction And Transcriptional Regulation Pathways Essential For Azole Resistance In Candida Albicans, Erin M. Vasicek

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Candida albicans is the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, found as a commensal organism in the mucosa, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts of humans. This pathogenic fungus causes a wide spectrum of diseases, including the mucosal infection oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) which frequently effects patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The azole antifungals (such as fluconazole) are the most widely used and important ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) for the treatment of Candida infections, including OPC. However, the azoles are fungistatic against C. albicans and therefore have limited efficacy against this organism, especially for immunocompromised patients. In C. albicans, the transcription factor Upc2 ...


Erg11-Mediated Azole Resistance In Candida Albicans, Stephanie Ann Flowers 2013 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Erg11-Mediated Azole Resistance In Candida Albicans, Stephanie Ann Flowers

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Although many medically important Candida species are commensal to the gut or colonizers of the skin, these organisms have the propensity to cause disease in the event of a waning immune system. Clinical manifestations of infections with Candida species can range from superficial mucosal infections to deep organ involvement usually resulting from haematogenous spread of infection. Despite significant progress made in the management of patients with fungal infections, the emergence of antifungal resistant clinical isolates creates significant problem in regards to antifungal prophylaxis and empirical treatment strategies. Antifungal resistance is associated with high mortality rates and hefty medical costs. The ...


Novel Inducers Of Gliotoxin Production In Aspergillus Fumigatus, Taylor J. Schoberle 2013 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Novel Inducers Of Gliotoxin Production In Aspergillus Fumigatus, Taylor J. Schoberle

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Secondary metabolites are produced by numerous organisms and can either be benign to humans or harmful. Genes involved in the synthesis and transport of these secondary metabolites are frequently found in gene clusters, which are often located in subtelomeric regions of the chromosome. These clusters are often coordinately regulated, being almost exclusively dependent on transcription factors that are located within the clusters themselves. Secondary metabolites are also regulated by a variety of factors, including nutritional factors, environmental factors and developmental processes. Gliotoxin, which is produced by a variety of Aspergillus species, Trichoderma species, and Penicillium species, exhibits immunosuppressive properties and ...


Comparison Of Wild And Cultivated Extracts Of Cordyceps Sinensis Apoptotic Potential, Katelyn Staring 2013 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Comparison Of Wild And Cultivated Extracts Of Cordyceps Sinensis Apoptotic Potential, Katelyn Staring

Honors Theses

Cordyceps sinensis is a mushroom which contains the compound cordycepin (3’-deoxyadenosine), an analogue of adenosine. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), cordycepin has multipurpose pharmacological uses including purported anti-tumor effects. In the present study, cordycepin was extracted from the wild mushroom as well as from various commercially available cultivated extracts. Previous research in this lab has demonstrated that cultivated extracts contain less cordycepin than the wild mushroom. However, it is unclear if the decrease in cordycepin correlates with decreased activity. To measure anti-tumor activity, extracts were used to treat human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). In other labs, cordycepin has ...


Uv Damage Regulates Alternative Polyadenylation Of The Rpb2 Gene In Yeast, Lijian Yu, Michael R. Volkert 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

Uv Damage Regulates Alternative Polyadenylation Of The Rpb2 Gene In Yeast, Lijian Yu, Michael R. Volkert

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is conserved in all eukaryotic cells. Selective use of polyadenylation sites appears to be a highly regulated process and contributes to human pathogenesis. In this article we report that the yeast RPB2 gene is alternatively polyadenylated, producing two mRNAs with different lengths of 3'UTR. In normally growing wild-type cells, polyadenylation preferentially uses the promoter-proximal poly(A) site. After UV damage transcription of RPB2 is initially inhibited. As transcription recovers, the promoter-distal poly(A) site is preferentially used instead, producing more of a longer form of RPB2 mRNA. We show that the relative increase in the long ...


Catalytic Mechanisms In Sec7 And Vps9 Domain Exchange Factors For Arf And Rab Gtpases: A Dissertation, Meng-Tse Lee 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Catalytic Mechanisms In Sec7 And Vps9 Domain Exchange Factors For Arf And Rab Gtpases: A Dissertation, Meng-Tse Lee

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Vesicle budding, membrane trafficking, and lipid metabolism depend on the switching of Arf and Rab GTPases from the inactive GDP bound state to the active GTP bound state. However, Arf and Rab GTPases have intrinsic rates of GDP to GTP exchange that are much slower (hours to days) than the time scale of the relevant trafficking processes (seconds or less). In cells, the activation of Arf and Rab GTPases is tightly regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) with Sec7 or Vps9 domains, respectively.

Full length Cytohesins, which have a domain architecture consisting of heptad repeats, a Sec7 domain, a ...


Targeting The Histone Acetyl-Transferase, Rtt109, For Novel Anti-Fungal Drug Development: A Dissertation, Jessica Lopes da Rosa-Spiegler 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Targeting The Histone Acetyl-Transferase, Rtt109, For Novel Anti-Fungal Drug Development: A Dissertation, Jessica Lopes Da Rosa-Spiegler

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Discovery of new antifungal chemo-therapeutics for humans is limited by the large degree of conservation among eukaryotic organisms. In recent years, the histone acetyl-transferase Rtt109 was identified as the sole enzyme responsible for an abundant and important histone modification, histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) acetylation. In the absence of Rtt109, the lack of acetylated H3K56 renders yeast cells extremely sensitive to genotoxic agents. Consequently, the ability to sustain genotoxic stress from the host immune system is crucial for pathogens to perpetuate an infection. Because Rtt109 is conserved only within the fungal kingdom, I reasoned that Rtt109 could be a novel ...


Characterization Of New Factors In The 18s Nonfunctional Ribosomal Rna Decay Pathway In S. Cerevisiae: A Dissertation, Christopher N. Merrikh 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Characterization Of New Factors In The 18s Nonfunctional Ribosomal Rna Decay Pathway In S. Cerevisiae: A Dissertation, Christopher N. Merrikh

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The molecular biology revolution of the 1960s has given rise to an enormous body of literature describing, in great detail, the inner workings of the cell. Over the course of the past 50 years, and countless hours at the bench, biologists have used the implications of basic research to produce vaccines, antibiotics, and other therapies that have improved both the quality and duration of our lives. Despite these incredible advances, basic questions remain unanswered. In even the simplest model organism, hundreds of essential genes have never been studied. Moreover, the central dogma of molecular biology—DNA to RNA to Protein ...


Influence Of Soil Microorganisms On Plant Growth And Fitness, Benjamin Jayne 2012 University of Denver

Influence Of Soil Microorganisms On Plant Growth And Fitness, Benjamin Jayne

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Most terrestrial plants benefit from symbiosis with soil microorganisms. Symbiotic bacteria and fungi have wide-ranging effects on host plants, including improved nutrition, disease resistance, and drought tolerance. Association with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) can enhance growth and protect plants from environmental stressors while they share products of photosynthesis with the resident fungi. Scores of studies indicate that mycorrhizal plants are more resistant to drought stress than their non-mycorrhizal counterparts. Use of microbes as a plant and soil supplement in home gardens represents a sustainable alternative to resource-intensive inputs and may allow for reduced water use. I investigated the effects of ...


Insights Into Er Translocation Channel Gating. Structural Regulation Of The Transition Between The Closed And Open Channel Conformations: A Dissertation, Steven F. Trueman 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Insights Into Er Translocation Channel Gating. Structural Regulation Of The Transition Between The Closed And Open Channel Conformations: A Dissertation, Steven F. Trueman

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The transition between the closed and open conformations of the Sec61 complex permits nascent protein insertion into the translocation channel. A critical event in this structural transition is the opening of the lateral translocon gate that is formed by four transmembrane (TM) spans (TM2, TM3, TM7 and TM8 in Sec61p) to expose the signal sequence-binding (SSB) site. To gain mechanistic insight into lateral gate opening, mutations were introduced into a lumenal loop (L7) that connects TM7 and TM8. The sec61 L7 mutants were found to have defects in both the posttranslational and cotranslational translocation pathways due to a kinetic delay ...


Metacaspase Gene Function In The Mushroom Fungus Schizophyllum Commune, Matthew P. Hanley 2011 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Metacaspase Gene Function In The Mushroom Fungus Schizophyllum Commune, Matthew P. Hanley

Honors Theses

The overall goal of this project was to investigate the biological role of a putative metacaspase gene present in the mushroom fungus Schizophyllum commune. For this study, we have utilized a strain of S. commune that is unable to integrate DNA via the non-homologous end joining pathway. This forces transforming DNA to integrate homologously, as is required for the purposes of gene knockout. The gene Scp1 encodes a likely member of the metacaspase protein family, which are suspected to have activity similar to caspases, the latter crucial to programmed cell death. A knockout construct containing a non-functional version of Scp1 ...


Role Of The Yeast Ste20 Protein Kinase Ortholog Map4k4 In Adipose Tissue Function: A Dissertation, Kalyani V. P. Guntur 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Role Of The Yeast Ste20 Protein Kinase Ortholog Map4k4 In Adipose Tissue Function: A Dissertation, Kalyani V. P. Guntur

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Obesity has increased globally in epidemic proportions and as have the associated disorders. Insulin resistance that could further lead to type 2 diabetes is a major obesity associated dysfunction. Studies using insulin resistant mouse models and observations from human subjects exhibiting insulin resistance provide evidence for ectopic lipid deposition in organs like liver, muscle and heart as one of the major risk factors for developing insulin resistance. These observations suggest that deregulated adipose function to sequester and store excess energy as fat, could lead to insulin resistance. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated adipose tissue dysfunction leading to inflammation and related ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress