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Antifungal Defense Molecules From Bacterial Symbionts Of North American Trachymyrmex Ants, Georgia Scherer 2020 Claremont Colleges

Antifungal Defense Molecules From Bacterial Symbionts Of North American Trachymyrmex Ants, Georgia Scherer

CMC Senior Theses

Defensive symbioses, in which microbes provide molecular defenses for an animal host, hold great potential as untapped sources of therapeutically useful antibiotics. Fungus-growing ants use antifungal defenses from bacterial symbionts to suppress pathogenic fungi in their nests. Preliminary chemical investigations of symbiotic bacteria from this large family of ants have uncovered novel antifungal molecules with therapeutic potential, such as dentigerumycin and selvamicin.

In this study, the bacterial symbionts of North American Trachymyrmex fungus-growing ants are investigated for antifungal molecules. Plate-based bioassays using ecologically-relevant fungal pathogens confirmed that these bacteria have antifungal activity. In order to purify and identify the antifungal ...


Evaluating Volatile Organic Compounds For Contact-Independent Antagonism Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans, 2019 Kennesaw State University

Evaluating Volatile Organic Compounds For Contact-Independent Antagonism Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans

Symposium of Student Scholars

White-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is responsible for the extensive mortality of bats in the United States. In an effort to develop tools to reduce bat mortality attributed to WNS, an in vitro experiment was conducted to quantify the inhibitory effects of select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as explore potential synergistic activities. The experiment involved exposing mycelial plugs of P. destructans to various concentrations of B23 as well as B23 and decanal together at equimolar ratios. Measurements of the plugs were taken over the course of the 13 day experiment allowing the ...


Oral Fungal Microbiota: To Thrush And Beyond, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2019 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Oral Fungal Microbiota: To Thrush And Beyond, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

The oral microbiota is complex, multikingdom, interactive, and involves extensive biofilm formation. While dominated by bacteria, Candida is a frequent member of this microbiota; however, several other potentially pathogenic fungi (among around 100 identified species) appear to reside in some individuals, including Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, and Fusarium. Oral candidiasis may manifest as a variety of disease entities in normal hosts and in the immunocompromised. These include pseudomembranous candidiasis (thrush), hyperplastic or atrophic (denture) candidiasis, linear gingival erythema, median rhomboid glossitis, and angular cheilitis. The purpose of this review is to describe the oral fungal microbiota (ie, oral mycobiota), common mouth diseases ...


Mdt-28/Plin-1 Mediates Lipid Droplet-Microtubule Interaction Via Dlc-1 In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Kang Xie, Peng Zhang, Huimin Na, Yangli Liu, Hong Zhang, Pingsheng Liu 2019 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Mdt-28/Plin-1 Mediates Lipid Droplet-Microtubule Interaction Via Dlc-1 In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Kang Xie, Peng Zhang, Huimin Na, Yangli Liu, Hong Zhang, Pingsheng Liu

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Ectopic lipid accumulation in lipid droplets (LD) has been linked to many metabolic diseases. In this study, DHS-3::GFP was used as a LD marker in C. elegans and a forward genetic screen was carried out to find novel LD regulators. There were 140 mutant alleles identified which were divided into four phenotypic categories: enlarged, aggregated, aggregated and small, and decreased. After genetic mapping, mutations in three known LD regulatory genes (maoc-1, dhs-28, daf-22) and a peroxisome-related gene (acox-3) were found to enlarge LDs, demonstrating the reliability of using DHS-3 as a living marker. In the screen, the cytoskeleton protein ...


Chitosan Biosynthesis And Virulence In The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii, Woei C. Lam, Rajendra Upadhya, Charles A. Specht, Abigail E. Ragsdale, Camaron R. Hole, Stuart M. Levitz, Jennifer K. Lodge 2019 Washington University

Chitosan Biosynthesis And Virulence In The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii, Woei C. Lam, Rajendra Upadhya, Charles A. Specht, Abigail E. Ragsdale, Camaron R. Hole, Stuart M. Levitz, Jennifer K. Lodge

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Cryptococcus gattii R265 is a hypervirulent fungal strain responsible for the recent outbreak of cryptococcosis in Vancouver Island of British Columbia in Canada. It differs significantly from Cryptococcus neoformans in its natural environment, its preferred site in the mammalian host, and its pathogenesis. Our previous studies of C. neoformans have shown that the presence of chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin, in the cell wall attenuates inflammatory responses in the host, while its absence induces robust immune responses, which in turn facilitate clearance of the fungus and induces a protective response. The results of the present investigation reveal that the ...


The Essential Role Of Carbon Metabolism In The Virulence Of Cryptococcus Neoformans, Mara Weigner 2019 Liberty University

The Essential Role Of Carbon Metabolism In The Virulence Of Cryptococcus Neoformans, Mara Weigner

Senior Honors Theses

Cryptococcus neoformans infections are a major cause of meningoencephalitis in immunosuppressed patients worldwide. Inhaled as spores or desiccated yeast cells, C. neoformans can undergo metabolic changes in response to the new host environment that allow it to cross the blood brain barrier and cause deadly central nervous system (CNS) infections. Nutrient acquisition, and specifically carbon metabolism, is critical for survival and proliferation within the host. Notably, efficient carbon metabolism is necessary to produce the polysaccharide capsule, which is arguably C. neoformans’ most important and well-studied virulence factor. As such, a better understanding of carbon acquisition and regulation is essential for ...


Distinct Transcriptional Roles For Histone H3-K56 Acetylation During The Cell Cycle In Yeast, Salih Topal, Pauline Vasseur, Marta Radman-Livaja, Craig L. Peterson 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Distinct Transcriptional Roles For Histone H3-K56 Acetylation During The Cell Cycle In Yeast, Salih Topal, Pauline Vasseur, Marta Radman-Livaja, Craig L. Peterson

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Dynamic disruption and reassembly of promoter-proximal nucleosomes is a conserved hallmark of transcriptionally active chromatin. Histone H3-K56 acetylation (H3K56Ac) enhances these turnover events and promotes nucleosome assembly during S phase. Here we sequence nascent transcripts to investigate the impact of H3K56Ac on transcription throughout the yeast cell cycle. We find that H3K56Ac is a genome-wide activator of transcription. While H3K56Ac has a major impact on transcription initiation, it also appears to promote elongation and/or termination. In contrast, H3K56Ac represses promiscuous transcription that occurs immediately following replication fork passage, in this case by promoting efficient nucleosome assembly. We also detect ...


Coccidioidomycosis: Medical And Spatio-Temporal Perspectives, Nikias Sarafoglou, Rafael Laniado-Laborin, Menas Kafatos 2019 George Mason University

Coccidioidomycosis: Medical And Spatio-Temporal Perspectives, Nikias Sarafoglou, Rafael Laniado-Laborin, Menas Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Coccidioidomycosis (CM) is a disease of major public health importance due to the challenges in its diagnosis and treatment. To understand CM requires the attributes of a multidisciplinary network analysis to appreciate the complexity of the medical, the environmental and the social issues involved: public health, public policy, geology, atmospheric science, agronomy, social sciences and finally humanities, all which provide insight into this population transformation.

In section 1 of this paper, we describe the CM-epidemiology, the clinical features, the diagnosis and finally the treatment.

In section 2, we highlight the most important contributions and controversies in the history of the ...


Chitosan Biosynthesis And Virulence In The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii [Preprint], Woei C. Lam, Rajendra Upadhya, Charles A. Specht, Abigail E. Ragsdale, Camaron R. Hole, Stuart M. Levitz, Jennifer K. Lodge 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Chitosan Biosynthesis And Virulence In The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii [Preprint], Woei C. Lam, Rajendra Upadhya, Charles A. Specht, Abigail E. Ragsdale, Camaron R. Hole, Stuart M. Levitz, Jennifer K. Lodge

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus gattii R265 is a hyper-virulent fungal strain responsible for the major outbreak of cryptococcosis in Vancouver Island of British Columbia in 1999. It differs significantly from C. neoformans in its natural environment, its preferred site in the mammalian host, and in the nature and mode of pathogenesis. Our previous studies in C. neoformans have shown that the presence of chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin, in the cell wall attenuates inflammatory responses in the host, while its absence induces robust immune responses, which in turn facilitate clearance of the fungus and induces a protective response. The results of the ...


The Aminoalkylindole, Bml-190, Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Camp/Pka1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans [Preprint], Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Ma Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

The Aminoalkylindole, Bml-190, Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Camp/Pka1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans [Preprint], Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Ma Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus neoformans can cause fatal meningoencephalitis in patients with AIDS or other immune-compromising conditions. Current antifungals are suboptimal to treat this disease, therefore, novel targets and new therapies are needed. Previously, we have shown that chitosan is a critical component of the cryptococcal cell wall, is required for survival in the mammalian host, and that chitosan deficiency results in rapid clearance from the mammalian host. We had also identified several specific proteins that were required for chitosan biosynthesis, and we hypothesize that screening for compounds that inhibit chitosan biosynthesis would identify additional genes/proteins that influence chitosan biosynthesis.


Selectivity Of Infrared Heat Treatment On Inactivation Of Mycotoxigenic Fungi On Stored Grain, Shantae A. Wilson 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Selectivity Of Infrared Heat Treatment On Inactivation Of Mycotoxigenic Fungi On Stored Grain, Shantae A. Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

Selective Infrared (IR) heating holds great potential to decontaminate spores of unsafe fungi in corn. The objectives for this study were to investigate the impact of exposing corn to infrared energy at selected peak wavelengths (λ), infrared intensities and treatment durations, followed by tempering for further inactivation of microbes on the grain and explore a method for decontaminating Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) spores on corn. Freshly harvested corn with initial moisture contents (IMCs) of 16%, 20%, and 24% wet basis (w.b.) were used. The corn samples were treated at different infrared wavelengths (3.2, 4.5, and 5.8 ...


The Effect Of Prescribed Burning On Wood-Decay Fungi In The Forests Of Northwest Arkansas, Nawaf Ibrahim Alshammari 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Prescribed Burning On Wood-Decay Fungi In The Forests Of Northwest Arkansas, Nawaf Ibrahim Alshammari

Theses and Dissertations

Prescribed burning is defined as the process of the planned application of fire to a predetermined area under specific environmental conditions in order to achieve a desired outcome such as land management. This project used both morphological and molecular methods to identify and characterize the wood-decay fungi associated with the forests of northwest Arkansas—Pea Ridge National Military Park, Devil’s Den State Park, and the Buffalo National River—through frequent visits made between February 2018 and February 2019. In addition, in order to assess the effects of prescribed burning, incubation chambers were used to compare the growth of fungi ...


Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks 2019 Missouri State University

Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks

MSU Graduate Theses

Bacterial co-infections with influenza A virus (IAV) are extremely serious and life-threatening. However, there exists limited understanding about the importance of fungal infections with IAV. Clinical case reports indicate that fungal co-infections do occur and suggest the IAV pandemic of 2009 had a propensity to predispose patients to secondary fungal infections more than previous IAV strains. IAV-fungal co-infections are marked by high mortality rates of 47 to 61% in previously healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 60. Yet, the variables involved in this co-infection remain undetermined. I achieved effective recapitulation of this co-infection using a C57Bl/6 murine ...


Ste5 Membrane Localization Allows Mapk Pathway Signaling In Trans Between Kinases On Separate Scaffold Molecules [Preprint], Rachel E. Lamson, Matthew J. Winters, Peter M. Pryciak 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ste5 Membrane Localization Allows Mapk Pathway Signaling In Trans Between Kinases On Separate Scaffold Molecules [Preprint], Rachel E. Lamson, Matthew J. Winters, Peter M. Pryciak

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The MAP kinase cascade is a ubiquitous eukaryotic signaling module that can be controlled by a diverse group of scaffold proteins. In budding yeast, activation of the mating MAP kinase cascade involves regulated membrane recruitment of the archetypal scaffold protein Ste5. This event promotes activation of the first kinase, but it also enhances subsequent signal propagation through the remainder of the cascade. By studying this latter effect, we find that membrane recruitment promotes signaling in trans between kinases on separate Ste5 molecules. First, trans signaling requires all Ste5 domains that mediate membrane recruitment, including both protein-binding and membrane-binding domains. Second ...


Crispr/Cas9 In Yeast: A Multi-Week Laboratory Exercise For Undergraduate Students, Randi J. Ulbricht 2019 Missouri State University

Crispr/Cas9 In Yeast: A Multi-Week Laboratory Exercise For Undergraduate Students, Randi J. Ulbricht

Open Educational Resources

Providing undergraduate life-science students with a course-based research experience that utilizes cutting-edge technology, is tractable for students, and is manageable as an instructor is a challenge. Here, I describe a multi-week lesson plan for a laboratory-based course with the goal of editing the genome of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Students apply knowledge regarding advanced topics such as: CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, DNA repair, genetics, and cloning. The lesson requires students to master skills such as bioinformatics analysis, restriction enzyme digestion, ligation, basic microbiology skills, polymerase chain reaction, and plasmid purification. Instructors are led through the technical aspects of the protocols ...


Amphotercin Washout Of Fungal Peritonitis In Liver Transplant Recipient: A Novel Approach, Ann Thompson DO, Mara Piltin DO, Alyssa Imperatore DO, Ely Sebastian MD, Sandra Paluzzi MD 2019 Rowan University

Amphotercin Washout Of Fungal Peritonitis In Liver Transplant Recipient: A Novel Approach, Ann Thompson Do, Mara Piltin Do, Alyssa Imperatore Do, Ely Sebastian Md, Sandra Paluzzi Md

Stratford Campus Research Day

Invasive fungal infection has a significant prevalence among organ transplant patients and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Fungal infection is difficult to identify early and subsequently difficult to effectively treat. In this case presentation we have a 45 y/o orthotopic liver transplant recipient who was profoundly sick from fungal peritonitis and due to the appearance of her abdomen and intestines, with the help of infectious disease, decided to proceed with direct amphotercin washout of the abdomen in the operating room. The patient had complete resolution of her fungal peritonitis and is doing well.


Evaluation Of The Spectral Reflectance Pattern Of Capsicum Annuum L. Treated With Fungicides And Grown Under Controlled Conditions, Guillermo Ojeda 2019 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Evaluation Of The Spectral Reflectance Pattern Of Capsicum Annuum L. Treated With Fungicides And Grown Under Controlled Conditions, Guillermo Ojeda

Dissertations and Theses

The spectral response pattern of Capsicum annuum L. grown under controlled greenhouse conditions and treated with the fungicides mancozeb (an organic pesticide) and copper diammonia diacetate (a copper- based pesticide) was determined using proximal hyperspectroscopy. An ANOVA and Tukey HSD test were performed for each wavelength from 350 nm to 2500 nm. The spectral reflectance of treated plants showed significant difference (α=0.05) in the regions of the spectra from 414 nm to 523 nm, 583 nm to 697 nm and 1909 nm to 1953 nm for the detection of mancozeb up to seven days after the application of ...


Reporting Charcoal Rot In Chia And Developing A Susceptibility Assay, Reis M. Misaka, Hagop S. Atamian Dr., Julien Besnard Dr. 2019 Chapman University

Reporting Charcoal Rot In Chia And Developing A Susceptibility Assay, Reis M. Misaka, Hagop S. Atamian Dr., Julien Besnard Dr.

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Chia (Salvia Hispanica) cross breeds were planted in the summer of 2018 with the intent of selective breeding for agricultural benefit. Preexisting pathogens in the soil caused 40-50% fatality of adult plants. This was surprising due to the precursory knowledge that chia has antibiotic and antifungal oils (Elshafie et. al. 2018); chia was only recently documented to be susceptible to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum). The primary pathogen responsible was identified as Macrophomina phaseolina (aka charcoal rot); a widespread soilborne pathogen which has multiple commercial hosts (Su et. al. 2001).

M. phaesolina on wheat seed vector where used as inoculums (Brandari ...


The Nua4 Acetyltransferase And Histone H4 Acetylation Promote Replication Recovery After Topoisomerase I-Poisoning, Chiaki Noguchi, Tanu Singh, Melissa A. Ziegler, Jasmine D. Peake, Lyne Khair, Ana Aza, Toru M. Nakamura, Eishi Noguchi 2019 Drexel University

The Nua4 Acetyltransferase And Histone H4 Acetylation Promote Replication Recovery After Topoisomerase I-Poisoning, Chiaki Noguchi, Tanu Singh, Melissa A. Ziegler, Jasmine D. Peake, Lyne Khair, Ana Aza, Toru M. Nakamura, Eishi Noguchi

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: Histone acetylation plays an important role in DNA replication and repair because replicating chromatin is subject to dynamic changes in its structures. However, its precise mechanism remains elusive. In this report, we describe roles of the NuA4 acetyltransferase and histone H4 acetylation in replication fork protection in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

RESULTS: Downregulation of NuA4 subunits renders cells highly sensitive to camptothecin, a compound that induces replication fork breakage. Defects in NuA4 function or mutations in histone H4 acetylation sites lead to impaired recovery of collapsed replication forks and elevated levels of Rad52 DNA repair foci, indicating the ...


Characterizing Aft1/2-Grx3/4 Interaction And The Role Of Bol2 During Iron Regulation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, William Rivers 2019 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Characterizing Aft1/2-Grx3/4 Interaction And The Role Of Bol2 During Iron Regulation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, William Rivers

Senior Theses

Iron dysregulation has been linked to a variety of human diseases, such as anemia, Friedreich’s ataxia, X-linked sideroblastic anemia, sideroblastic-like microcytic anemia, and myopathy. Thus, it is vitally important to understand the mechanisms for regulating intracellular iron. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy techniques in live cells to study interactions of the yeast proteins Grx3/4, Aft1/2, and Bol2, which have been shown to be involved in turning off iron import when the cell has adequate iron. Modified versions of genes encoding these proteins have been incorporated into several yeast backgrounds to use fluorescence to monitor interactions under varying ...


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