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The Role Of Mapk And Scf In The Destruction Of Med13 In Cyclin C Mediated Cell Death, David C Stieg, Stephen D Willis, Joseph Scuorzo, Mia Song, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper 2017 Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine

The Role Of Mapk And Scf In The Destruction Of Med13 In Cyclin C Mediated Cell Death, David C Stieg, Stephen D Willis, Joseph Scuorzo, Mia Song, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

In response to stress, the yeast1 and mammalian2 cyclin C translocate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it associates with the GTPase Drp1/Dnm1 to drive mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis. Therefore, the decision to release cyclin C represents a key life or death decision. In unstressed cells, the cyclin C‐Cdk8 kinase regulates transcription by associating with the Mediator of RNA polymerase II. We previously reported that the Mediator component Med13 anchors cyclin C in the nucleus3. Loss of Med13 function leads to constitutive cytoplasmic localization of cyclin C, resulting in fragmented mitochondria, hypersensitivity to stress ...


Snf1 Dependent Destruction Of Med13 Is Required For Programmed Cell Death Following Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, R. Shah, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper 2017 Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine

Snf1 Dependent Destruction Of Med13 Is Required For Programmed Cell Death Following Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Stephen D Willis, David C Stieg, R. Shah, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

All eukaryotic cells, when faced with unfavorable environmental conditions, have to decide whether to mount a survival or cell death response. The conserved cyclin C and its kinase partner Cdk8 play a key role in this decision. Both are members of the Cdk8 kinase module that, along with Med12 and Med13, associate with the core mediator complex of RNA polymerase II. In S. cerevisiae, oxidative stress triggers Med13 destruction1, which thereafter releases cyclin Ci nto the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic cyclin C associates with mitochondria where it induces hyper-fragmentation and programmed cell death2. This suggests a model in which oxidative ...


Translocation Of Cyclin C During Oxidative Stress Is Regulated By Interactions With Multiple Trafficking Proteins, Daniel G J Smethurst, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich 2017 Rowan University

Translocation Of Cyclin C During Oxidative Stress Is Regulated By Interactions With Multiple Trafficking Proteins, Daniel G J Smethurst, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Eukaryotic cells take cues from their environment and interpret them to enact a response. External stresses can produce a decision between adjusting to behaviors which promote surviving the stress, or enacting a cell death program. The decision to undergo programmed cell death (PCD) is controlled by a complex interaction between nuclear and mitochondrial signals. The mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion. However, a dramatic shift in mitochondrial morphology toward fission occurs early in the PCD process. We have identified the transcription factor cyclin C as the biochemical trigger for stress‐induced mitochondrial hyper‐fragmentation in ...


Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik 2017 Rowan University

Modification Of The Ribosome As Part Of The Adaptive Response To Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Jessica A Zinskie, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Living organisms are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and internal stressors tha tare detrimental to their cellular physiology and viability. One such condition, oxidativestress, is caused by abnormal amounts of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that can lead to damage to proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Although the mechanisms to neutralize ROS have been widely studied, the understanding of ROS‐mediated signaling for these mechanisms is rather incomplete and sparse. We have uncovered a previously undescribed phenomenon of yeast ribosomes to respond to elevated levels of ROS through a specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the 25S rRNA in the c ...


Acquisition Of Functions On The Outer Capsid Surface During Evolution Of Double-Stranded Rna Fungal Viruses, Carlos P. Mata, Daniel Luque, Josué Gómez-Blanco, Javier M. Rodríguez, José M. González, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, José L. Carrascosa, Benes L. Trus, José R. Castón 2017 Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Spain

Acquisition Of Functions On The Outer Capsid Surface During Evolution Of Double-Stranded Rna Fungal Viruses, Carlos P. Mata, Daniel Luque, Josué Gómez-Blanco, Javier M. Rodríguez, José M. González, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, José L. Carrascosa, Benes L. Trus, José R. Castón

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Unlike their counterparts in bacterial and higher eukaryotic hosts, most fungal viruses are transmitted intracellularly and lack an extracellular phase. Here we determined the cryo-EM structure at 3.7 Å resolution of Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1), a fungal double-stranded (ds)RNA virus. RnQV1, the type species of the family Quadriviridae, has a multipartite genome consisting of four monocistronic segments. Whereas most dsRNA virus capsids are based on dimers of a single protein, the ~450-Å-diameter, T = 1 RnQV1 capsid is built of P2 and P4 protein heterodimers, each with more than 1000 residues. Despite a lack of sequence similarity between ...


One-Step Hot Formamide Extraction Of Rna From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Natalia Shcherbik, Dimitri G Pestov 2017 Rowan University

One-Step Hot Formamide Extraction Of Rna From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Natalia Shcherbik, Dimitri G Pestov

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Current methods for isolating RNA from budding yeast require lengthy and laborious steps such as freezing and heating with phenol, homogenization with glass beads, or enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. Here, extraction with a solution of formamide and EDTA was adapted to isolate RNA from whole yeast cells through a rapid and easily scalable procedure that does not require mechanical cell lysis, phenol, or enzymes. RNA extracted with formamide-EDTA can be directly loaded on gels for electrophoretic analysis without alcohol precipitation. A simplified protocol for downstream DNase treatment and reverse transcription reaction is also included. The formamide-EDTA extraction of ...


Fungi Of Forests: Examining The Diversity Of Root-Associated Fungi And Their Responses To Acid Deposition, Donald Jay Nelsen 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Fungi Of Forests: Examining The Diversity Of Root-Associated Fungi And Their Responses To Acid Deposition, Donald Jay Nelsen

Theses and Dissertations

Global importance of forests is difficult to overestimate, given their role in oxygen production, ecological roles in nutrient cycling and supporting numerous living species, and economic value for industry and as recreational zones. Fitness of the forest-forming trees strongly depends on microbial communities associated with tree roots. In particular, fungi impact tree fitness: mycorrhizal species provide water and nutrients for the trees in exchange for C, endophytic fungi play key roles in host defense against pathogenic organisms, and saprotrophic fungi decompose dead organic matter and facilitate nutrient cycling. In addition, pathogenic fungal species strongly affect forest fitness. Despite their importance ...


Endonucleolytic Cleavage In The Expansion Segment 7 Of 25s Rrna Is An Early Marker Of Low-Level Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Jessica A Zinskie, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik 2017 Rowan University

Endonucleolytic Cleavage In The Expansion Segment 7 Of 25s Rrna Is An Early Marker Of Low-Level Oxidative Stress In Yeast, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Jessica A Zinskie, Ethan Gardner, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The ability to detect and respond to oxidative stress is crucial to the survival of living organisms. In cells, sensing of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates many defensive mechanisms that limit or repair damage to cell components. The ROS-signaling responses necessary for cell survival under oxidative stress conditions remain incompletely understood, especially for the translational machinery. Here, we found that drug treatments or a genetic deficiency in the thioredoxin system that increase levels of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae promote site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage in 25S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) adjacent to the c loop of ...


The Trophic Life Cycle Stage Of The Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Murina Hinders The Ability Of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate Cd4+ T Cell Responses, Heather M. Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J. Stromberg, Carol L. Pickett, Beth A. Garvy 2017 University of Kentucky

The Trophic Life Cycle Stage Of The Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Murina Hinders The Ability Of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate Cd4+ T Cell Responses, Heather M. Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J. Stromberg, Carol L. Pickett, Beth A. Garvy

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The life cycle of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina consists of a trophic stage and an ascus-like cystic stage. Infection with the cyst stage induces proinflammatory immune responses, while trophic forms suppress the cytokine response to multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including β-glucan. A targeted gene expression assay was used to evaluate the dendritic cell response following stimulation with trophic forms alone, with a normal mixture of trophic forms and cysts, or with β-glucan. We demonstrate that stimulation with trophic forms downregulated the expression of multiple genes normally associated with the response to infection, including genes encoding ...


Rapid Isolation Of Functionally Intact Nuclei From The Yeast Saccharomyces [Preprint], Mario Niepel, Julia Farr, Michael P. Rout, Caterina Strambio-De-Castilla 2017 Harvard Medical School

Rapid Isolation Of Functionally Intact Nuclei From The Yeast Saccharomyces [Preprint], Mario Niepel, Julia Farr, Michael P. Rout, Caterina Strambio-De-Castilla

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Most available methods for nuclear isolation entail lengthy procedures that are difficult to master and generally emphasize yield and enrichment over nuclear preservation, thus limiting their utility for further studies. Here we demonstrate a novel and robust method to rapidly isolate well-preserved yeast nuclei. The method can be easily adapted to multiple preparation scales depending on experimental need and it can readily be performed on multiple samples by a single researcher in one day. We show that the nuclei fraction is strongly enriched and that the resulting nuclei are free from contaminating endoplasmic reticulum and other cell debris. EM studies ...


Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner, MD

Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails ...


Swainsonine Biosynthesis Genes In Diverse Symbiotic And Pathogenic Fungi, Daniel Cook, Bruno G. G. Donzelli, Rebecca Creamer, Deana L. Baucom, Dale R. Gardner, Juan Pan, Neil Moore, Stuart B. Krasnoff, Jerzy W. Jaromczyk, Christopher L. Schardl 2017 US Department of Agriculture

Swainsonine Biosynthesis Genes In Diverse Symbiotic And Pathogenic Fungi, Daniel Cook, Bruno G. G. Donzelli, Rebecca Creamer, Deana L. Baucom, Dale R. Gardner, Juan Pan, Neil Moore, Stuart B. Krasnoff, Jerzy W. Jaromczyk, Christopher L. Schardl

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Swainsonine—a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug—is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glory symbiont belonging to order Chaetothyriales. Genome sequence analyses revealed that these fungi share orthologous gene clusters, designated “SWN,” which included a multifunctional swnKgene comprising predicted adenylylation and acyltransferase domains with their associated thiolation domains, a β-ketoacyl synthase domain, and two reductase domains. The role of swnK was demonstrated by inactivating it in M. robertsii through homologous gene replacement to ...


Range-Wide Prevalence And Impacts Of Pseudocercosporella Inconspicua On Lilium Grayi And An Assessment Of L. Superbum And L. Michauxii As Reservoirs, Cindy L. Barrett 2017 East Tennessee State University

Range-Wide Prevalence And Impacts Of Pseudocercosporella Inconspicua On Lilium Grayi And An Assessment Of L. Superbum And L. Michauxii As Reservoirs, Cindy L. Barrett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lilium grayi (Gray’s Lily), a southern Appalachian endemic species, is threatened by a Lilium-specific fungal pathogen, Pseudocercosporella inconspicua. The disease is characterized by tan lesions that can cause early senescence, while also lowering seed production and viability. This project tested for P. inconspicua conidia and accessed health at nine locations. The disease was present and ubiquitous across the range of L. grayi. Through identification of P. inconspicua conidia in the field, L. superbum (Turk’s Cap Lily) was identified as an additional host, while L. michauxii (Michaux’s Lily) was disease-free. However, infection was inducible in both species ...


Draft Genome Sequence Of Cercospora Sojina Isolate S9, A Fungus Causing Frogeye Leaf Spot (Fls) Disease Of Soybean, Fanchang Zeng, Chaofan Wang, Guirong Zhang, Junmei Wei, Carl A. Bradley, Ray Ming 2017 Shandong Agricultural University, China

Draft Genome Sequence Of Cercospora Sojina Isolate S9, A Fungus Causing Frogeye Leaf Spot (Fls) Disease Of Soybean, Fanchang Zeng, Chaofan Wang, Guirong Zhang, Junmei Wei, Carl A. Bradley, Ray Ming

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Fungi are the causal agents of many of the world's most serious plant diseases causing disastrous consequences for large-scale agricultural production. Pathogenicity genomic basis is complex in fungi as multicellular eukaryotic pathogens. The fungus Cercospora sojina is a plant pathogen that threatens global soybean supplies. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. sojina strain S9 and detect genome features and predicted genomic elements. The genome sequence of C. sojina is a valuable resource with potential in studying the fungal pathogenicity and soybean host resistance to frogeye leaf spot (FLS), which is caused by C. sojina. The C. sojina ...


Size-Dependent Expression Of The Mitotic Activator Cdc25 As A Mechanism Of Size Control In Fission Yeast [Preprint], Daniel L. Keifenheim, Xi-Ming Sun, Edridge D'Souza, Makoto J. Ohira, Mira Magner, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Samuel Marguerat, Nicholas R. Rhind 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Size-Dependent Expression Of The Mitotic Activator Cdc25 As A Mechanism Of Size Control In Fission Yeast [Preprint], Daniel L. Keifenheim, Xi-Ming Sun, Edridge D'Souza, Makoto J. Ohira, Mira Magner, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Samuel Marguerat, Nicholas R. Rhind

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Proper cell size is essential for cellular function (Hall et al., 2004). Nonetheless, despite more than 100 years of work on the subject, the mechanisms that maintain cell size homeostasis are largely mysterious (Marshall et al., 2012). Cells in growing populations maintain cell size within a narrow range by coordinating growth and division. Bacterial and eukaryotic cells both demonstrate homeostatic size control, which maintains population-level variation in cell size within a certain range, and returns the population average to that range if it is perturbed (Marshall et al., 2012; Turner et al., 2012; Amodeo and Skotheim, 2015). Recent work has ...


An Estradiol-Inducible Promoter Enables Fast, Graduated Control Of Gene Expression In Fission Yeast [Preprint], Makoto J. Ohira, David G. Hendrickson, R. Scott McIsaac, Nicholas R. Rhind 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Estradiol-Inducible Promoter Enables Fast, Graduated Control Of Gene Expression In Fission Yeast [Preprint], Makoto J. Ohira, David G. Hendrickson, R. Scott Mcisaac, Nicholas R. Rhind

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe lacks a diverse toolkit of inducible promoters for experimental manipulation. Available inducible promoters suffer from slow induction kinetics, limited control of expression levels and/or a requirement for defined growth medium. In particular, no S. pombe inducible promoter systems exhibit a linear dose response, which would allow expression to be tuned to specific levels. We have adapted a fast, orthogonal promoter system with a large dynamic range and a linear dose response, based on β-estradiol-regulated function of the human estrogen receptor, for use in S. pombe. We show that this promoter system, termed Z3 ...


Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails ...


A Comparative Genomic Analysis Of Putative Pathogenicity Genes In The Host-Specific Sibling Species Colletotrichum Graminicola And Colletotrichum Sublineola, Ester A. S. Buiate, Katia Viana Xavier, Neil Moore, Maria F. Torres, Mark L. Farman, Christopher L. Schardl, Lisa J. Vaillancourt 2017 University of Kentucky

A Comparative Genomic Analysis Of Putative Pathogenicity Genes In The Host-Specific Sibling Species Colletotrichum Graminicola And Colletotrichum Sublineola, Ester A. S. Buiate, Katia Viana Xavier, Neil Moore, Maria F. Torres, Mark L. Farman, Christopher L. Schardl, Lisa J. Vaillancourt

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Background: Colletotrichum graminicola and C. sublineola cause anthracnose leaf and stalk diseases of maize and sorghum, respectively. In spite of their close evolutionary relationship, the two species are completely host-specific. Host specificity is often attributed to pathogen virulence factors, including specialized secondary metabolites (SSM), and small-secreted protein (SSP) effectors. Genes relevant to these categories were manually annotated in two co-occurring, contemporaneous strains of C. graminicola and C. sublineola. A comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis was performed to address the evolutionary relationships among these and other divergent gene families in the two strains.

Results: Inoculation of maize with C. sublineola, or ...


Remote Sensing Observation Of Annual Dust Cycles And Possible Causality Of Kawasaki Disease Outbreaks In Japan, Hesham el-Askary, Nick LaHaye, Erik J. Linstead, William A. Sprigg, Magdi Yacoub 2017 Chapman University

Remote Sensing Observation Of Annual Dust Cycles And Possible Causality Of Kawasaki Disease Outbreaks In Japan, Hesham El-Askary, Nick Lahaye, Erik J. Linstead, William A. Sprigg, Magdi Yacoub

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a rare vascular disease that, if left untreated, can result in irreparable cardiac damage in children. While the symptoms of KD are well-known, as are best practices for treatment, the etiology of the disease and the factors contributing to KD outbreaks remain puzzling to both medical practitioners and scientists alike. Recently, a fungus known as Candida, originating in the farmlands of China, has been blamed for outbreaks in China and Japan, with the hypothesis that it can be transported over long ranges via different wind mechanisms. This paper provides evidence to understand the transport mechanisms of ...


On The (Un-)Predictability Of A Large Intragenic Fitness Landscape [Preprint], Claudia Bank, Sebastian Matuszewski, Ryan T. Hietpas, Jeffrey D. Jensen 2016 École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

On The (Un-)Predictability Of A Large Intragenic Fitness Landscape [Preprint], Claudia Bank, Sebastian Matuszewski, Ryan T. Hietpas, Jeffrey D. Jensen

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The study of fitness landscapes, which aims at mapping genotypes to fitness, is receiving ever-increasing attention. Novel experimental approaches combined with NGS methods enable accurate and extensive studies of the fitness effects of mutations - allowing us to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of the shape of the true underlying fitness landscape, and its implications for the predictability and repeatability of evolution. Here, we present a uniquely large multi-allelic fitness landscape comprised of 640 engineered mutants that represent all possible combinations of 13 amino-acid changing mutations at six sites in the heat-shock protein Hsp90 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under elevated ...


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