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Full-Text Articles in Fungi

Health Benefits Of Saccharomyces Boulardii As A Probiotic, Devashri Parikh, Maftuna Kurbonnazarova, Ravij Upadhyay, Andrea Iannuzzelli May 2024

Health Benefits Of Saccharomyces Boulardii As A Probiotic, Devashri Parikh, Maftuna Kurbonnazarova, Ravij Upadhyay, Andrea Iannuzzelli

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Saccharomyces boulardii (SB), a budding yeast, within the Saccharomyces genus. It commonly used as a probiotic that has been isolated from lychee and mangosteen fruit. S. boulardii is not known to acquire resistant genes and does not last in the intestine after 3-5 days of discontinuing the ingestion. The clinical efficacy of this probiotic yeast is known to improve various diarrhea such as pediatric diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, acute diarrhea, and traveler’s diarrhea. Additionally, when used as an adjuvant to treatment for Helicobacter pylori and Clostridium difficile infections, it improves bacterial eradication, prevents relapse, reduces adverse reactions and treatment-associated diarrhea.

Several …


A Meta-Analysis For Laboratory Diagnostics For Coccidioidomycosis, Mary C. Cowen May 2024

A Meta-Analysis For Laboratory Diagnostics For Coccidioidomycosis, Mary C. Cowen

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Coccidioidomycosis, commonly referred to as Valley Fever, is a fungal infection found in arid regions of the southwestern United States and Mexico. Infection occurs through inhalation of airborne spores from Coccidioides species, Coccidioides immitis and/or Coccidioides posadasii, and proceeds in both pulmonary and disseminated fashions. Approximately 60% of patients with coccidioidomycosis remain asymptomatic, while 40% will experience symptoms. Within the literature, there are no papers that summarize sensitivity and specificity values between different tests; therefore, this paper presents sensitivity and specificity results across different tests and companies (Meridian, IMMY, and MiraVista).


Headache And Vision Loss As Initial Symptoms For An Acute Invasive Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis, Thanh Le Od, Gregg Wentworth Od Apr 2024

Headache And Vision Loss As Initial Symptoms For An Acute Invasive Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis, Thanh Le Od, Gregg Wentworth Od

Optometric Clinical Practice

Background: Acute invasive rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is a rare fungal infection commonly caused by Rhizopus species. It occurs in immune- compromised individuals who have acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), leukemia, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, or organ transplant patients who are on immunosuppressive therapy. Diagnosing invasive ROCM is challenging because its clinical presentation can be nonspecific, and it is not frequently observed in ophthalmic practices. Case Report: A 66-year-old Hispanic male with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presented with the complaint of severe headache and retrobulbar pain in the right eye. An ophthalmic examination revealed normal ocular health in both eyes. Computerized tomography …


Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya Sv, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty Feb 2024

Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya Sv, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty

Annual Research Symposium

Osteomyelitis may be classified as Bacterial (Actinomycotic), Fungal (Mucormycotic), or combined based on the etiological agent. During histopathological examination, there is a high chance that bacterial colonies or fungal hyphae may be missed by the human eye, especially when there is a paucity of organisms. This may lead to a faulty diagnosis of the type of osteomyelitis which along with an improper treatment plan would cause further progression of the disease and various other complications. Therefore, the diagnosis of the exact etiological variant of osteomyelitis is of prime importance to design an appropriate treatment plan. In the present study, bone …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia Dec 2023

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


How Megadrought Causes Extensive Mortality In A Deep-Rooted Shrub Species Normally Resistant To Drought-Induced Dieback: The Role Of A Biotic Mortality Agent, Natalie M. Aguirre, Marissa E. Ochoa, Helen I. Holmlund, Gabriella N. Palmeri, Emily R. Lancaster, Gina S. Gilderman, Shaquetta R. Taylor, Kaitlyn E. Sauer, Adriana J. Borges, Avery N.D. Lamb, Sarah B. Jacques, Frank W. Ewers, Stephen D. Davis Nov 2023

How Megadrought Causes Extensive Mortality In A Deep-Rooted Shrub Species Normally Resistant To Drought-Induced Dieback: The Role Of A Biotic Mortality Agent, Natalie M. Aguirre, Marissa E. Ochoa, Helen I. Holmlund, Gabriella N. Palmeri, Emily R. Lancaster, Gina S. Gilderman, Shaquetta R. Taylor, Kaitlyn E. Sauer, Adriana J. Borges, Avery N.D. Lamb, Sarah B. Jacques, Frank W. Ewers, Stephen D. Davis

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Southern California experienced unprecedented megadrought between 2012 and 2018. During this time, Malosma laurina, a chaparral species normally resilient to single-year intense drought, developed extensive mortality exceeding 60% throughout low-elevation coastal populations of the Santa Monica Mountains. We assessed the physiological mechanisms by which the advent of megadrought predisposed M. laurina to extensive shoot dieback and whole-plant death. We found that hydraulic conductance of stem xylem (Ks, native) was reduced seven to 11-fold in dieback adult and resprout branches, respectively. Staining of stem xylem vessels revealed that dieback plants experienced 68% solid-blockage, explaining the reduction in water transport. Following Koch's …


Isolated Cerebral Mucormycosis And Aspergillosis Coinfection In An Immunocompromised Adult, George Sun, Allison Weiss, Joy Zhao, Mitchell Silver, Michael Demaio, Sara Dehbashi Aug 2023

Isolated Cerebral Mucormycosis And Aspergillosis Coinfection In An Immunocompromised Adult, George Sun, Allison Weiss, Joy Zhao, Mitchell Silver, Michael Demaio, Sara Dehbashi

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Opportunistic fungal infections are a major cause of mortality in immunosuppressed patients, with mucormycosis and aspergillosis as two of the most commonly identified fungal organisms. Coinfection with mucormycosis and aspergillosis is rare, but cases have been reported in literature, most commonly presenting as disseminated invasive fungal infection with cerebrorhino-orbital involvement in an immunocompromised patient. Infections are most commonly caused by direct implantation of spores with localised angioinvasion. Haematogenous spread is rare, with most cases secondary to haematological malignancies or intravenous drug use. Coinfection with mucormycosis and aspergillosis portends a poor prognosis, with a high mortality rate. Thus, prompt recognition and …


Profiling And Verifying The Substrates Of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Rsp5 In Yeast Cells, Shuai Fang, Geng Chen, Yiyang Wang, Rakhee Ganti, Tatiana A Chernova, Li Zhou, Savannah E Jacobs, Duc Duong, Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Yury O Chernoff, Ming Li, Natalia Shcherbik, Bo Zhao, Jun Yin Aug 2023

Profiling And Verifying The Substrates Of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Rsp5 In Yeast Cells, Shuai Fang, Geng Chen, Yiyang Wang, Rakhee Ganti, Tatiana A Chernova, Li Zhou, Savannah E Jacobs, Duc Duong, Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Yury O Chernoff, Ming Li, Natalia Shcherbik, Bo Zhao, Jun Yin

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Yeast is an essential model organism for studying protein ubiquitination pathways; however, identifying the direct substrates of E3 in the cell presents a challenge. Here, we present a protocol for using the orthogonal ubiquitin transfer (OUT) cascade to profile the substrate specificity of yeast E3 Rsp5. We describe steps for OUT profiling, proteomics analysis, in vitro and in cell ubiquitination, and stability assay. The protocol can be adapted for identifying and verifying the ubiquitination targets of other E3s in yeast. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Wang et al.


Cyclic Peptides With Antifungal Properties Derived From Bacteria, Fungi, Plants, And Synthetic Sources, Naiera M. Helmy, Keykavous Parang Jun 2023

Cyclic Peptides With Antifungal Properties Derived From Bacteria, Fungi, Plants, And Synthetic Sources, Naiera M. Helmy, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Fungal infections remain a significant concern for human health. The emergence of microbial resistance, the improper use of antimicrobial drugs, and the need for fewer toxic antifungal treatments in immunocompromised patients have sparked substantial interest in antifungal research. Cyclic peptides, classified as antifungal peptides, have been in development as potential antifungal agents since 1948. In recent years, there has been growing attention from the scientific community to explore cyclic peptides as a promising strategy for combating antifungal infections caused by pathogenic fungi. The identification of antifungal cyclic peptides from various sources has been possible due to the widespread interest in …


Eco-Interoception: What Plants, Fungi And Protista Have Taught My Body, Sara Riley Dotterer May 2023

Eco-Interoception: What Plants, Fungi And Protista Have Taught My Body, Sara Riley Dotterer

Art Theses and Dissertations

To me, ecology is the relational, full-body awareness that I am made up of and deeply connected to everything around me; and for better or worse, this is reciprocal. I form ecotones, an ecological transitional zone between two ecosystems, with the world around me. I use this ecotonal lens to blur binaries and dissolve boundaries between me and the world “outside my body.” During my Masters of Fine Arts at Southern Methodist University, I have continuously explored and represented the lives of various more-than-human species outside of my body, including plants, fungi and protista through an ecotonal lens. Although these …


The Last Of Us In Therapy: How Mind-Controlling Fungi And Gut Bacteria Affect Your Mental Health, Anastasia Lyon May 2023

The Last Of Us In Therapy: How Mind-Controlling Fungi And Gut Bacteria Affect Your Mental Health, Anastasia Lyon

Journal of Pharmacology & Nutritional Sciences

The "psilocybiome" represents the mutually beneficial relationship between ourselves, our bacteria, and psychedelic drugs. This short review briefly discusses the benefits and limitations surrounding the potential for psychedelic therapy to synergize with gut bacteria to help regulate and maintain proper balance in the immune system, diet, and stress levels. Psychedelic therapy is a novel treatment strategy that has the potential to improve patient mental health, and, by identifying the types of gut bacteria present in patients, it can aid in personalizing medicine by determining how well their "psilocybiome" may respond.


Investigating Differences In Iga Antibody Response Against Aspergillus Fumigatus In Wild Type And Tlr7 Protein Deficient Mice, Courtney Folk Apr 2023

Investigating Differences In Iga Antibody Response Against Aspergillus Fumigatus In Wild Type And Tlr7 Protein Deficient Mice, Courtney Folk

Student Academic Conference

Aspergillus fumigatus is a commonly inhaled, respiratory fungal pathogen and an allergen found in flooded indoor environments, household dust, soil, and plant matter. While a competent immune system effectively clears the inhaled fungus, this same fungus poses a significant threat to weakened immune systems due to its potential to invade the lungs, bloodstream and brain tissue. The mouse genome is 99% similar to the human genome and can serve effectively model the effects of inhaled A. fumigatus (Guénet, 2005). Antibodies play a crucial role in neutralizing pathogens and in mediating an allergic response. In this study, we will investigate the …


Moerv14 Mediates The Intracellular Transport Of Cell Membrane Receptors To Govern The Appressorial Formation And Pathogenicity Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, Bin Qian, Xiaotong Su, Ziyuan Ye, Xinyu Liu, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang Apr 2023

Moerv14 Mediates The Intracellular Transport Of Cell Membrane Receptors To Govern The Appressorial Formation And Pathogenicity Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, Bin Qian, Xiaotong Su, Ziyuan Ye, Xinyu Liu, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blasts posing serious threats to food security worldwide. During infection, M. oryzae utilizes several transmembrane receptor proteins that sense cell surface cues to induce highly specialized infectious structures called appressoria. However, little is known about the mechanisms of intracellular receptor tracking and their function. Here, we described that disrupting the coat protein complex II (COPII) cargo protein MoErv14 severely affects appressorium formation and pathogenicity as the ΔMoerv14 mutant is defective not only in cAMP production but also in the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MoPmk1. Studies also showed that either externally supplementing cAMP or …


Modeling The Tripartite Role Of Cyclin C In Cellular Stress Response Coordination, Steven J. Doyle Apr 2023

Modeling The Tripartite Role Of Cyclin C In Cellular Stress Response Coordination, Steven J. Doyle

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Theses and Dissertations

For normal cellular function, exogenous signals must be interpreted and careful coordination must take place to ensure desired fates are achieved. Mitochondria are key regulatory nodes of cellular fate, undergoing fission/fusion cycles depending on the needs of the cell, and help mediate cell death fates. The CKM or Cdk8 kinase module, is composed of cyclin C (CC), Cdk8, Med12/12L, and Med13/13L. The CKM controls RNA polymerase II, acting as a regulator of stress-response and growth-control genes. Following stress, CC translocates to the mitochondria and interacts with both fission and iRCD apoptotic mediators. We hypothesize that CC represents a key mediator, …


Dpc29 Promotes Post-Initiation Mitochondrial Translation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kyle A. Hubble, Michael F. Henry Feb 2023

Dpc29 Promotes Post-Initiation Mitochondrial Translation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kyle A. Hubble, Michael F. Henry

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Mitochondrial ribosomes synthesize essential components of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in a tightly regulated process. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mitochondrial mRNAs require specific translational activators, which orchestrate protein synthesis by recognition of their target gene's 5'-untranslated region (UTR). Most of these yeast genes lack orthologues in mammals, and only one such gene-specific translational activator has been proposed in humans-TACO1. The mechanism by which TACO1 acts is unclear because mammalian mitochondrial mRNAs do not have significant 5'-UTRs, and therefore must promote translation by alternative mechanisms. In this study, we examined the role of the TACO1 orthologue in yeast. We …


Difference In The Inhibitory Effects Of Violacein On Various Yeast Isolate Strains From The Hudson Valley Region, Lilah Dorothy Blaker Jan 2023

Difference In The Inhibitory Effects Of Violacein On Various Yeast Isolate Strains From The Hudson Valley Region, Lilah Dorothy Blaker

Senior Projects Spring 2023

Violacein is a purple pigmented compound produced by numerous bacterial species including Janthinobacterium lividum. Studies into violacein have found it to have a multitude of medicinal properties, from antifungal, antibiotic, to antitumor activity. Research has shown that violacein significantly inhibits both tumor and fungal growth and it has been shown to have higher cyotoxicity in pathogenic or cancerous cells than in healthy ones, giving it great potential as for use as a pharmaceutical drug in humans, alongside the fact that as a bacterial compound it’s easier and faster to produce than some other drugs. Violacein has also been shown to …


Dpc29 Promotes Mitochondrial Translation Post-Initation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kyle Andrew Hubble Dec 2022

Dpc29 Promotes Mitochondrial Translation Post-Initation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kyle Andrew Hubble

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Although the cytosolic and bacterial translation systems are well studied, much less is known about translation in mitochondria. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mitochondrial gene expression is predominately regulated by translational activators. These regulators are thought to promote translation by binding the elongated 5’-UTRs on their target mRNAs. Since mammalian mitochondrial mRNAs generally lack 5’-UTRs, they must regulate translation by other mechanisms. As expected, most yeast translational activators lack orthologues in mammals. Recently, a mitochondrial gene-specific translational activator, TACO1, was reported in mice and humans. To better define its role in mitochondrial translation I examined the yeast TACO1 orthologue, DPC29. …


Characterizing The Cutaneous Microbiome Of Eurycea Lucifuga As A Potential Defense Against Chytridiomycosis, Madeline Key Dec 2022

Characterizing The Cutaneous Microbiome Of Eurycea Lucifuga As A Potential Defense Against Chytridiomycosis, Madeline Key

Senior Honors Theses

Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease that is significantly reducing global amphibian populations. The disease is caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungus that lethally modifies amphibian skin. Recent research has suggested that the cutaneous microbiome of individual amphibians may play a role in susceptibility to the pathogen. In this study, twelve cave salamanders (Eurycea lucifuga) were collected. Cutaneous bacteria from each salamander were isolated and identified using Sanger Sequencing. Additionally, a Bd-challenge assay was performed to determine each isolate’s antifungal activity. Results indicated many microbial isolates possessed inhibitory capabilities against Bd, which may …


Metagenomics Next Generation Sequencing (Mngs): An Exciting Tool For Early And Accurate Diagnostic Of Fungal Pathogens In Plants, Fatma Seyma Gökdemir, Özlem Darcansoy Iseri, Abhishek Sharma, Premila Achar, Füsun Eyidogan Nov 2022

Metagenomics Next Generation Sequencing (Mngs): An Exciting Tool For Early And Accurate Diagnostic Of Fungal Pathogens In Plants, Fatma Seyma Gökdemir, Özlem Darcansoy Iseri, Abhishek Sharma, Premila Achar, Füsun Eyidogan

Faculty and Research Publications

Crop output is directly impacted by infections, with fungi as the major plant pathogens, making accurate diagnosis of these threats crucial. Developing technology and multidisciplinary approaches are turning to genomic analyses in addition to traditional culture methods in diagnostics of fungal plant pathogens. The metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) method is preferred for genotyping identification of organisms, identification at the species level, illumination of metabolic pathways, and determination of microbiota. Moreover, the data obtained so far show that this new approach is promising as an emerging new trend in fungal disease detection. Another approach covered by mNGS technologies, known as metabarcoding, …


Osteomyelitis Of The Clivus Secondary To Mucormycosis: A Rare Case Study, Davin Evanson, Ramiz Ahmad, Michael Romeo Do Oct 2022

Osteomyelitis Of The Clivus Secondary To Mucormycosis: A Rare Case Study, Davin Evanson, Ramiz Ahmad, Michael Romeo Do

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Solid-State Nmr Analysis Of Unlabeled Fungal Cell Walls From Aspergillus And Candida Species, Liyanage D. Fernando, Malitha C. Dickwella Widanage, S. Chandra Shekar, Frederic Mentink-Vigier, Ping Wang, Sungsool Wi, Tuo Wang Jul 2022

Solid-State Nmr Analysis Of Unlabeled Fungal Cell Walls From Aspergillus And Candida Species, Liyanage D. Fernando, Malitha C. Dickwella Widanage, S. Chandra Shekar, Frederic Mentink-Vigier, Ping Wang, Sungsool Wi, Tuo Wang

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Fungal infections cause high mortality in immunocompromised individuals, which has emerged as a significant threat to human health. The efforts devoted to the development of antifungal agents targeting the cell wall polysaccharides have been hindered by our incomplete picture of the assembly and remodeling of fungal cell walls. High-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ss NMR) studies have substantially revised our understanding of the polymorphic structure of polysaccharides and the nanoscale organization of cell walls in Aspergillus fumigatus and multiple other fungi. However, this approach requires 13C/15N-enrichment of the sample being studied, severely restricting its application. Here we employ the dynamic …


Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer May 2022

Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Drug resistant microbes are a considerable challenge for modern medicine to overcome. The research described in this dissertation involved development of lipid flippase inhibitors and investigating their potential as antimicrobial agents against various drug resistant microbes. The microbes primarily investigated were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) & Cryptococcus neoformans. Chapter 1 reviews the historical perspective and summarizes the current state of the field of research. In Chapter 2, the design space of an antimicrobial peptide known as humimycin was explored and the effects of modifications on its structure were observed against MRSA. Several key observations resulted. Most notably, the …


Integration Of Medicinal Fungi Into The Heber W. Youngken Jr. Medicinal Garden, Anthony Makashov May 2022

Integration Of Medicinal Fungi Into The Heber W. Youngken Jr. Medicinal Garden, Anthony Makashov

Senior Honors Projects

The Heber W. Youngken Jr. Medicinal Garden is a one-of-a-kind resource that houses close to 300 medicinal plants and is filled to the brim with educational opportunities. For the College of Pharmacy, this garden has been the centerpiece of many classes taught here at the University of Rhode Island and has roots as a physical teaching space. While the garden contains a plethora of plant species, medicinal fungi have yet to have been included in the garden, despite their relevance as both sources of pharmaceutical drug discovery and as natural products with inherent physiological benefits themselves. The purpose of my …


Examining The Pulmonary Response To Repeated Vishniacozyma Victoriae Exposure And Its Association With Allergic Airway Disease, Rachael Erin Rush Jan 2022

Examining The Pulmonary Response To Repeated Vishniacozyma Victoriae Exposure And Its Association With Allergic Airway Disease, Rachael Erin Rush

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Allergic airway diseases such as asthma continue to increase in incidence in industrialized nations like the United States. These diseases are complex inflammatory processes involving numerous cells and mediators and are strongly influenced by fungal exposures. Recent developments in fungal detection methods have highlighted the contribution of Basidiomycota yeast species in indoor environments such as Vishniacozyma (syn. Cryptococcus) victoriae. However, despite the high levels of this yeast detected in indoor environments, very little is known about it or its role in respiratory morbidity. V. victoriae is phylogenetically similar to pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans but lacks a capsule and is …


Cryptococcus Neoformans Melanization Incorporates Multiple Catecholamines To Produce Polytypic Melanin, Rosanna P. Baker, Christine Chrissian, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall Dec 2021

Cryptococcus Neoformans Melanization Incorporates Multiple Catecholamines To Produce Polytypic Melanin, Rosanna P. Baker, Christine Chrissian, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall

Publications and Research

Melanin is a major virulence factor in pathogenic fungi that enhances the ability of fungal cells to resist immune clearance. Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human pathogenic fungus that synthesizes melanin from exogenous tissue catecholamine precursors during infection, but the type of melanin made in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is unknown. We analyzed the efficacy of various catecholamines found in brain tissue in supporting melanization using animal brain tissue and synthetic catecholamine mixtures reflecting brain tissue proportions. Solid-state NMR spectra of the melanin pigment produced from such mixtures yielded more melanin than expected if only the preferred constituent dopamine had been incorporated, …


Deletion Of The Stress Response Gene Ddr48 From Histoplasma Capsulatum Increases Sensitivity To Oxidative Stress, Increases Susceptibility To Antifungals, And Decreases Fitness In Macrophages, Logan T. Blancett, Kauri A. Runge, Gabriella M. Reyes, Lauren A. Kennedy, Sydney C. Jackson, Sarah E. Scheuermann, Mallory B. Harmon, Jamease C. Williams, Glenmore Shearer Nov 2021

Deletion Of The Stress Response Gene Ddr48 From Histoplasma Capsulatum Increases Sensitivity To Oxidative Stress, Increases Susceptibility To Antifungals, And Decreases Fitness In Macrophages, Logan T. Blancett, Kauri A. Runge, Gabriella M. Reyes, Lauren A. Kennedy, Sydney C. Jackson, Sarah E. Scheuermann, Mallory B. Harmon, Jamease C. Williams, Glenmore Shearer

Faculty Publications

The stress response gene DDR48 has been characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans to be involved in combating various cellular stressors, from oxidative agents to antifungal compounds. Surprisingly, the biological function of DDR48 has yet to be identified, though it is likely an important part of the stress response. To gain insight into its function, we characterized DDR48 in the dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum. Transcriptional analyses showed preferential expression of DDR48 in the mycelial phase. Induction of DDR48 in Histoplasma yeasts developed after treatment with various cellular stress compounds. We generated a ddr48∆ deletion mutant to further …


Micronutrient Supplements Can Promote Disruptive Protozoan And Fungal Communities In The Developing Infant Gut, Ana Popovic, Celine Bourdon, Pauline W. Wang, David S. Guttman, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Robert H J. Bandsma, John Parkinson, Lisa G. Pell Nov 2021

Micronutrient Supplements Can Promote Disruptive Protozoan And Fungal Communities In The Developing Infant Gut, Ana Popovic, Celine Bourdon, Pauline W. Wang, David S. Guttman, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Robert H J. Bandsma, John Parkinson, Lisa G. Pell

Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health

Supplementation with micronutrients, including vitamins, iron and zinc, is a key strategy to alleviate child malnutrition. However, association of gastrointestinal disorders with iron has led to ongoing debate over their administration. To better understand their impact on gut microbiota, we analyse the bacterial, protozoal, fungal and helminth communities of stool samples collected from a subset of 80 children at 12 and 24 months of age, previously enrolled into a large cluster randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation in Pakistan (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00705445). We show that while bacterial diversity is reduced in supplemented children, vitamins and iron (as well as …


Impact Of Pulse Oximetry On Hospital Referral Acceptance In Children Under 5 With Severe Pneumonia In Rural Pakistan (District Jamshoro): Protocol For A Cluster Randomised Trial, Fatima Mir, Apsara Ali, Suhail Chanar, Amjad Hussain, Arjumand Rizvi, Imran Ahmed, Zahid Memon, Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta Sep 2021

Impact Of Pulse Oximetry On Hospital Referral Acceptance In Children Under 5 With Severe Pneumonia In Rural Pakistan (District Jamshoro): Protocol For A Cluster Randomised Trial, Fatima Mir, Apsara Ali, Suhail Chanar, Amjad Hussain, Arjumand Rizvi, Imran Ahmed, Zahid Memon, Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children under 5 specifically in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Hypoxaemia is a life-threatening complication among children under 5 with pneumonia. Hypoxaemia increases risk of mortality by 4.3 times in children with pneumonia than those without hypoxaemia. Prevalence of hypoxaemia varies with geography, altitude and severity (9%-39% Asia, 3%-10% African countries). In this protocol paper, we describe research methods for assessing impact of Lady Health Workers (LHWs) identifying hypoxaemia in children with signs of pneumonia during household visits on acceptance of hospital referral in district Jamshoro, Sindh.
Methods and analysis: A …


Molecular Detection Of Aspergillus Flavus In Georgia Peanut, Variety Tifguard., Carolle Zolome Aug 2021

Molecular Detection Of Aspergillus Flavus In Georgia Peanut, Variety Tifguard., Carolle Zolome

Symposium of Student Scholars

Peanuts provide a good source of protein, minerals, and vitamins to consumers. The US peanut industry suffers great losses of nearly $26 million annually due to contamination by Aspergillus species. In spite of strict control measures against Aspergillus species, the industry is still facing economic loss due to contamination by this mold. Poor storage of peanuts in commercial outlets can lead to infection by the mold, releasing aflatoxin which is carcinogenic. A number of DNA based techniques are currently available for identification of the fungal population. This research aims at identifying if peanut, the variety Tifguard which is highly recommended …


Effects Of Neem Oil On Growth And Development Of Aspergillus Flavus In Peanuts, Onachukwu Nwolisa Aug 2021

Effects Of Neem Oil On Growth And Development Of Aspergillus Flavus In Peanuts, Onachukwu Nwolisa

Symposium of Student Scholars

Effects of Neem Oil On Growth And Development Of Aspergillus flavus in peanuts**

Ona Nwolisa and Premila N Achar1

1Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA.

Aspergillus flavus is known to contaminate peanuts and produce aflatoxin which are carcinogenic metabolites. According to the USDA, more than $1 billion is spent on infection and prevention. Currently there is no single method known to eradicate Aspergillus spp. in peanuts and the industry continue to face the aflatoxin problem. There has been an increased interest in use of plant based antifungal products which are environmentally friendly and …