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Assessing The Effect Of Chronic Dopamine Receptor 2 Blockade As A Potential Model Of Secondary Negative Symptoms In Rats Using The Fr5/Chow Feeding Choice Task, Cyrene Nicholas 2020 University of Connecticut

Assessing The Effect Of Chronic Dopamine Receptor 2 Blockade As A Potential Model Of Secondary Negative Symptoms In Rats Using The Fr5/Chow Feeding Choice Task, Cyrene Nicholas

Honors Scholar Theses

Haloperidol, a dopamine (DA) D2 receptor antagonist, is an antipsychotic drug which is commonly used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. These disorders are often characterized by elevated striatal dopamine, which is speculated to have a role in producing positive symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia, as well as symptoms related to motivational salience and reward prediction. Individuals with schizophrenia also exhibit negative symptoms, such as amotivation, anergia, fatigue, and apathy among others. While some negative symptoms of schizophrenia are inherent to the pathophysiology, other negative symptoms are hypothesized to be partially induced by chronic exposure to antipsychotic ...


A Raman Spectroscopic And Quantum Chemical Investigation Of Serotonin, It's Intramolecular Interactions, And The Solvent Effects Of Methanol, Ethanol, And Water, Mallory Loe 2020 University of Mississippi

A Raman Spectroscopic And Quantum Chemical Investigation Of Serotonin, It's Intramolecular Interactions, And The Solvent Effects Of Methanol, Ethanol, And Water, Mallory Loe

Honors Theses

Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine, is a neurotransmitter and metabolite vital to the normal function of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Although it might be colloquially known as the ‘happiness drug,’ malfunctions in serotoninergic pathways can result in mental health disorders, heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and even collateral death. Without a current method to directly measure, or even detect, serotonin in the human body, these diseases, along with many others, pose a threat of developing without proper warning. Raman spectroscopy presents a unique method to vibrationally characterize molecules based upon the inelastic scattering of light. Serotonin’s unique, amphipathic structure ...


The Effects Of Alpha-Tocopherol And Ascorbic Acid On Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells, Scout Treadwell 2020 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Alpha-Tocopherol And Ascorbic Acid On Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells, Scout Treadwell

Honors Theses

Breast cancer is a multifaceted, complex disease that affects hundreds of thousands of patients every year. Although there has a been a decline in the mortality rate of this disease, it is still vital to investigate and discover new possible treatments. One area of research involves the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells and the possibility of ROS-induced apoptosis. Antioxidants such as Vitamin C and Vitamin E have been shown to serve as pro-oxidants. Instead of detoxifying the cell from damaging ROS, these compounds can stimulate ROS production, triggering an apoptotic cascade in the cell. In this ...


The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Largazole: A Potential Chemotherapeutic Agent, Hannah Lynn Carson 2020 University of Mississippi

The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Largazole: A Potential Chemotherapeutic Agent, Hannah Lynn Carson

Honors Theses

Histone deacetylase enzymes are known for their inherent activity as epigenetic modifiers. Although, they have become recognized for their role in cancer progression and other diseases. But also, histone deacetylases have other non-histone targets, for example, microtubules, which play important roles in cancer metastasis, apoptosis, and replication. With histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), our research explored HDACi effects on breast cancer cell lines. The overall goal was to understand the potential of largazole, a class one histone deacetylase inhibitor on breast cancer cell lines. The research consisted of two parts: sulforhodamine B (SRB) viability assays under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. The ...


Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt 2020 University of Mississippi

Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt

Honors Theses

Cannabis is the most commonly used, cultivated, and trafficked illicit drug worldwide. Increased availability and acceptance of cannabis and cannabinoid-containing products provide the necessity for understanding how these substances influence aging. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (0.08, 0.4, 2 µM) during embryonic-larval development, the effects on aging were measured 30 months later and in the offspring of the exposed fish (F1 generation. We observed results indicating a biphasic and hormetic effect. Treatment with the lowest concentration of THC significantly increased egg production, while higher concentrations resulted in impaired ...


How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current 2020 St. John Fisher College

How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Cancer is a disease that humans have been struggling to combat for centuries. It originates from the accumulation of several mutations over the life of a cell that causes it to evade cell death and multiply rapidly. It can affect any tissue in the body and can spread to other parts of the body through metastasis. Cancer comes in numerous shapes and sizes with different levels of aggression, growth speeds, and health risks. Many treatments for cancer exist today, three of the most popular being surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, which can be used in combinations with other treatments to ...


Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy For Cocaine Detection, Kiersten Jo Mead 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy For Cocaine Detection, Kiersten Jo Mead

Chemistry

The detection of drugs of abuse using Raman spectroscopy is of particular interest to forensic researchers at the moment. Raman spectroscopy is highly specific, fast, non-destructive, and can be adapted for in-situ measurements, making it the ideal forensic technique. Researchers working under the guidance of Doctor Igor Lednev have been able to use UV resonance Raman spectroscopy to detect cocaine in oral fluid without the need for sample pretreatment. They were however unable to detect the cocaine at forensically relevant levels. To overcome this limitation, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used in this proof of concept study for the detection ...


Mhpaea & Marble Cake: Parity & The Forgotten Frame Of Federalism, Taleed El-Sabawi 2020 Elon University

Mhpaea & Marble Cake: Parity & The Forgotten Frame Of Federalism, Taleed El-Sabawi

Dickinson Law Review

No abstract provided.


Room To Grow: A Comparative Analysis Of Cannabis Regulation Models In Europe, Amanda H. Cronin 2020 SIT Study Abroad

Room To Grow: A Comparative Analysis Of Cannabis Regulation Models In Europe, Amanda H. Cronin

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Debilitated by years of economic instability, the Spanish economy has not fully rebounded to its once strong place in the European market. And now, in the aftermath of a devastating pandemic, the nation will be searching for new sources of wealth. The lucrative market potential of controlled cannabis in medicinal and recreational settings is an attractive industry gaining popularity across Europe. This paper explores the various policy models and legal systems in Portugal, Germany, and the Netherlands. Combining a variety of sources, I seek to ascertain the best plan for Spain. Ultimately, analysis shows that a multi-pronged approach is the ...


Truly Promoting Diversity On College Campuses Means Supporting Persons In Recovery From Substance Use Disorders, Austin McNeill Brown 2020 Syracuse University

Truly Promoting Diversity On College Campuses Means Supporting Persons In Recovery From Substance Use Disorders, Austin Mcneill Brown

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

College students who struggle with substance use disorders often experience decreased motivation, poorer academic performance, social isolation, and lower retention rates. This issue brief examines how Collegiate Recovery Programs help students in recovery from substance use disorders remain sober and excel academically.


Mobilization Of The Substance Use Disorder Recovery Community In The Time Of Coronavirus, Austin McNeill Brown 2020 Syracuse University

Mobilization Of The Substance Use Disorder Recovery Community In The Time Of Coronavirus, Austin Mcneill Brown

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

This issue brief explains the recovery community's resilient response to the social distancing mandates from COVID-19 and notes recommendations for policymakers. This brief also includes a broad list of recovery resources.


The Gender Gap In Alcohol Deaths Is Much Larger In Some States Than Others, Erin Bisesti 2020 Syracuse University

The Gender Gap In Alcohol Deaths Is Much Larger In Some States Than Others, Erin Bisesti

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

Alcohol-related deaths have been on the rise in the U.S. over the past several years. Men have higher rates of alcohol-related death than women, and the gender gap is largest in the western and southern regions of the U.S. This brief describes which states have the highest rates of alcohol-related death among men and women.


“He’S Not Marrying My Daughter”: Stigma Against People In Recovery From Substance Use Disorder, Austin McNeill Brown 2020 Syracuse University

“He’S Not Marrying My Daughter”: Stigma Against People In Recovery From Substance Use Disorder, Austin Mcneill Brown

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

Substance use disorders are among the most stigmatized health conditions in the U.S. This research brief examines how the language we use to describe people with substance use disorders impact how they are perceived and how willing we are to accept them into our social and professional circles.


Chrysin‐Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles Potentiates Antibiofilm Activity Against Staphylococcus Aureus, Busi Siddhardha, Uday Pandey, K. Kaviyarasu, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Asad Syed, Ali K. Bahkali, Abdallah M. Elgorban 2020 Pondicherry University

Chrysin‐Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles Potentiates Antibiofilm Activity Against Staphylococcus Aureus, Busi Siddhardha, Uday Pandey, K. Kaviyarasu, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Asad Syed, Ali K. Bahkali, Abdallah M. Elgorban

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The application of nanotechnology in medicine is gaining popularity due to its ability to increase the bioavailability and biosorption of numerous drugs. Chrysin, a flavone constituent of Orocylumineicum vent is well‐reported for its biological properties. However, its therapeutic potential has not been fully exploited due to its poor solubility and bioavailability. In the present study, chrysin was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles using TPP as a linker. The nanoparticles were characterized and investigated for their anti‐biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus. At sub‐Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, the nanoparticles exhibited enhanced anti‐biofilm efficacy against S. aureus as compared to its ...


Synthesis And Preliminary Ex Vivo Testing Of Sirna Targeting Tcrb: A Proposed Therapy For The Treatment Of Autoimmunity, Nicholas J. Magazine 2020 Louisiana State University

Synthesis And Preliminary Ex Vivo Testing Of Sirna Targeting Tcrb: A Proposed Therapy For The Treatment Of Autoimmunity, Nicholas J. Magazine

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Abstract

Background:

As of 2018, the United States National Institutes of Health estimate that over half a billion people worldwide are affected by autoimmune disorders. Though these conditions are prevalent, treatment options remain relatively poor, relying primarily on various forms of immunosuppression which carry potentially severe side effects and often lose effectiveness overtime. Given this, new forms of therapy are needed. We propose small-interfering RNA (siRNA) for hypervariable regions of the T-cell receptor β-chain gene (TCRb) as a highly targeted, novel means of therapy for the treatment of autoimmune disorders.

Objectives:

To develop methods to produce siRNA targeting hypervariable regions ...


Non-Pharmacological Interventions For Alcohol, Marijuana, And Opioid Use During Pregnancy: A Systematic Review, Hannah Safranek, Madeline Frausto, Amy King, Stoneking Madison 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Pharmacological Interventions For Alcohol, Marijuana, And Opioid Use During Pregnancy: A Systematic Review, Hannah Safranek, Madeline Frausto, Amy King, Stoneking Madison

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this review is to analyze evidence on prevalence of opioid, alcohol and marijuana use during pregnancy and answer the PICOT question: In pregnant women addicted to or using marijuana, opioids, and alcohol, how do non-pharmacological interventions, compared to standard care of pharmacological interventions alone, affect health outcomes in mothers and neonates between birth to hospital discharge? Diagnosis of substance use disorder is increasing and with it comes increased risk of complications to mother and neonate including neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other negative neonatal and maternal outcomes. Evidence was identified on the online ...


Alternatives To Red Blood Cell Transfusions, Julia Prosser 2020 Arcadia University

Alternatives To Red Blood Cell Transfusions, Julia Prosser

Capstone Showcase

Abstract

Introduction: Allogenic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are used for a number of different reasons. As with any medical procedure, allogenic RBC transfusions are not risk-free. Since the first recorded blood transfusion in 1655, the process has remained relatively unchanged. ABO incompatibility and contamination with infectious diseases are two major complications associated with RBC transfusions. Furthermore, traditional allogenic RBC transfusions have supply and demand issues. These issues, plus several more, could be alleviated with the use of artificial blood. This paper addresses the important clinical question: In patients who require RBC transfusions (P), is there a viable artificial blood ...


Antifungal Defense Molecules From Bacterial Symbionts Of North American Trachymyrmex Ants, Georgia Scherer 2020 Claremont Colleges

Antifungal Defense Molecules From Bacterial Symbionts Of North American Trachymyrmex Ants, Georgia Scherer

CMC Senior Theses

Defensive symbioses, in which microbes provide molecular defenses for an animal host, hold great potential as untapped sources of therapeutically useful antibiotics. Fungus-growing ants use antifungal defenses from bacterial symbionts to suppress pathogenic fungi in their nests. Preliminary chemical investigations of symbiotic bacteria from this large family of ants have uncovered novel antifungal molecules with therapeutic potential, such as dentigerumycin and selvamicin.

In this study, the bacterial symbionts of North American Trachymyrmex fungus-growing ants are investigated for antifungal molecules. Plate-based bioassays using ecologically-relevant fungal pathogens confirmed that these bacteria have antifungal activity. In order to purify and identify the antifungal ...


Identification Of Imiquimod As A Potential Combination For Anti-Cd47 Antibodies In Cancer Therapy, Nicole Brittaney Pang 2020 Scripps College

Identification Of Imiquimod As A Potential Combination For Anti-Cd47 Antibodies In Cancer Therapy, Nicole Brittaney Pang

Scripps Senior Theses

The avenues of targeted immunotherapy offers a promise of less toxic treatment options for those battling different forms of cancer. Specifically, the process of hijacking a patient’s own immune system to fight cancer from within versus using external treatments like chemotherapy which is extremely damaging to the patient. One such avenue includes the usage of monoclonal antibodies as an effective modality for immunotherapy. Cluster of Differentiation 47 (CD47), also known as the ‘don’t eat me signal’, aids in cell proliferation and evasion of phagocytosis and has been found to be a target for stopping tumorigenesis. Previous research has ...


Analyzing The Effects Of Opioids On Cortical Pore Networks In Rabbit Tibiae And Femora, Kassidy Wilson 2020 The University of Akron

Analyzing The Effects Of Opioids On Cortical Pore Networks In Rabbit Tibiae And Femora, Kassidy Wilson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The following project was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) (Protocol number #18-11-12 ARC). This study was completed as a subset of Dr. Andronowski's overarching lab project. Femora and tibiae were procured from New Zealand White rabbits to study the prolonged effects of opioid use in bone remodeling. This specific project analyzed the effects of opioids on the pore networks and the pore orientation.


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