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Evaluation Of Different Ensiling Methods On Storage And Feeding Value Of The Residual Material From Edamame Soybean Processing, Ellen Herring 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Different Ensiling Methods On Storage And Feeding Value Of The Residual Material From Edamame Soybean Processing, Ellen Herring

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Use of organic waste material by ruminant animals from food processing operations potentially reduces costs and reduces environmental issues from disposal of these residues. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the storage and feeding value of residual from edamame soybean processing for ruminant animals. Two types of waste streams, waste during harvest time and waste from processing stored material, were ensiled (on a laboratory scale) using various methods and effects on post-ensiling nutritive value were examined. Material from both waste streams were ensiled either without wilting or after wilting; each moisture level was ensiled with and without an inoculant. …


Evaluation Of Selected Bacillus Direct-Fed Microbial Candidates In Reduced Energy Diets On Live Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Foot Pad Dermatitis, Kyle Teague 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Selected Bacillus Direct-Fed Microbial Candidates In Reduced Energy Diets On Live Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Foot Pad Dermatitis, Kyle Teague

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacillus spp. are ubiquitous, Gram-positive, spore forming bacteria that are commonly recovered from the environment and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of poultry. These spores are capable of withstanding harsh condition such as feed pelletization, which facilitates inclusion in poultry feeds. Once ingested by the bird, spores germinate into metabolically active vegetative cells which can produce extracellular enzymes which can hydrolyze otherwise indigestible components of the feed. Soybean meal (SBM) is the gold standard vegetable protein source for non-ruminant animals worldwide and is included in practically all poultry diets in the United States at levels ranging from 10 to more than 30%. …


Biogeography Of The Bovine Respiratory Microbiome And Its Relationship With Bovine Respiratory Disease, Jianmin Chai 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Biogeography Of The Bovine Respiratory Microbiome And Its Relationship With Bovine Respiratory Disease, Jianmin Chai

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common and costly disease in the beef cattle industry, leading to high morbidity, mortality and huge economic loss. Despite the recent advances in vaccination and antimicrobial techniques, no significant health-improved outcomes have developed. Due to a deep investigation of the microbiome, respiratory microbiotas are known to have important roles for host health and disease. However, BRD specific pathogens have not yet been identified since they are found in both healthy and diseased animals. A systemic and comprehensive study of the biogeography of the bovine respiratory microbiome and its relationship with BRD is lacking …


Fate And Dissemination Of Salmonella Reading In Market-Age Turkeys At Processing Using Oral Gavage Challenge Model, Aaron Ashcraft 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Fate And Dissemination Of Salmonella Reading In Market-Age Turkeys At Processing Using Oral Gavage Challenge Model, Aaron Ashcraft

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study aimed to evaluate the fate and dissemination of Salmonella Reading (SR) in market-age turkeys using an oral gavage challenge model. One hundred twenty-eight-week-old commercial turkey hens were moved from commercial production to research facilities. Upon arrival, a combination of enrofloxacin, 10 mg/kg, and florfenicol, 20 mg/kg, were orally administered sequentially before comingled placement on fresh pine shavings. Turkeys were challenged with 108 cfu SR by oral gavage on days 4 and 7 post-placement. Subsets were subjected to simulated commercial processing on days 14 (n=40), 21 (n=40) and 28 (n=32) post-placement (corresponding to 10, 11, and 12 weeks of …


Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis is the most important cause of lameness in broilers. This is important to poultry production, as it poses animal welfare issues, and causes a significant loss in revenue. The remediation of this disease requires the study of its etiology with fitting models and evaluating preventatives. The research reported herein covers genomic virulence analysis of BCO isolates, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli retrieved from lame birds. We found that S. aureus isolates were closest to chicken strains in Europe but may have been in the Arkansas area for a decade. Phylogenomics suggest our S. aureus is …


Effect Of Feed Additives And Toxic Elements On Swine Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Immune Function And Reproductive Performance, Richard A. Mudarra Hernández 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Feed Additives And Toxic Elements On Swine Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Immune Function And Reproductive Performance, Richard A. Mudarra Hernández

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To evaluate the effects of peptide in combination of zinc oxide (Zno) or acidifiers (Exp 1), and gossypol (G) from cottonseed meal (CSM) ( Exp 2&3) on growth performance, complete blood cell counts (Exp 1, 2&3), nutrient digestibility (Exp 1), plasma gossypol (Exp 2&3) and semen quality (Exp 3), weaned pigs (Exp 1), growing gilts (Exp 2) and growing boars (Exp 3) were randomly allotted to dietary treatments. Treatments for Exp 1 during phase 1&2 were: (1) Positive Control (PC), formulated to meet NRC (2012) nutrient requirements; (2) Negative control (NC), fish meal was reduced to achieve -0.13% SID lysine; …


Effects Of Commercial Feed Additives On Growth Performance And Gut Microbiota Of Nursery Pigs, Xiaoyuan Wei 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Commercial Feed Additives On Growth Performance And Gut Microbiota Of Nursery Pigs, Xiaoyuan Wei

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To secure animal welfare and maximum production, feed additives are often added to nursery pig diets to increase nutrition digestibility, enhance intestinal health, and prevent or mitigate disease, with the ultimate goal of improving growth performance. This thesis performed a longitudinal analysis using next-generation sequencing to investigate the dynamic changes of gut microbiota in weaned pigs fed commercial feed additives. Chapter II was used to evaluate the effects of organic acid mixture on growth performance and gut microbiota of weaning pigs. This study demonstrated that the inclusion of 0.035% (SBA0.035) or 0.070% (SBA0.070) sodium butyrate in a diet containing 0.5% …


Flowers Are Essential To Maintain High Beetle Diversity (Coleoptera) In A Neotropical Rainforest Canopy, Susan Kirmse, Caroline S. Chaboo 2020 Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Museum of Entomology

Flowers Are Essential To Maintain High Beetle Diversity (Coleoptera) In A Neotropical Rainforest Canopy, Susan Kirmse, Caroline S. Chaboo

Publications of UNSM Staff and Affiliates

Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the megadiversity of angiosperms and insects. Flowers and their pollinators represent the most common terrestrial mutualistic interaction today and this is thought to have driven the evolution of angiosperms and their visitors. Within the framework of that interaction, this paper develops and tests two new hypotheses: 1) megadiversity of canopy beetles in tropical rainforests is largely based on flower resources, and 2) the majority of adult canopy beetles are adapted to visit flowers. To test hypothesis 1, the beetle fauna associated with 23 canopy tree species (13 families, 45 individuals) in a 1.4 …


Aspergillus Niger Decreases Bioavailability Of Arsenic(V) Via Biotransformation Of Manganese Oxide Into Biogenic Oxalate Minerals, Bence Farkas, Marek Kolenčík, Miroslav Hain, Edmund Dobročka, Gabriela Kratošová, Marek Bujdoš, Huan Feng, Yang Deng, Qian Yu, Ramakanth Illa, B. Ratna Sunil, Hyunjung Kim, Peter Matúš, Martin Urík 2020 Comenius University in Bratislava

Aspergillus Niger Decreases Bioavailability Of Arsenic(V) Via Biotransformation Of Manganese Oxide Into Biogenic Oxalate Minerals, Bence Farkas, Marek Kolenčík, Miroslav Hain, Edmund Dobročka, Gabriela Kratošová, Marek Bujdoš, Huan Feng, Yang Deng, Qian Yu, Ramakanth Illa, B. Ratna Sunil, Hyunjung Kim, Peter Matúš, Martin Urík

Department of Earth and Environmental Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The aim of this work was to evaluate the transformation of manganese oxide (hausmannite) by microscopic filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and the effects of the transformation on mobility and bioavailability of arsenic. Our results showed that the A. niger strain CBS 140837 greatly affected the stability of hausmannite and induced its transformation into biogenic crystals of manganese oxalates—falottaite and lindbergite. The transformation was enabled by fungal acidolysis of hausmannite and subsequent release of manganese ions into the culture medium. While almost 45% of manganese was bioextracted, the arsenic content in manganese precipitates increased throughout the 25-day static cultivation of fungus. …


Fundamental Shifts In Research, Ethics And Peer Review In The Era Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Edward Barroga, Janet B. Matanguihan 2020 Messiah University

Fundamental Shifts In Research, Ethics And Peer Review In The Era Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Edward Barroga, Janet B. Matanguihan

Biology Educator Scholarship

The era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to fundamental shifts in research, ethics, and peer review including reframing of the research design, adapting methodologies to the study type, transitioning of research mechanics, changing research methodologies, overcoming data collection and standardization constraints, upholding research standards and ethics, maintaining informativeness and social value, and providing guarded peer review flexibility. Indeed, the COVID-19 crisis, despite disrupting research worldwide to an unprecedented degree, has also become a catalyst to develop strategies of adaptation to this disruption. As the COVID-19 pandemic continuous to evolve, new, cost-effective, and highly flexible research models …


Tadpole Of The Amazonia Frog Edalorhina Perezi (Anura: Leptodactylidae) With Description Of Oral Internal And Chondrocranial Morphology, Filipe A.C do Nascimento, Rafael O. de Sá, Paulo C. de A. Garcia 2020 University of Richmond

Tadpole Of The Amazonia Frog Edalorhina Perezi (Anura: Leptodactylidae) With Description Of Oral Internal And Chondrocranial Morphology, Filipe A.C Do Nascimento, Rafael O. De Sá, Paulo C. De A. Garcia

Biology Faculty Publications

The genus Edalorhina consists of two species of small forest-floor frogs inhabiting the Amazon basin. The tadpole of Edalorhina perezi, the most widely distributed species, was previously described based on a single and early stage (Gosner 25) individual. Herein, we provide a description of the tadpole in Gosner stages 35–36 including internal morphology data (i.e., buccopharyngeal cavity and larval skeleton) based on samples from two populations from Ecuador. Edalorhina shares a generalized morphology with most members of its closely related taxa; however, it is distinguished from the other species by having an almost terminal oral disc. The presence of …


The Best Predictions In Experimental Biology Are Critical And Persuasive, Douglas S. Fudge, Andy J. Turko 2020 Chapman University

The Best Predictions In Experimental Biology Are Critical And Persuasive, Douglas S. Fudge, Andy J. Turko

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

A powerful way to evaluate scientific explanations (hypotheses) is to test the predictions that they make. In this way, predictions serve as an important bridge between abstract hypotheses and concrete experiments. Experimental biologists, however, generally receive little guidance on how to generate quality predictions. Here, we identify two important components of good predictions – criticality and persuasiveness – which relate to the ability of a prediction (and the experiment it implies) to disprove a hypothesis or to convince a skeptic that the hypothesis has merit. Using a detailed example, we demonstrate how striving for predictions that are both critical and …


Introduction To Biomedical Research Cmb 240, Michael Cerbo 2020 University of Rhode Island

Introduction To Biomedical Research Cmb 240, Michael Cerbo

Library Impact Statements

No abstract provided.


Introduction To Biomedical Research (Temporary) Cmb 240x, Michael Cerbo 2020 University of Rhode Island

Introduction To Biomedical Research (Temporary) Cmb 240x, Michael Cerbo

Library Impact Statements

No abstract provided.


Acute And Chronic Dosing Of A High-Affinity Rat/Mouse Chimeric Transferrin Receptor Antibody In Mice, Demi M. Castellanos, Jiahong Sun, Joshua Yang, Weijun Ou, Alexander C. Zambon, William M. Pardridge, Rachita K. Sumbria 2020 Keck Graduate Institute

Acute And Chronic Dosing Of A High-Affinity Rat/Mouse Chimeric Transferrin Receptor Antibody In Mice, Demi M. Castellanos, Jiahong Sun, Joshua Yang, Weijun Ou, Alexander C. Zambon, William M. Pardridge, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Non-invasive brain delivery of neurotherapeutics is challenging due to the blood-brain barrier. The revived interest in transferrin receptor antibodies (TfRMAbs) as brain drug-delivery vectors has revealed the effect of dosing regimen, valency, and affinity on brain uptake, TfR expression, and Fc-effector function side effects. These studies have primarily used monovalent TfRMAbs with a human constant region following acute intravenous dosing in mice. The effects of a high-affinity bivalent TfRMAb with a murine constant region, without a fusion partner, following extravascular dosing in mice are, however, not well characterized. Here we elucidate the plasma pharmacokinetics and safety of a high-affinity bivalent …


Recent And Rapid Radiation Of The Highly Endangered Harlequin Frogs (Atelopus) Into Central America Inferred From Mitochondrial Dna Sequences, Juan P. Ramirez, Cesar A. Jaramillo, Erik D. Lindquist, Andrew J. Crawford, Roberto Ibanez 2020 Messiah University

Recent And Rapid Radiation Of The Highly Endangered Harlequin Frogs (Atelopus) Into Central America Inferred From Mitochondrial Dna Sequences, Juan P. Ramirez, Cesar A. Jaramillo, Erik D. Lindquist, Andrew J. Crawford, Roberto Ibanez

Biology Educator Scholarship

Populations of amphibians are experiencing severe declines worldwide. One group with the most catastrophic declines is the Neotropical genus Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae). Many species of Atelopus have not been seen for decades and all eight Central American species are considered “Critically Endangered”, three of them very likely extinct. Nonetheless, the taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeographic history of Central American Atelopus are still poorly known. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships among seven of the eight described species in Central America were inferred based on mitochondrial DNA sequences from 103 individuals, including decades-old museum samples and two likely extinct species, plus ten …


Exploiting The Immunomodulatory Potentials Of Inkt Cells In Sepsis And Cancer., Joshua Choi 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Exploiting The Immunomodulatory Potentials Of Inkt Cells In Sepsis And Cancer., Joshua Choi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique unconventional T cell subset that recognize glycolipids presented by CD1d expressing cells. The prototypical glycolipid agonist of iNKT cells, α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), can induce the rapid release of an arsenal of cytotoxic effector molecules and enormous amounts of immunomodulatory cytokines as early as two hours after activation. In addition to α-GalCer, various glycolipid agonists are available that allow for specific, in vivo targeting of iNKT cells, and can exert divergent T-helper (TH)1 and/or TH2 immune responses. Therefore, the type of response instigated by iNKT cells can profoundly influence …


Distributions And Abundances Of The Red Tide Dinoflagellate Alexandrium Catenella In The Eastern Gulf Of Maine And Bay Of Fundy In Relation To Diatoms In June, July And August Of 2019, Kimberly Lina D'Adamo 2020 University of Maine

Distributions And Abundances Of The Red Tide Dinoflagellate Alexandrium Catenella In The Eastern Gulf Of Maine And Bay Of Fundy In Relation To Diatoms In June, July And August Of 2019, Kimberly Lina D'Adamo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A series of three oceanographic survey cruises were conducted in June, July, and August of 2019 in the northeastern Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy. Surface water samples were collected and analyzed for enumerations of cell densities of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella in relation to cell densities of diatoms. Hydrographic profiles of temperature, salinity, and nutrients (silicate and nitrate) were also made at each station. Data were analyzed to determine if there was any statistically significant evidence of allelopathic interference imparted by diatoms that impede A. catenella. A. catenella cells were most abundant in June, reaching 6,195 cells per …


Foliar Application Of Low Concentrations Of Titanium Dioxide And Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles To The Common Sunflower Under Field Conditions, Marek Kolenčík, Dávid Ernst, Martin Urík, Ľuba Ďurišová, Marek Bujdoš, Martin Šebesta, Edmund Dobročka, Samuel Kšiňan, Ramakanth Illa, Qian Yu, Huan Feng, Ivan Černý, Veronika Holišová, Gabriela Kratošová 2020 Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra

Foliar Application Of Low Concentrations Of Titanium Dioxide And Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles To The Common Sunflower Under Field Conditions, Marek Kolenčík, Dávid Ernst, Martin Urík, Ľuba Ďurišová, Marek Bujdoš, Martin Šebesta, Edmund Dobročka, Samuel Kšiňan, Ramakanth Illa, Qian Yu, Huan Feng, Ivan Černý, Veronika Holišová, Gabriela Kratošová

Department of Earth and Environmental Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Nano-fertilisers have only recently been introduced to intensify plant production, and there still remains inadequate scientific knowledge on their plant-related effects. This paper therefore compares the effects of two nano-fertilisers on common sunflower production under field conditions. The benefits arising from the foliar application of micronutrient-based zinc oxide fertiliser were compared with those from the titanium dioxide plant-growth enhancer. Both the zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were delivered by foliar application in nano-size at a concentration of 2.6 mg·L−1. The foliar-applied nanoparticles (NPs) had good crystallinity and a mean size distribution under 30 nm. …


Preliminary Evidence Of The Role Of Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Self-Enhancement: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study, Birgitta Taylor-Lillquist, Vivek Kanpa, Maya Crawford, Mehdi El Filali, Julia Oakes, Alex Jonasz, Amanda Disney, Julian Keenan 2020 University of Virginia

Preliminary Evidence Of The Role Of Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Self-Enhancement: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study, Birgitta Taylor-Lillquist, Vivek Kanpa, Maya Crawford, Mehdi El Filali, Julia Oakes, Alex Jonasz, Amanda Disney, Julian Keenan

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Humans employ a number of strategies to improve their position in their given social hierarchy. Overclaiming involves presenting oneself as having more knowledge than one actually possesses, and it is typically invoked to increase one’s social standing. If increased expectations to possess knowledge is a perceived social pressure, such expectations should increase bouts of overclaiming. As the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is sensitive to social pressure and disruption of the MPFC leads to decreases in overclaiming, we predicted that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied to the MPFC would reduce overclaiming and the effects would be enhanced in the presence of …


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