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Quantifying The Toxicological Effects Of The Organic Uv Filters Avobenzone And Homosalate On Acropora Cervicornis, Samantha F. Buckley 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Quantifying The Toxicological Effects Of The Organic Uv Filters Avobenzone And Homosalate On Acropora Cervicornis, Samantha F. Buckley

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Reports of the environmental effects of organic UV filters such as oxybenzone have led to the marketing of “reef-safe” sunscreen ingredients, including avobenzone and homosalate. Avobenzone provides broad-spectrum UV protection which blocks higher wavelength UV rays, the leading cause of aging and skin cancer. However, as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic UV filters have similar structures to crude oil and estrogens, some of which have been labeled endocrine disrupters. Common in personal care products, UV filters enter marine ecosystems via wastewater effluent and swimmers. Significant stress and mortality have been observed in juvenile and some adult scleractinian corals after exposure …


Effects Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Injections On Tissue Function And Morphology In Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), Bryan Joel Patterson 2022 Winthrop University

Effects Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Injections On Tissue Function And Morphology In Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), Bryan Joel Patterson

Graduate Theses

Fish gills are sensitive to a variety of environmental factors because they regulate the exchange of oxygen and ions between the fish and the external environment. This study examined the effects of polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated titanium dioxide nanoparticle injections (TiO2 NPs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) over 14 days. Following the experimental period, we examined gill histological samples and looked for signs of an inflammatory response through blood glucose levels and relevant gene expression. TiO2 injected fish developed a more robust ILCM (interlamellar cell mass) compared to the non-injected controls, which remained elevated over 14 days post injection. …


The Impact Of Pharmacogenetics On Oral Fluid Steady State Drug Testing Results, Aliya D. Lewis 2022 CUNY John Jay College

The Impact Of Pharmacogenetics On Oral Fluid Steady State Drug Testing Results, Aliya D. Lewis

Student Theses

Pharmacogenetics refers to the relationship between phenotypic variation in metabolism and response to certain drugs. The interface of pharmacogenetics and forensic toxicology is not well explored. A major component of the opioid metabolic pathway has to do with a family of cytochromes called cytochrome P450 (CYP450). CYP450 refers to a general family of enzymes capable of catalyzing the oxidative biotransformation of lipophilic substances, CYPs are further categorized into families and sub-families (Roller, 2015; Zanger & Schwab, 2013). The gene CYP2D6 belongs to the CYP2 family which is responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics. This study looked at the effect of …


Insights On The Behavior Of Nano-Copper In The Agroecosystem: Mycorrhizal Associations With Spearmint (Mentha Spicata), Suzanne Annette Apodaca 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Insights On The Behavior Of Nano-Copper In The Agroecosystem: Mycorrhizal Associations With Spearmint (Mentha Spicata), Suzanne Annette Apodaca

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Nanotechnology offers significant potential benefits to our society, including the agriculture sector. With the advancement of nano-enabled agrochemicals towards sustainable and efficient agricultural practices, it is essential to address environmental issues associated with the use of nanoscale materials. The same properties that give promise to applications of nanotechnology in modern agriculture could have unintended consequences on ecosystem dynamics. A point of concern for risk management is the impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to beneficial microbial communities, which support a variety of ecosystem services.

Use of copper (Cu) products in agriculture are based on their abundance, role as a micronutrient, and …


The Effect Of Volatile Organic Compounds On Endothelial Function And Atherogenesis., Samantha McFall 2022 University of Louisville

The Effect Of Volatile Organic Compounds On Endothelial Function And Atherogenesis., Samantha Mcfall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a group of pervasive air pollutants that are released into the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and environmental sources. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to various VOCs is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between VOCs and cardiovascular disease is not well-studied. Using animal models and three select VOCs, benzene, xylene, and trichloroethylene, we studied the effects of VOCs on endothelial injury and benzene-induced atherogenesis. We found that exposure to benzene and xylene increased circulating endothelial microparticles, depleted progenitor cells, and increased platelet activation. Following the exposure to the representative …


Investigation Of Human N-Acetyltransferases (Nat1 And Nat2) Genetic Polymorphisms In Susceptibility To Aromatic Amine And Alkylaniline Genotoxicity., Mariam Habil 2022 University of Louisville

Investigation Of Human N-Acetyltransferases (Nat1 And Nat2) Genetic Polymorphisms In Susceptibility To Aromatic Amine And Alkylaniline Genotoxicity., Mariam Habil

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Arylamine N-acetyltransferases, NAT1 and NAT2, catalyze the detoxification and/or activation of carcinogens. Single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs result in different human NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes. We hypothesize that different NATs alleles will impact levels of N-acetylation, HPRT mutations, DNA damage and oxidative stress induced by carcinogens. NER-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with human CYP1A2 and NAT1*4, NAT1*14B, NAT2*4, NAT2*5B or NAT2*7B have been used to investigate N-acetylation of benzidine, β-naphthylamine (BNA), and 4, 4’-methylene bis (2-chloroaniline) (MOCA) as aromatic amines and 3,4-dimethylaniline (3,4-DMA) as one of alkylanilines and their associated toxicity. Our …


Developmental Effects Of Chronic Low-Level Arsenic Exposure In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells And In Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, M. Chiara Perego 2022 Clemson University

Developmental Effects Of Chronic Low-Level Arsenic Exposure In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells And In Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, M. Chiara Perego

All Dissertations

Arsenic is an environmental contaminant commonly found in food and drinking water. Exposure to arsenic during embryonic development has been linked to reduced muscle growth, disrupted muscle development and locomotor activity, impaired neurodevelopment, reduced IQ, impaired memory and learning deficits. While the mechanisms responsible for developmental changes following in utero exposure to arsenic are not well known, one possibility is that arsenic might disrupt proper cellular differentiation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which arsenic exposure could alter stem cell differentiation into neurons.

First, we continuously exposed P19 mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to 0.1 μM (7.5 ppb) …


Acknowledgment Of Reviewers, 2022 Taiwan Food and Drug Administration

Acknowledgment Of Reviewers

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

No abstract provided.


Inorganic Arsenic Speciation Analysis In Food Using Hplc/Icp-Ms: Method Development And Validation, Yu-Cheng Lai, Yi-Chen Tsai, Yu-Ning Shin, Ya-Chun Chou, Ying-Ru Shen, Nu-Ching Lin, Shu-Han Chang, Ya-Min Kao, Su-Hsiang Tseng, Der-Yuan Wang 2022 Division of Research and Analysis, Taiwan Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare

Inorganic Arsenic Speciation Analysis In Food Using Hplc/Icp-Ms: Method Development And Validation, Yu-Cheng Lai, Yi-Chen Tsai, Yu-Ning Shin, Ya-Chun Chou, Ying-Ru Shen, Nu-Ching Lin, Shu-Han Chang, Ya-Min Kao, Su-Hsiang Tseng, Der-Yuan Wang

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Arsenic (As) compounds can be classified as organic or inorganic, with inorganic arsenic (iAs) having significantly higher toxicity than organic As. As may accumulate in food materials that have been exposed to As-contaminated environments. Thus, the “Sanitation Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Foods” published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare set the standard limits for iAs content in rice, seaweed, seafood, and marine oils to safeguard public health. Therefore, a robust analytical method must be developed to selectively and quantitatively determine iAs content in rice, seaweed, seafood, and marine oils. Herein, we reported and verified the method of …


Optimization Of Quechers And High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detection Conditions To Assess The Impact Of Preparation Procedures On Eu Priority Pahs In Coffee Samples And Their Pahs Consumption Risk, Ying-Chun Wan, Zwe-Lin Kong, Yu-Hsuan Chao, Chia-Fang Teng, Deng-Jye Yang 2022 Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Taiwan

Optimization Of Quechers And High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detection Conditions To Assess The Impact Of Preparation Procedures On Eu Priority Pahs In Coffee Samples And Their Pahs Consumption Risk, Ying-Chun Wan, Zwe-Lin Kong, Yu-Hsuan Chao, Chia-Fang Teng, Deng-Jye Yang

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

The good performance conditions for determination of EU priority PAHs in coffee samples were established to evaluate the effects of roasting degree on the PAHs in coffee beans and the brewing methods on the PAHs transfer from coffee beans to their brews. The consumption risk of the PAHs in coffee products was also assessed. The PAHs levels of the roasted coffee beans were in the order: 923.65 ng/g (dark roast) > 132.20 ng/g (medium roast) > 69.28 ng/g (light roast). Compared with general brewing with the drip bag (PAHs content, 0.30–0.62 ng/mL in coffee brews), the coffee machine brewing (set at 4 …


Effect Of Sterilization Conditions On The Formation Of Furan And Its Derivatives In Canned Foods With Different Substrates, Wen-Xuan Tsao, Bing-Huei Chen, Tsai-Hua Kao 2022 Department of Food Science, Fu Jen University

Effect Of Sterilization Conditions On The Formation Of Furan And Its Derivatives In Canned Foods With Different Substrates, Wen-Xuan Tsao, Bing-Huei Chen, Tsai-Hua Kao

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

This study explored the effects of sterilization conditions on the formation of furan and its 10 derivatives in canned foods with a sterilizing value (F0) at 4. The contents of furans were determined by SPME arrow-GC-MS/MS, along with the furan precursors analyzed for elucidating the possible mechanism of furan formation. Results revealed that the total furan contents rose substantially in canned meat paste, tomato mackerel, chicken puree, tomato paste, pineapple slice, pineapple juice and carrot juice following sterilization. However, the total furan content did not change significantly ( p > 0.05) in canned oily mackerel, but decreased significantly ( p < 0.05) in canned apple puree after sterilization. With the exception of apple puree and pineapple slice, all the other canned foods showed a higher total furan content under low-temperature-long-time condition than that under high-temperature-short-time condition. Following heating, only the furan level showed a large increase in chicken puree, meat paste and tomato mackerel, whereas in canned fruit- and vegetable-based foods, the contents of furan and furfural showed a pronounced increase. The levels of alkylated furans were higher in sterilized samples containing high level of amino acid, while that of oxygenated furans were higher in sterilized samples containing high level of reducing sugar.


Optimum Synthesis Of Au@Ag Nanoparticle As Plasma Amplifier To Detect Trace Concentration Of Afb1 Via Object-Binder-Metal Sers Method, Wenwen Chen, Qiang Chen, Wei Zhang, De Zhang, Zhi Yu, Ying Song, Xiubing Zhang, Dejiang Ni, Pei Liang 2022 College of Optical and Electronic Technology, China Jiliang University

Optimum Synthesis Of Au@Ag Nanoparticle As Plasma Amplifier To Detect Trace Concentration Of Afb1 Via Object-Binder-Metal Sers Method, Wenwen Chen, Qiang Chen, Wei Zhang, De Zhang, Zhi Yu, Ying Song, Xiubing Zhang, Dejiang Ni, Pei Liang

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

The problem of aflatoxin contamination emerged gradually in the field of food safety. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an ultra-sensitive and non-destructive spectroscopy technology with extensive application prospects in the detection field. In this paper, with the detection of AFB1 as the target, Au@Ag NPs substrate with uniform morphology and strong SERS effect was prepared. Furthermore, the intermediates formed by hydrogen bonding between AFB1 and melamine facilitate the binding of toxin molecules to the substrate. Moreover, the AFB1-melamine-Au@Ag NPs detection system was established by optimizing the melamine dosage, and the limit of detection can reach 10-8 mol/L (M). In …


Simple And Rapid Detection Of Ractopamine In Pork With Comparison Of Lspr And Lfia Sensors, Min Ji Lee, Sheik Aliya, Eun-Seon Lee, Tae-Joon Jeon, Mi-Hwa Oh, Yun Suk Huh 2022 Department of Biological science and Bioengineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Republic of Korea

Simple And Rapid Detection Of Ractopamine In Pork With Comparison Of Lspr And Lfia Sensors, Min Ji Lee, Sheik Aliya, Eun-Seon Lee, Tae-Joon Jeon, Mi-Hwa Oh, Yun Suk Huh

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

This study developed a simple and rapid strategic technique to detect ractopamine (chemical growth-promoting agent) in pork. Two highly sensitive and specific gold nanoparticle-based portable sensors, i.e., localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors, and lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strips were developed to detect veterinary drug residues in food products, that have detrimental effects on humans. Optimization studies were conducted on several sensor devices to improve sensitivity. Each sensor comprised functionalized gold nanoparticles conjugated with ractopamine antibodies. The LSPR sensor chip achieved excellent detection sensitivity = 1.19 fg/mL and was advantageous for quantitative analysis due to its wide dynamic range. On …


Recent Trends In Analysis Of Mycotoxins In Food Using Carbon-Based Nanomaterials, Bing-Huei Chen, Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj 2022 Department of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University

Recent Trends In Analysis Of Mycotoxins In Food Using Carbon-Based Nanomaterials, Bing-Huei Chen, Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Mycotoxins (MYTs), a class of low molecular weight secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi in food and feed, pose serious global threat to both human health and world economy. Due to their mutagenic, teratogenic, carcinogenic and immunosuppressive effects, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified various MYTs under Group 1 to 3 category with aflatoxins being designated under Group 1 category (carcinogenic to humans). Also, the presence of MYTs in trace amounts in diverse food matrices necessitates exploration of highly sensitive methods for onsite analysis. Although conventional chromatographic methods are highly sensitive, they are expensive, tedious and cannot …


Recent Advances In Immunoassay-Based Mycotoxin Analysis And Toxicogenomic Technologies, Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew, Mohd-Redzwan Sabran 2022 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia

Recent Advances In Immunoassay-Based Mycotoxin Analysis And Toxicogenomic Technologies, Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew, Mohd-Redzwan Sabran

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

The co-occurrence and accumulation of mycotoxin in food and feed constitutes a major issue to food safety, food security, and public health. Accurate and sensitive mycotoxins analysis can avoid toxin contamination as well as reduce food wastage caused by false positive results. This mini review focuses on the recent advance in detection methods for multiple mycotoxins, which mainly depends on immunoassay technologies. Advance immunoassay technologies integrated in mycotoxin analysis enable simultaneous detection of multiple mycotoxins and enhance the outcomes’ quality. It highlights toxicogenomic as novel approach for hazard assessment by utilizing computational methods to map molecular events and biological processes. …


Analysis Of Highly Polar Pesticides In Foods By Lc-Ms/Ms, Wan-Rou Liao, Kuan-Lu Wu, Kun-Hao Chiang, Chieh-En Teng, Sung-Fang Chen 2022 Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University

Analysis Of Highly Polar Pesticides In Foods By Lc-Ms/Ms, Wan-Rou Liao, Kuan-Lu Wu, Kun-Hao Chiang, Chieh-En Teng, Sung-Fang Chen

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Highly polar pesticides (HPP) are a group of pesticides that are characterize as low Log Kow. Many high-throughput multi-residue analysis methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of such polar pesticides have been proposed. In this article, we summarize the various sample preparation methods including quick polar pesticides (QuPPe), dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE), solid phase extraction (SPE) and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe), especially for QuPPe, which are mainly used for the determination of HPP in foods. In addition, we summarize LC-based separation methodologies that are currently used for the analysis …


Microbial Toxins In Fermented Foods: Health Implications And Analytical Techniques For Detection, Khadijah Fayyaz, Asad Nawaz, Amin N. Olaimat, Kashif Akram, Umar Farooq, Mehreen Fatima, Shahida Anusha Siddiqui, Insha Shakeel Rana, Mahnoor Mahnoor, Hafiz Muhammad Shahbaz 2022 Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Science

Microbial Toxins In Fermented Foods: Health Implications And Analytical Techniques For Detection, Khadijah Fayyaz, Asad Nawaz, Amin N. Olaimat, Kashif Akram, Umar Farooq, Mehreen Fatima, Shahida Anusha Siddiqui, Insha Shakeel Rana, Mahnoor Mahnoor, Hafiz Muhammad Shahbaz

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Recently, demand for fermented foods has increased due to their improved nutritional value, taste, and health-promoting properties. Worldwide consumption of these products is increasing. Fermented foods are generally safe for human consumption. However, some toxins, primarily biogenic amines (putrescine, phenylethylamine, histamine, tyramine, and cadaverine), mycotoxins (fumonisins, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and trichothecenes), and bacterial toxins (endotoxins, enterotoxins, and emetic toxins) can be produced as a result of using an inappropriate starter culture, processing conditions, and improper storage. These toxins can cause a multitude of foodborne illnesses and can lead to cardiovascular aberration and adverse gastrointestinal symptoms. Analytical techniques are in …


Recent Advances In The Analysis Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Food And Water, Bing-Huei Chen, Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj, Kuo-Chiang Hsu 2022 Department of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University

Recent Advances In The Analysis Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Food And Water, Bing-Huei Chen, Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj, Kuo-Chiang Hsu

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of harmful and persistent organic contaminant, are widely distributed in the environment and eventually accumulated in water and food. Also, they are formed in different varieties and varying amounts during processing of food depending on the food composition, cooking method and processing condition. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), various PAHs are classified under Group 1 to 3 category, with Group 1 designated as carcinogenic to humans, Group 2A as probable carcinogen, Group 2B as possible carcinogen and Group 3 as noncarcinogenic. Therefore, it is imperative to develop rapid and …


Preface, Bing-Huei Chen 2022 Department of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan

Preface, Bing-Huei Chen

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

No abstract provided.


Esterase Mediated Insecticide Resistance In The Southern House Mosquito, Culex Quinquefasciatus, Vivek Pokhrel 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Esterase Mediated Insecticide Resistance In The Southern House Mosquito, Culex Quinquefasciatus, Vivek Pokhrel

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Much is known about the development of insecticide resistance associated with targeted application against insect populations. However, off-target selection by applications of insecticides in agricultural and residential sites also impacts development of insecticide resistance and is understudied. Similarly, the impact of selecting one life stage of mosquitoes on the insecticide susceptibility of different life stages is largely unknown. The first part of this study shows that susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole, which is applied in rice and sugarcane fields in LA, decreased (5.7 to12-fold) in populations of Culex quinquefasciatus collected from near these fields compared to a reference field strain. In addition, …


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