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Preparation Procedures Of Food And Beverage Samples For Oxygen Bomb Calorimetry: A Scoping Review And Reporting Checklist, Zane Hopper, Ben Desbrow, Shelley Roberts, Chris Irwin 2023 School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia

Preparation Procedures Of Food And Beverage Samples For Oxygen Bomb Calorimetry: A Scoping Review And Reporting Checklist, Zane Hopper, Ben Desbrow, Shelley Roberts, Chris Irwin

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Standardised bomb calorimetry methods are essential to accurately quantify the gross energy within food and beverages, yet no accepted protocols exist. The objective of this review was to synthesise literature on food and beverage sample preparation methods used for conducting bomb calorimetry. This synthesis enhances our understanding of the extent to which methodological variances may currently affect estimates of the caloric values of dietary items. Five electronic databases were searched for peer reviewed literature on food and beverage energy measurement via bomb calorimetry. Data were extracted on seven identified methodological themes, including: (1) initial homogenisation, (2) sample dehydration, (3) post-dehydration …


What Nature Has To Offer: Opportunities For Immuno-Oncology, Rubina Kousar, Cheng-Han Lin, Bbumba Patrick, Miao He, Dong-Chuan Wu, Xing-Guo Li 2023 Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 406040, Taiwan

What Nature Has To Offer: Opportunities For Immuno-Oncology, Rubina Kousar, Cheng-Han Lin, Bbumba Patrick, Miao He, Dong-Chuan Wu, Xing-Guo Li

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Recent rapid development of cancer therapy has come about with the paradigm shift from the traditional goal of targeting cancer cells themselves, to reprograming the immune tumor microenvironment. Accumulating evidence shows that compounds that target epigenetic regulation, called epidrugs, play a crucial role in mediating the immunogenicity of cancer cells and in reshaping antitumor immunity. A large body of literature has recognized natural compounds as epigenetic modulators for their immunomodulatory effects and anticancer potential. Unifying our understanding of the role of these biologically active compounds in immuno-oncology may open new avenues for more effective cancer therapies. In this review, we …


The Therapeutic Potential Of Curcumin And Its Related Substances In Turmeric: From Raw Material Selection To Application Strategies, Kai-Yu Hsu, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan 2023 Institute of Food Sciences and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan

The Therapeutic Potential Of Curcumin And Its Related Substances In Turmeric: From Raw Material Selection To Application Strategies, Kai-Yu Hsu, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a medicinal plant used extensively in Chinese and Indian traditional medicine as a home remedy for various diseases. It has been used for medical purposes for centuries. Today, turmeric has become one of the most popular medicinal herbs, spices, and functional supplements worldwide. Curcuminoids are linear diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes that include curcumin and two related compounds: demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which are the active components of the C. longa plant, play a crucial role in numerous functions. This review summarises the composition of turmeric and the properties of curcumin regarding its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, …


Hydromethanolic Extract Of Ipomoea Cairica Leaf Extract Ameliorate The Oxidative Activity Of Cadmium Chloride In The Hearts And Testes Of Male Wistar Rats, Omotayo Babatunde Ilesanmi, Toyin Binang, Ridwan Abiodun Lawal 2023 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Federal University Otuoke, Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Hydromethanolic Extract Of Ipomoea Cairica Leaf Extract Ameliorate The Oxidative Activity Of Cadmium Chloride In The Hearts And Testes Of Male Wistar Rats, Omotayo Babatunde Ilesanmi, Toyin Binang, Ridwan Abiodun Lawal

Al-Bahir Journal for Engineering and Pure Sciences

Background: Ipomoea cairica (L.) sweet Convolvulaceae also known as morning glory or ‘Railway creeper’ is a traditional herb that has been used in treating various diseases throughout the world. Some of the reported pharmacological activities include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral. Cadmium is a toxic metal that can cause both hearts and testicular damage and its major mechanism is oxidative stress. Objective: Therefore, this study was done to investigate the effect of I. cairica leaf extract (ICE) against cadmium chloride-induced hearts and testicular damage in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 …


Neuroinflammatory And Metabolomic Temporal Dynamics From Inhaled Wildfire Smoke With Attenuation Via Pharmacological Intervention, David Scieszka, David Scieszka 2023 University of New Mexico

Neuroinflammatory And Metabolomic Temporal Dynamics From Inhaled Wildfire Smoke With Attenuation Via Pharmacological Intervention, David Scieszka, David Scieszka

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Wildfire smoke is a global issue affecting nearly all humans on the surface of this Earth. Smoke dispersion from wildfires can span continents and cross oceans with amazing ease. Furthermore, total acres of land burned per year in the United States has roughly doubled since 1980, meaning this issue will persist for an indeterminate amount of time. Exposure to wildfire smoke is hazardous and promotes aging-associated events in the cardiopulmonary systems. Yet long- and short-term effects on the brain remain relatively unknown. From these, it is critically important to understand the neurological impacts from wildfire smoke exposure; to compare these …


Drug Ideologies Of The United States, Macy Montgomery 2023 Liberty University

Drug Ideologies Of The United States, Macy Montgomery

Helm's School of Government Conference - American Revival: Citizenship & Virtue

The United States has been increasingly creating lenient drug policies. Seventeen states and Washington, the District of Columbia, legalized marijuana, and Oregon decriminalized certain drugs, including methamphetamine, heroin, and cocaine. The medical community has proven that drugs, including marijuana, have myriad adverse health side effects. This leads to two questions: Why does the United States government continue to create lenient drug policies, and what reasons do citizens give for legalizing drugs when the medical community has proven them harmful? The paper hypothesizes that the disadvantages of drug legalization outweigh its benefits because of the numerous harms it causes, such as …


Role Of Salinity In Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (Pfos) Bioconcentration Between Aquatic Species And The Differential Regulation Of Transporters In Fundulus Heteroclitus, Tyler Davis 2023 Clemson University

Role Of Salinity In Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (Pfos) Bioconcentration Between Aquatic Species And The Differential Regulation Of Transporters In Fundulus Heteroclitus, Tyler Davis

All Theses

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant that is known for its surfactant properties and its resistance to degradation. The persistence and lipophilicity of PFOS in surface waters have led to its bioaccumulation in fish, which in turn leads to its accumulation and toxic effects in humans that consume fish. PFOS is also hypothesized to perturb reproduction and survival of low and mid-trophic level zooplankton species such as Daphnia magna that are food for multiple fish species. In this study, a 21-day D. magna chronic toxicity test was performed using 1,10, 100, 1000, and 5000 ppb of PFOS to …


Changes In Energy Metabolism Induced By Pfos And Dietary Oxylipins, William Evans 2023 Clemson University

Changes In Energy Metabolism Induced By Pfos And Dietary Oxylipins, William Evans

All Theses

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), an emerging environmental toxicant in addition to 9- hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) and 9-hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid (9-HOTrE), endogenously produced oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) have been recently associated with hepatic steatosis and peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor signaling by data produced from our laboratory and others. Given the importance of mitochondrial energy metabolism in the maintenance of lipid homeostasis, an array of extracellular flux assays was performed using HepG2 cells to test for the ability of these compounds to disrupt overall mitochondrial activity and respiration associated with fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis specifically. PFOS and …


Investigating Stormwater Parameters From Runoff On East Tennessee State University Campus, Abby McIver, Dr. Joseph R. Bidwell 2023 East Tennessee State University

Investigating Stormwater Parameters From Runoff On East Tennessee State University Campus, Abby Mciver, Dr. Joseph R. Bidwell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Climate change has caused an increase in extreme rain events and flooding in certain regions across the globe. During rain events, water flows over impervious surfaces structures such as roads and sidewalks, picking up contaminants such as metals, fertilizers and other nutrients, and various organics that which may impact organisms in such as streams, river, and lakes. Previous work has found significant differences in survival of organisms that were exposed to contaminated stormwater runoff. This study investigated stormwater chemistry parameters at collection sites on the East Tennessee State University campus. Sites were selected based on the extent of human interaction …


Mechanisms Of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Striated Muscle And Aorta, Stephen T. Decker 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Mechanisms Of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Striated Muscle And Aorta, Stephen T. Decker

Doctoral Dissertations

Cigarette Smoke is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, accounting for over 480,000 annual deaths. Of these deaths, the most common cause of mortality in chronic smokers is cardiometabolic diseases. Likewise, a significant portion of smokers experience some form of cardiac, vascular, or metabolic dysfunction throughout their lifetime. More specifically, smoking is shown to induce mitochondrial dysfunction in these tissues, causing an increase in oxidative damage and poor overall health. However, despite the advances in the health outcomes related to cigarette smoke exposure, the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction in striated muscle and the vasculature remain …


Potential Of Constructed Wetlands For The Treatment Of Heavy Metals From Wastewater, Hasnain Raza, Qurat ul Ain, Haseena Bibi, Tehmina Bibi, Huda Bilal 2023 Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences. MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan. Pakistan.

Potential Of Constructed Wetlands For The Treatment Of Heavy Metals From Wastewater, Hasnain Raza, Qurat Ul Ain, Haseena Bibi, Tehmina Bibi, Huda Bilal

Journal of Bioresource Management

Overpopulation, urbanization, and economic race increase the pressure on freshwater resources resulted in water scarcity challenges around the globe. Moreover, the generation of wastewater also enhancing the scarcity threats for freshwater resources. Water scarcity issues forced the policymaker, thinker, scientist, and researcher to think about non-conventional water resources to cope with the increasing demands. Because of this wastewater recycling and treatment play an evident role to fulfill the growing demand for freshwater in socioeconomic sectors especially, for agriculture due to its 70 % dependency on freshwater resources. Different wastewater treatment methods along with merits and demerits are in practice for …


Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Passivated Fluorescent Iron Oxide Quantum Dots For Turn-Off Detection Of Tetracycline In Biological Fluids, Sri Sudewi, Lutfi Chabib, Muhammad Zulfajri, Gangaraju Gedda, Genin Gary Huang 2023 Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Passivated Fluorescent Iron Oxide Quantum Dots For Turn-Off Detection Of Tetracycline In Biological Fluids, Sri Sudewi, Lutfi Chabib, Muhammad Zulfajri, Gangaraju Gedda, Genin Gary Huang

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Tetracycline is an antibiotic that has been prescribed for COVID-19 treatment, raising concerns about antibiotic resistance after long-term use. This study reported fluorescent polyvinylpyrrolidone-passivated iron oxide quantum dots (IO QDs) for detecting tetracycline in biological fluids for the first time. The as-prepared IO QDs have an average size of 2.84 nm and exist a good stability under different conditions. The IO QDs’ tetracycline detection performance could be attributed to a combination of static quenching and inner filter effect. The IO QDs displayed high sensitivity and selectivity toward tetracycline and achieved a good linear relationship with the corresponding detection limit being …


Chemical Transformation Of Cannabidiol Into Psychotropic Cannabinoids Under Acidic Reaction Conditions: Identification Of Transformed Products By Gc-Ms, Minsun Jeong, Sangin Lee, Chaeyoung Seo, Eunjeong Kwon, Soohyang Rho, Mansoo Cho, Moon Yeon Kim, Wonwoong Lee, Yong Sup Lee, Jongki Hong 2023 College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea

Chemical Transformation Of Cannabidiol Into Psychotropic Cannabinoids Under Acidic Reaction Conditions: Identification Of Transformed Products By Gc-Ms, Minsun Jeong, Sangin Lee, Chaeyoung Seo, Eunjeong Kwon, Soohyang Rho, Mansoo Cho, Moon Yeon Kim, Wonwoong Lee, Yong Sup Lee, Jongki Hong

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Recently, cannabidiol (CBD), one of the major components of the Cannabis species, has been a focus in the cannabis industry due to its various pharmacological effects. Interestingly, CBD can be converted into several psychoactive cannabinoids, such as 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and its structural isomers, under acidic reaction conditions. In this study, chemical transformation of CBD in ethanol solution was conducted with variation in pH at 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 by addition of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). These resulting solutions were derivatized with trimethylsilyl (TMS) reagent and analyzed using GC/MS-scan mode. Time profiles of CBD degradation and transformation of …


Development Of A Metabolomics-Based Data Analysis Approach For Identifying Drug Metabolites Based On High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Hsiao-Hsien Ting, Yi-Shiou Chiou, Tien-Yi Chang, Guan-Yu Lin, Pei-Jhen Li, Chia-Lung Shih 2023 Department of Anesthesiology, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chia-Yi City 60002, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Development Of A Metabolomics-Based Data Analysis Approach For Identifying Drug Metabolites Based On High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Hsiao-Hsien Ting, Yi-Shiou Chiou, Tien-Yi Chang, Guan-Yu Lin, Pei-Jhen Li, Chia-Lung Shih

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

A metabolomics-based approach to data analysis is required for drug metabolites to be identified quickly. This study developed such an approach based on high-resolution mass spectrometry. Our approach is a two-stage one that combines a time-course experiment with stable isotope tracing. Pioglitazone (PIO) was used to improve glycemic management for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Consequently, PIO was taken as a model drug for identifying metabolites. During Stage I of data analysis, 704 out of 26626 ions exhibited a positive relationship between ion abundance ratio and incubation time in a time-course experiment. During Stage II, 25 isotope pairs were identified among …


Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis Assisted By Signal Selection For Comprehensively Identifying Metabolites Of New Psychoactive Substances: 4-Meo-Α-Pvp As An Example, Hsin-Yi Wu, Yuan-Chih Chen, Jing-Fang Hsu, Hsiang-Ting Lu, Yu-Yi Pan, Mi-Chia Ma, Pao-Chi Liao 2023 Instrumentation Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis Assisted By Signal Selection For Comprehensively Identifying Metabolites Of New Psychoactive Substances: 4-Meo-Α-Pvp As An Example, Hsin-Yi Wu, Yuan-Chih Chen, Jing-Fang Hsu, Hsiang-Ting Lu, Yu-Yi Pan, Mi-Chia Ma, Pao-Chi Liao

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

New psychoactive substances (NPS) have been rapidly emerged as legal alternatives to controlled drugs, which raised severe public health issue. The detection and monitoring of its intake by complete metabolic profiling is an urgent and vital task. Untargeted metabolomics approach has been applied for several NPS metabolites studies. Although the number of such works is relatively limited but with a rapidly growing need. The present study aimed to propose a procedure that includes liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis and a signal selection software, MetaboFinder, programed as a web tool. The comprehensive metabolites profile of one kind of NPS, …


Guilu Erxian Jiao Enhances Protein Synthesis, Glucose Homeostasis, Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Slow-Twitch Fibers In The Skeletal Muscle, Wei-Yu Fang, Wan-Hsuan Chang, Yi-Hong Tsai, Hung-Te Hsu, Fang-Rong Chang, Chih-Lung Lin, Yi-Ching Lo 2023 Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Guilu Erxian Jiao Enhances Protein Synthesis, Glucose Homeostasis, Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Slow-Twitch Fibers In The Skeletal Muscle, Wei-Yu Fang, Wan-Hsuan Chang, Yi-Hong Tsai, Hung-Te Hsu, Fang-Rong Chang, Chih-Lung Lin, Yi-Ching Lo

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Guilu Erxian Jiao (GEJ) is a commonly used nutritional supplement due to its rich content of amino acids. It is also a traditional herbal medicine for improving degenerative joint. This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of GEJ water extract (GEJ-WE) on skeletal muscle in C2C12 myotubes and C57BL/6J mice. Analysis of GEJ-WE were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting with chemical standards. Protein expression, mRNA level, glycogen content, mitochondria activity and ATP level were evaluated by western blots, real-time PCR, PAS staining, MTT and ATP bioluminescence assay, respectively. Skeletal muscle strength was evaluated by grip strength. Skeletal …


High-Resolution 1h Nmr Analysis Of Continuous And Discontinuous Thermo-Oxidative Susceptibility Of Culinary Oils During Frying At 180℃, Gilbert AMPEM, Adam LE GRESLEY, Martin GROOTVELD, Declan P NAUGHTON 2023 Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, SEC Faculty, Kingston University, Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey, KT1 2EE, UK

High-Resolution 1h Nmr Analysis Of Continuous And Discontinuous Thermo-Oxidative Susceptibility Of Culinary Oils During Frying At 180℃, Gilbert Ampem, Adam Le Gresley, Martin Grootveld, Declan P Naughton

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Lipid oxidations products (LOPs) are reactive mutagenic and carcinogenic species known to be generated in thermally stressed culinary oils. Mapping the evolution of LOPs in culinary oils exposed to standard frying practices – both continuous and discontinuous thermo-oxidation – at 180℃ is vital to our understanding of these processes, and to the development of scientific solutions for their effective suppression. Modifications in the chemical compositions of the thermo-oxidised oils were analysed using a high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) technique. Research findings acquired showed that polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich culinary oils were the most susceptible to thermo-oxidation. …


Investigation Of Monacolin K, Yellow Pigments, And Citrinin Production Capabilities Of Monascus Purpureus And Monascus Ruber (Monascus Pilosus), Tzu-shing Lin, Shih-Hau Chiu, Chien-Chi Chen, Chih-Hui Lin 2023 Department of Life Science, National Taitung University, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Investigation Of Monacolin K, Yellow Pigments, And Citrinin Production Capabilities Of Monascus Purpureus And Monascus Ruber (Monascus Pilosus), Tzu-Shing Lin, Shih-Hau Chiu, Chien-Chi Chen, Chih-Hui Lin

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Red mold rice (RMR) is a traditional Chinese medicine prepared using Monascus fermentation. M. ruber (pilosus) and M. purpureus have a long history of use as food and medicine. As an economically important starter culture, the relationship between the taxonomy of Monascus and production capabilities of secondary metabolites is crucial for the Monascus food industry. In this study, monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin, and citrinin production by M. purpureus and M. ruber were genomically and chemically investigated. Our findings suggest that M. purpureus can produce monascin and ankaflavin in a correlated manner, whereas M. ruber produces monascin with minimum …


Determination Of 24 Sulfonamide Antibiotics In Instant Pastries By Modified Quechers Coupled With Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Shuo Li, Can Zhang, Hui-Xin Tang, Yue Gu, Ai-Jing Guo, Ke Wang, Kao-Qi Lian 2023 Shijiazhuang Technology Innovation Center for Chemical Poison Detection and Risk Early Warning, Shijiazhuang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shijiazhuang, China

Determination Of 24 Sulfonamide Antibiotics In Instant Pastries By Modified Quechers Coupled With Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Shuo Li, Can Zhang, Hui-Xin Tang, Yue Gu, Ai-Jing Guo, Ke Wang, Kao-Qi Lian

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

There were few reports about antibiotic residues in egg-containing products. In the study, an effective method for the simultaneous determination of 24 sulfonamide antibiotics in two instant pastries based on a modified QuEChERS sample preparation technique coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The results show that the average recoveries of the SAs at 5, 10, and 50 µg·kg-1 levels were 67.6%-103.8%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 0.80-9.23%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantitations (LOQs) were 0.01-0.14 µg∙kg-1 and 0.02-0.45 µg∙kg-1, respectively. This method was suitable for analysis of …


Erinacine S From Hericium Erinaceus Mycelium Promotes Neuronal Regeneration By Inducing Neurosteroids Accumulation, Chun-Yu Lin, Yi-Ju Chen, Chih-Hsuan Hsu, Yu-Hsuan Lin, Peng-Tzu Chen, Ting-Han Kuo, Chris T. Ho, Hsin-Hua Chen, Sih-Jia Huang, Ho-Chieh Chiu, Chin-Chu Chen, Eric Hwang 2023 Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Erinacine S From Hericium Erinaceus Mycelium Promotes Neuronal Regeneration By Inducing Neurosteroids Accumulation, Chun-Yu Lin, Yi-Ju Chen, Chih-Hsuan Hsu, Yu-Hsuan Lin, Peng-Tzu Chen, Ting-Han Kuo, Chris T. Ho, Hsin-Hua Chen, Sih-Jia Huang, Ho-Chieh Chiu, Chin-Chu Chen, Eric Hwang

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Erinacines derived from Hericium erinaceus have been shown to possess various health benefits including neuroprotective effect against neurodegenerative diseases, yet the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we found that erinacine S enhances neurite outgrowth in a cell autonomous fashion. It promotes post-injury axon regeneration of PNS neurons and enhances regeneration on inhibitory substrates of CNS neurons. Using RNA-seq and bioinformatic analyses, erinacine S was found to cause the accumulation of neurosteroids in neurons. ELISA and neurosteroidogenesis inhibitor assays were performed to validate this effect. This research uncovers a previously unknown effect of erinacine S on raising the level of neurosteroids.


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