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Attenuation Of Diabetes-Mediated Muscle Atrophy In Rats By Fish Oil Enriched Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation, Shing-Hwa Liu, Wei-Hsuan Lin, Huei-Ping Tzeng, Meng-Tsan Chiang 2023 Institute of Toxicology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Attenuation Of Diabetes-Mediated Muscle Atrophy In Rats By Fish Oil Enriched Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation, Shing-Hwa Liu, Wei-Hsuan Lin, Huei-Ping Tzeng, Meng-Tsan Chiang

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of muscle wasting/atrophy, which adversely affects quality of life. We hypothesized that long term supplementation of fish oil may have protective effects against sarcopenia or muscle atrophy in streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat (HF) diet-induced diabetic rat model. Wistar rats at age of 7 weeks were injected with saline or STZ to induce hyperglycemia. After one week, they were fed on a normal control diet or HF diet with/without supplementation of fish oil for 18 weeks. Feeding diabetic rats with a fish oil-enriched diet alleviated body weight loss and the impaired glucose tolerance using …


Ssr-Based Molecular Diagnosis For Taiwan Tea Cultivars And Its Application In Identifying Cultivar Composition Of The Processed Tea, Chih-Yi Hu, Hsien-Tung Tsai, Chui-Feng Chiu, Tsung-Chen Su, Nguyen Hoang Khoi Le, Shu-Dan Yeh 2023 Tea Research and Extension Station, Yangmei, Taoyuan City 326011, Taiwan

Ssr-Based Molecular Diagnosis For Taiwan Tea Cultivars And Its Application In Identifying Cultivar Composition Of The Processed Tea, Chih-Yi Hu, Hsien-Tung Tsai, Chui-Feng Chiu, Tsung-Chen Su, Nguyen Hoang Khoi Le, Shu-Dan Yeh

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Taiwan specialty teas are produced with distinct manufacturing processes from specific cultivars of tea plants in Camellia. Due to the widespread transplantation of Taiwan tea cultivars and active international trading of tea materials, an accurate and reliable method to identify tea cultivars at the border is vital to protect the image of premium Taiwan specialty teas. In this study, we introduced the Taiwan Tea Variety Identification (TTVID) kit, a capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex PCR assay consisting of 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A database composing these 12 SSR loci genotypes in 144 cultivars was established for marker assessment and …


Determination And Evaluation Of Epa And Dha Ethyl Esters In Fish Oils Using The Tmah Transesterification Method, Pai-Wen Wu, Ching-Hsuan Tsai, Ching-Yu Hsu, Shu-Han Chang, Ya-Min Kao, Su-Hsiang Tseng, Der-Yuan Wang 2023 Division of Research and Analysis, Food and Drug Administration, 161-2, Kunyang St. Nangang, Taipei, Taiwan 11561, Republic of China

Determination And Evaluation Of Epa And Dha Ethyl Esters In Fish Oils Using The Tmah Transesterification Method, Pai-Wen Wu, Ching-Hsuan Tsai, Ching-Yu Hsu, Shu-Han Chang, Ya-Min Kao, Su-Hsiang Tseng, Der-Yuan Wang

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

A simple and dependable technique, known as THAM method, has been developed to detect and measure ethyl eicosapentaenoate (EE-EPA) and ethyl docosahexaenoate (EE-DHA) in encapsulated fish oils. This technique involves using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) as a catalyst, followed by analysis using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector. Recoveries of EE-EPA and EE-DHA spiked between 5 mg/g and 20 mg/g were found to be between 90.8% and 95.2%, with coefficients of variation ranging from 0.2% to 2.5%, demonstrating the accuracy and precision of the technique. Additionally, its limitation of quantitation of EE-EPA and EE-DHA in fish oil samples was …


Cannabis Sativa L.: A Comprehensive Review On Legislation, Decriminalization, Phytochemistry, Antimicrobial Activity, And Safety, Mohammed Dalli, Salah-eddine Azizi, Ali Azghar, Abderrazak Saddari, Elmostapha Benaissa, Yassine Ben Lahlou, Mostafa Elouennass, Adil Maleb 2023 Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University Mohammed First, Oujda, Morocco

Cannabis Sativa L.: A Comprehensive Review On Legislation, Decriminalization, Phytochemistry, Antimicrobial Activity, And Safety, Mohammed Dalli, Salah-Eddine Azizi, Ali Azghar, Abderrazak Saddari, Elmostapha Benaissa, Yassine Ben Lahlou, Mostafa Elouennass, Adil Maleb

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Throughout history, medicinal and aromatic plants have been used extensively to cure a variety of ailments. This article provides a comprehensive overview of Cannabis sativa, specifically focusing on its legislative status, decriminalization, phytochemistry, antimicrobial activity, and safety. The study begins by briefly outlining the plant's history, including its cultivation, harvesting, and storage methods. The review analyzes extensively the antimicrobial properties of Cannabis sativaand its derivatives, specifically examining their reported antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic capabilities, which have been documented in databases such as Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Web of Science. The paper also discusses trends in studies about the …


How To Deal With Frenemy Nrf2: Targeting Nrf2 For Chemoprevention And Cancer Therapy, Ya-Chu Tang, Yung-Jen Chuang, Hsin-Huei Chang, Shin-Hun Juang, Gow-Chin Yen, Jang-Yang Chang, Ching-Chuan Kuo 2023 Institute of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan

How To Deal With Frenemy Nrf2: Targeting Nrf2 For Chemoprevention And Cancer Therapy, Ya-Chu Tang, Yung-Jen Chuang, Hsin-Huei Chang, Shin-Hun Juang, Gow-Chin Yen, Jang-Yang Chang, Ching-Chuan Kuo

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Induction of antioxidant proteins and phase 2 detoxifying enzymes that neutralize reactive electrophiles are important mechanisms for protection against carcinogenesis. Normal cells provide multifaceted pathways to tightly control NF-E2- related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated gene expression in response to an assault by a range of endogenous and exogenous oncogenic molecules. Transient activation of NRF2 by its activators is able to induce ARE-mediated cytoprotective proteins which are essential for protection against various toxic and oxidative damages, and NRF2 activators thereby have efficacy in cancer chemoprevention. Because NRF2 has a cytoprotective function, it can protect normal cells from carcinogens like an angel, but …


Effects Of Green Tea–Derived Natural Products On Resistance Exercise Training In Sarcopenia: A Retrospective Narrative Mini-Review, Hung-Wen Liu, Sue-Joan Chang 2023 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan

Effects Of Green Tea–Derived Natural Products On Resistance Exercise Training In Sarcopenia: A Retrospective Narrative Mini-Review, Hung-Wen Liu, Sue-Joan Chang

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Skeletal muscle function deficits result in metabolic disease development and physical dysfunction in older adults. Sarcopenia is characterized by a decrease in muscle mass and strength with advancing age, and it increases the risks of mobility impairments, disease development, and mortality. Lifestyle interventions involving a combination of diet and exercise to prevent and attenuate sarcopenia warrant substantial research attention. Resistance exercise training under supervision is a safe and the most effective approach to reducing age-related muscle loss and improving multiple aspects of overall health in the older population. The beneficial effects of resistance exercise training on skeletal muscle mass may …


Hair And Drugs: The Impact Of Dry Shampoo And Gel On Cocaine-Contaminated Hair, Marialejandra Faure Betancourt 2023 CUNY John Jay College

Hair And Drugs: The Impact Of Dry Shampoo And Gel On Cocaine-Contaminated Hair, Marialejandra Faure Betancourt

Student Theses

Hair is a biological sample used in forensic toxicology to identify and quantify drug exposure. However, when interpreting analytical results, hair can be challenging due to the presence of external contamination. Previous studies have shown that cosmetic treatments remove drugs within the hair shaft decreasing their concentration. Nevertheless, not enough information is available to explain this phenomenon. This study focused to determine whether cosmetic products such as dry shampoo and gel influence the concentration of externally deposited cocaine (COC) and benzoylecgonine (BE) in different hair types/colors. Hair samples from fifteen COC-free volunteers of various hair colors/types were collected and divided …


Epitranscriptomic Regulation In Breast Cancer And Pcb-Induced Liver Disease., Belinda Petri 2023 University of Louisville

Epitranscriptomic Regulation In Breast Cancer And Pcb-Induced Liver Disease., Belinda Petri

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Post-transcriptional RNA modifications including N6-methyladenosine (m6A) regulate mRNA stability, splicing, and translation. My research examined m6A in two disease models: breast cancer (BCa) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Acquired resistance to endocrine therapies (ET) develops in approximately 20% of BCa patients with estrogen receptor α positive (ER+) tumors following treatment. The mechanisms by which tumor cells evade ET are not completely understood. Using a cell line model, we investigated the role of an m6A reader protein, HNRNPA2B1 (A2B1) that is upregulated in ET-resistant ER+ BCa cells. Stable overexpression of A2B1 in ET-sensitive MCF-7 cells (MCF-7-A2B1), results in ET resistance, …


The Role Of E-Liquid Constituents In E-Cigarette-Induced Cardiac Arrhythmia And Autonomic Imbalance., Cory Kucera 2023 University of Louisville

The Role Of E-Liquid Constituents In E-Cigarette-Induced Cardiac Arrhythmia And Autonomic Imbalance., Cory Kucera

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Introduction. Accumulating evidence indicates that exposure to electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) promotes sympathetic dominance and electrophysiologic instability in the heart, potentially culminating in arrhythmogenesis. E-liquids contain various formulations of nicotine and flavorings, but the effects of specific e-liquid constituents and their concentrations on e-cig-induced autonomic imbalance and electrical dysfunction are unresolved. To that end, we tested the hypothesis that e-cigs modify cardiac autonomic balance and ventricular arrhythmogenesis in mice dependent on e-liquid constituent type and concentration. Methods. Using a crossover design and a serial exposure regimen, ECG-telemetered male C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to e-cig aerosols generated from e-liquids containing different …


Toxicity Of Different Insecticides To Sitophilus Oryzae, Tribolium Castaeneum And Tribolium Confusum Infesting Corn, Amina Twaibu 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Toxicity Of Different Insecticides To Sitophilus Oryzae, Tribolium Castaeneum And Tribolium Confusum Infesting Corn, Amina Twaibu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Corn is an important cereal crop cultivated across various countries, including the United States. Corn serves multiple purposes such as human and livestock food and raw material for industrial processes. Despite being an important crop, corn production faces challenges due to factors such as weather fluctuations and the presence of insect pests and diseases, both in the field and during storage. Among these challenges, insect infestation poses a major threat, as the insect damage not only reduces the quantity and quality of the grain but also renders it unfit for human and animal consumption, leading to a decrease in market …


Using Lanthanide Ions As Magnetic And Sensing Probes For The Detection Of Tetracycline From Complex Samples, Yan-Cen Zhan, Chin-Poa Chiu, Yu-Chie Chen 2023 Department of Applied Chemistry, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan

Using Lanthanide Ions As Magnetic And Sensing Probes For The Detection Of Tetracycline From Complex Samples, Yan-Cen Zhan, Chin-Poa Chiu, Yu-Chie Chen

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Tetracycline (TC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and has been added to animal feeds to grow livestock under healthy conditions, making it important to have effective methods for rapidly detecting TC in complex samples. In this study, a novel method that uses lanthanide ions (i.e. Eu3+ and Gd3+) as magnetic and sensing probes for the detection of TC from aqueous samples is explored. When dissolving Gd3+ in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) buffer at pH 9, magnetic Gd3+-Tris conjugates can be readily generated. The magnetic Gd3+-Tris conjugates possess trapping capacity toward TC from sample solutions via …


Urolithin A Exhibits A Neuroprotective Effect Against Alzheimer’S Disease By Inhibiting Dyrk1a Activity, Huang-Ju Tu, Chih-Jou Su, Chao-Shiang Peng, Tony Eight Lin, Wei-Chun Huang Fu, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Tsong-Long Hwang, Shiow-Lin Pan 2023 Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology and Drug Discovery, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, No.250, Wu-Xing Street, Xinyi Dist., Taipei 110, Taiwan

Urolithin A Exhibits A Neuroprotective Effect Against Alzheimer’S Disease By Inhibiting Dyrk1a Activity, Huang-Ju Tu, Chih-Jou Su, Chao-Shiang Peng, Tony Eight Lin, Wei-Chun Huang Fu, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Tsong-Long Hwang, Shiow-Lin Pan

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with more than 50 million people suffer from it. Unfortunately, none of the currently available drugs is able to improve cognitive impairment in AD patients. Urolithin A (UA) is a metabolite obtained from ellagic acid and ellagitannin through the intestinal flora, and it has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previous reports found that UA had neuroprotective effects in an AD animal model, but the detailed mechanism still needs to be elucidated. In this study, we performed kinase-profiling to show that dual-specific tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is the main target of UA. Studies …


Chemometrics-Assisted Spectroscopic Methods For Rapid Analysis Of Combined Anti-Malarial Tablets, Panawan Pruksapha, Putthiporn Khongkaew, Chaweewan Suwanvecho, Nantana Nuchtavorn, Chutima Phechkrajang, Leena Suntornsuk 2023 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Chemometrics-Assisted Spectroscopic Methods For Rapid Analysis Of Combined Anti-Malarial Tablets, Panawan Pruksapha, Putthiporn Khongkaew, Chaweewan Suwanvecho, Nantana Nuchtavorn, Chutima Phechkrajang, Leena Suntornsuk

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Combination of piperaquine (PQ) (320 mg) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) (40 mg) is an anti-malarial formulation, which is recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). Simultaneous analysis of PQ and DHA can be problematic due to the lack of chromophores or fluorophores in DHA molecule. Whereas PQ possesses strong UV absorption and it presents in 8 times of DHA contents in the formulation. In this study, two spectroscopic methods, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, were developed for the determination of both drugs in combined tablets. The FTIR and Raman spectra were recorded in the attenuate total reflectance (ATR) and scattering …


Three-Dimensional Strategies In The Quantitative Resolution Of Kinetic Uv Absorbance Measurements For Monitoring The Oxidation Of Quercetin By Oxidant Agents And Analyzing Dietary Supplement Product, Erdal DİNÇ, Asiye ÜÇER, Nazangül ÜNAL 2023 Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, 06560 Yenimahalle, Ankara, Turkey

Three-Dimensional Strategies In The Quantitative Resolution Of Kinetic Uv Absorbance Measurements For Monitoring The Oxidation Of Quercetin By Oxidant Agents And Analyzing Dietary Supplement Product, Erdal Di̇nç, Asiye Üçer, Nazangül Ünal

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Three-dimensional strategies involving the application of parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to the kinetic UV absorbance measurements were elaborated to monitor the oxidation of quercetin with oxidant agents (K2Cr2O7 and KIO3) and to quantify analyte in a dietary supplement product. Loadings (spectral, kinetic and concentration profiles) were obtained by the PARAFAC deconvolution. Spectral identification, kinetics and quantification of the relevant analyte in the presence of interferent(s) were performed. The elaborated chemometric strategies were carefully validated to demonstrate the capability of the method. Assay results of the PARAFAC strategies were statistically compared to that of …


Resveratrol Stimulates Star Expression And Progesterone Production By Gper-Mediated Downregulation Of Snail Expression In Human Granulosa Cells, Tinglin Song, Jiaye Chen, Sizhu Yang, Boqun Liu, Lingling Zhang, Qian Zhang, Jung-Chien Cheng, Lanlan Fang 2023 Center for Reproductive Medicine, Henan Key Laboratory of Reproduction and Genetics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China

Resveratrol Stimulates Star Expression And Progesterone Production By Gper-Mediated Downregulation Of Snail Expression In Human Granulosa Cells, Tinglin Song, Jiaye Chen, Sizhu Yang, Boqun Liu, Lingling Zhang, Qian Zhang, Jung-Chien Cheng, Lanlan Fang

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) plays a critical role in the regulation of progesterone (P4) production. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, has beneficial effects on reproductive function. However, its effects on StAR expression and P4 production in human granulosa cells remain undetermined. In this study, we showed the treatment of RSV upregulated StAR expression in human granulosa cells. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) and ERK1/2 signaling were involved in RSV-stimulated StAR expression and P4 production. In addition, the expression of a transcriptional repressor, Snail, was downregulated by RSV, which contributed to the RSV-induced induction of StAR expression and P4 production.


Selective Detection Of Tricyclazole By Optical Technique Using Thiomalic Acid–Modified Au And Ag Nanoparticle Mixtures, Yu-Shu Pan, Tsunghsueh Wu, Cho-Chun Hu, Tai-Chia Chiu, Chen-Hao Yeh, Yang-Wei Lin 2023 Department of Chemistry, National Changhua University of Education, 1 Jin-De road, Changhua City, 50007, Taiwan

Selective Detection Of Tricyclazole By Optical Technique Using Thiomalic Acid–Modified Au And Ag Nanoparticle Mixtures, Yu-Shu Pan, Tsunghsueh Wu, Cho-Chun Hu, Tai-Chia Chiu, Chen-Hao Yeh, Yang-Wei Lin

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

This study proposes the use of thiomalic acid–modified Au and Ag nanoparticle mixtures (TMA-Au/AgNP mixes) for the selective detection of tricyclazole. Upon the addition of tricyclazole, the color of TMA-Au/AgNP mixes solution changes from orange-red to lavender (red-shift). According to the density-functional theory calculations, tricyclazole-induced aggregation of TMA-Au/AgNP mixes through electron donor–acceptor interactions was proved. The sensitivity and selectivity of the proposed method are affected by the amount of TMA, volume ratio of TMA-AuNPs to TMA-AgNPs, pH value, and buffer concentration. The ratio of absorbance (A654/A520) of TMA-Au/AgNP mixes solution is proportional to the concentration of …


Development Of A Lateral Flow Immunoassays-Based Method For The Screening Of Ractopamine In Foods And Evaluation Of The Optimal Strategy In Combination Of Screening And Confirmatory Tests, Yuan-Chih Chen, Jen-Yi Hsu, Chien-Sheng Chen, Yi-Ting Chen, Pao-Chi Liao 2023 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 704302, Taiwan

Development Of A Lateral Flow Immunoassays-Based Method For The Screening Of Ractopamine In Foods And Evaluation Of The Optimal Strategy In Combination Of Screening And Confirmatory Tests, Yuan-Chih Chen, Jen-Yi Hsu, Chien-Sheng Chen, Yi-Ting Chen, Pao-Chi Liao

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Ractopamine has been authorized as a feed additive and permitted in animal husbandry. With the establishment of the regulation to limit the concentration of ractopamine, a rapid screening method for ractopamine is urgently needed. Additionally, how to combine the screening and confirmatory tests of ractopamine is also critical to maximizing the efficiency of testing. Here, we developed a lateral flow immunoassays-based method for the screening of ractopamine in foods and proposed a cost-benefit analysis approach to optimize cost allocation between screening and confirmatory tests. After verifying the analytical and clinical performance of the screening method, a mathematical model was established …


Sleep-Promoting Activity Of Amylase-Treated Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera L. Dunal) Root Extract Via Gaba Receptors, Chun Woong Park, Ki-Bae Hong, Hyung Joo Suh, Yejin Ahn 2023 BK21FOUR R&E Center for Learning Health Systems, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea

Sleep-Promoting Activity Of Amylase-Treated Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera L. Dunal) Root Extract Via Gaba Receptors, Chun Woong Park, Ki-Bae Hong, Hyung Joo Suh, Yejin Ahn

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. Dunal), an Indian medicinal plant that has been used for centuries to treat insomnia, exhibits a variety of biological activities, such as improving cognitive function, immunity and anxiety. In this study, the effect of enzyme-treated Ashwagandha root extract (EA) and on sleep was evaluated using rodent models. Starch contained in the Ashwagandha root extract was removed by amylase treatment to prepare EA. To evaluate the sleep-promoting activity of EA, a pentobarbital-induced sleep test and electroencephalogram analysis were performed. In addition, the sleep-promoting mechanism of EA was elucidated by analyzing the expression of sleep-related receptors. In …


The Inhibitory Effect Of Quercetin-3-Glucuronide On Pulmonary Injury In Vitro And In Vivo, Pei-Rong Yua, Jen-Ying Hsu, Chiao-Yun Tseng, Jing-Hsien Chen, Hui-Hsuan Lin 2023 Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 40201, Taiwan

The Inhibitory Effect Of Quercetin-3-Glucuronide On Pulmonary Injury In Vitro And In Vivo, Pei-Rong Yua, Jen-Ying Hsu, Chiao-Yun Tseng, Jing-Hsien Chen, Hui-Hsuan Lin

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Pulmonary injury is defined as a progressive inflammation. Extensive pro-inflammatory cytokines are secreted from alveolus, associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. The model of endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated lung cells has been applied to mimic the pulmonary injury. Some antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds can be used as chemopreventive agents of pulmonary injury. Quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) has been showed to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-aging and anti-hypertension effects. The aim of the study is to examine the inhibitory potential of Q3G on pulmonary injury and inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Firstly, human lung fibroblasts MRC-5 cells pre-treated …


Electrochemically Synthesized Green Fluorescent Carbon Dots For Quantitation Of Hypochlorite And Carbendazim, Kuan-Min Lo, Yu-Shen Lin, Je-Wen Liou, Tai-Chia Chiu, Cho-Chun Hu 2023 Department of Applied Science, National Taitung University, Taitung, Taiwan

Electrochemically Synthesized Green Fluorescent Carbon Dots For Quantitation Of Hypochlorite And Carbendazim, Kuan-Min Lo, Yu-Shen Lin, Je-Wen Liou, Tai-Chia Chiu, Cho-Chun Hu

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Green emission carbon dots (CDs) electrochemically prepared from 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and o-phenylenediamine were applied separately for the quantitation of hypochlorite and carbendazim. The characteristic and optical properties of the CDs were studied through fluorescence, UV–vis absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The synthesized CDs were mainly 0.8–2.2 nm in size, with an average size of 1.5 nm. The CDs exhibited green luminescence centered at 520 nm when excited by 420 nm light. The green emission of the CDs is quenched after the addition of hypochlorite, mainly through the redox reaction between hypochlorite and hydroxyl groups on the CDs …


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