Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

6,139 Full-Text Articles 14,060 Authors 1,424,284 Downloads 256 Institutions

All Articles in Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health

Faceted Search

6,139 full-text articles. Page 7 of 232.

Anti-Factor Xa Level Monitoring For Enoxaparin Prophylaxis And Treatment In High-Risk Patient Groups, Lucie Sikes, Kipson Charles, Abigail Antigua, Rima Patel, Selina Imboywa, Pheba Cherian 2023 HCA Florida North Florida Hospital

Anti-Factor Xa Level Monitoring For Enoxaparin Prophylaxis And Treatment In High-Risk Patient Groups, Lucie Sikes, Kipson Charles, Abigail Antigua, Rima Patel, Selina Imboywa, Pheba Cherian

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Monitoring anti-factor Xa levels is a controversial topic in the inpatient setting due to resource utilization and unclear conditional guideline recommendations regarding this practice. Enoxaparin dosing in certain high-risk patient populations such as those with low body weight, obesity, renal insufficiency, and pregnancy has not been determined. The objective of this review was to assess the safety and efficacy of enoxaparin monitoring via anti-factor Xa levels in high-risk patient populations.

The PubMed database was searched for articles related to low-molecular-weight heparin monitoring. Randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses that evaluated the safety and efficacy of enoxaparin prophylaxis and treatment in patients …


The Intersection Of Herbicide Policy, Exposure, And Health At The University Of Connecticut, Katherine Hayward 2023 University of Connecticut

The Intersection Of Herbicide Policy, Exposure, And Health At The University Of Connecticut, Katherine Hayward

Honors Scholar Theses

Pesticides play an extremely complicated role in our everyday lives. From the water you use to make your coffee, to the breastmilk your neighbor provides for their child, to the lake your dog swims in, chemical pesticides or their byproducts have been found in nearly every corner of our lives. The chemicals used in synthetic herbicides, a subcategory of pesticides, have far reaching negative impacts on human health, biodiversity, and water quality. Despite there being numerous published studies on the relationships between pesticide exposures and health, there is still ongoing discord and controversy surrounding their role in our lives. After …


Cats Of Unl: An Investigation Into The Human-Feral Cat Relationships On A University Campus In Nebraska, Jacey Skoda 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Cats Of Unl: An Investigation Into The Human-Feral Cat Relationships On A University Campus In Nebraska, Jacey Skoda

Honors Theses

At the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), there exists a population of feral cats that is monitored and cared for by a group known as Husker Cats. As the cats wander the sidewalks and gardens of the university, they may appear non-threatening and pleasant to have around. However, a feral cat presence could have detrimental impacts on the surrounding ecosystem, property, and community. The first component of this project, a survey of individuals on UNL campus, ultimately seeks to understand what those in the UNL community know about the feral cats, how they feel about the feral cats, and how they …


Metal Composition And Contamination Assessment Of Urban Roadway Dusts On The Abu Dhabi-Liwa Highway, Uae, Ahmed A. Al-Taani, Yousef Nazzal, Fares M. Howari, Jibran Iqbal, Muhammad Naseem, Manish Sharma, Cijo Xavier, Dimitrios Papandreou, Lina Maloukh, Lakshmi Ambika, Imen Ben Salem, Abeer Al Bsoul, Haitham M. Farok 2023 Zayed University; Yarmouk University

Metal Composition And Contamination Assessment Of Urban Roadway Dusts On The Abu Dhabi-Liwa Highway, Uae, Ahmed A. Al-Taani, Yousef Nazzal, Fares M. Howari, Jibran Iqbal, Muhammad Naseem, Manish Sharma, Cijo Xavier, Dimitrios Papandreou, Lina Maloukh, Lakshmi Ambika, Imen Ben Salem, Abeer Al Bsoul, Haitham M. Farok

All Works

The metal composition of road-deposited dust along the Abu Dhabi-Liwa Highway was investigated to provide insight into the contamination profile and levels of road dust. The average concentrations of metals decreased in the order Al (28668 ± 4631 mg/kg)> Fe (21461 ± 2594 mg/kg) > Mn (711.8 ± 76.3 mg/kg) > Zn (210.6 ± 51.6 mg/kg) > Cu (94.9 ± 15.8 mg/kg) > Pb (83.6 ± 5.3 mg/kg) > Cd (75.1 ± 1.6 mg/kg) > Co (62.6 ± 6.4 mg/kg) > As (4.7 ± 2.9 mg/kg) > Ni (0.10 ± 0.19 mg/kg) > Cr (0.08 ± 0.06 mg/kg). The spatial variations of metals suggest different sources and contributing factors …


Early Life Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure Of F0 Zebrafish Causes Hyperactivity In F1 Offspring, Jenna Cripe 2023 University of Mississippi

Early Life Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure Of F0 Zebrafish Causes Hyperactivity In F1 Offspring, Jenna Cripe

Honors Theses

As cannabis increases in its accessibility, potency, and acceptance across the United States, investigation into the multigenerational effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure during key stages of development is critical. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there would be behavioral impacts in the F1 offspring following a dose-response of THC exposure (0.08, 0.4, or 1 µM) during development in the F0 generation. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were utilized in this study. Behaviors (locomotive activity and anxiety-like behavior) in the F1 generation were evaluated at 120 hours post-fertilization (hpf) with the larval photometer response (LPR) assay, and at 3, 11, …


Development, Optimization, And In Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation Of Azelaic Acid Transethosomal Gel For Antidermatophyte Activity, Ali Nasr, Noha Badawi, Yasmine Tartor, Nader Sobhy, Ali Nasr 2023 The British University in Egypt

Development, Optimization, And In Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation Of Azelaic Acid Transethosomal Gel For Antidermatophyte Activity, Ali Nasr, Noha Badawi, Yasmine Tartor, Nader Sobhy, Ali Nasr

Pharmacy

Treatment of dermatophytosis is quite challenging. This work aims to investigate the antidermatophyte action of Azelaic acid (AzA) and evaluate its efficacy upon entrapment into transethosomes (TEs) and incorporation into a gel to enhance its application. Optimization of formulation variables of TEs was carried out after preparation using the thin film hydration technique. The antidermatophyte activity of AzA-TEs was first evaluated in vitro. In addition, two guinea pig infection models with Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes and Microsporum (M.) canis were established for the in vivo assessment. The optimized formula showed a mean particle size of 219.8 ± 4.7 nm and a …


Map The System: Presence And Impact Of Ppcps In Water, Emma VanderMeulen, Ruby Mitchell 2023 Portland State University

Map The System: Presence And Impact Of Ppcps In Water, Emma Vandermeulen, Ruby Mitchell

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Annual Conference

In a changing climate, there is growing emphasis on protecting our water sources and developing systems for conserving and reusing water. While many contaminants of concern are monitored and addressed by water treatment systems, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are generally not accounted for. PPCPs in water systems have been an increasing concern as detection of these products has increased over the last few decades. Studies have been exploring the impact of antibiotics, antidepressants, contraceptives, and other anthropogenic products on our water system and how these substances interact with local ecosystems. Our main research questions are to understand what …


Mechanisms Of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Striated Muscle And Aorta, Stephen T. Decker 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Mechanisms Of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Striated Muscle And Aorta, Stephen T. Decker

Doctoral Dissertations

Cigarette Smoke is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, accounting for over 480,000 annual deaths. Of these deaths, the most common cause of mortality in chronic smokers is cardiometabolic diseases. Likewise, a significant portion of smokers experience some form of cardiac, vascular, or metabolic dysfunction throughout their lifetime. More specifically, smoking is shown to induce mitochondrial dysfunction in these tissues, causing an increase in oxidative damage and poor overall health. However, despite the advances in the health outcomes related to cigarette smoke exposure, the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction in striated muscle and the vasculature remain …


Accuracy Of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring In Vancomycin And The Pharmacist Role: A Retrospective Case-Series, Kateryna Parkhomenko 2023 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Accuracy Of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring In Vancomycin And The Pharmacist Role: A Retrospective Case-Series, Kateryna Parkhomenko

Senior Theses

Vancomycin is a mainstay of therapy for treating virulent and resistant infections, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, vancomycin requires therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for optimal dosing and treatment. This requires pharmacists to calculate a dosing regimen that correlates to appropriate goal vancomycin concentrations in the blood. Dosing vancomycin can be difficult, as it varies on a patient’s weight, renal function, age, etc. Doses may have to be adjusted in response to out-of-range concentrations, which requires further pharmacy calculations. Inaccurate dosing poses a risk to patient safety and places a resource and time burden on pharmacists. If vancomycin dosing methods …


Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette 2023 Murray State University

Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette

Honors College Theses

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a substance that has been used in complementary medicine for many years. However, modern medicine has little knowledge of how this substance is utilized and metabolized in ruminant animals. Regulations on quality assurance and use in animals are lacking, and CBD supplementation in livestock is not approved. If CBD supplements can be shown to be safe and effective, detection in the animal will be important for determining regulation of use. A withdrawal period can then be established to allow time for deterioration of product to safe levels before livestock products enter human markets. This study sought to …


Using Podcasts To Bring National Estuarine Research Reserves Into The Classroom For Grades 6-12, Kaitlyn M. Dirr 2023 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Using Podcasts To Bring National Estuarine Research Reserves Into The Classroom For Grades 6-12, Kaitlyn M. Dirr

Senior Theses

In a typical classroom setting, there are significant challenges to exposing students to concepts related to earth sciences and the environment. These challenges are exacerbated when conveying lessons about geographic areas with limited access, such as oceans and coastlines (Louv, 2010). It is now more important than ever for environmental education to improve and adapt to our changing world. Educators may have the opportunity to bring these subjects to life by using media content such as podcasts to introduce students to new places and the scientists, managers and educators that work in those spaces. In the United States, there exists …


Neurological-Type Wilson Disease: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, And Management, Nathaniel Kipker, Kaitlyn Alessi, Marko Bojkovic, Inderbir Padda, Mayur S. Parmar 2023 Nova Southeastern University

Neurological-Type Wilson Disease: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, And Management, Nathaniel Kipker, Kaitlyn Alessi, Marko Bojkovic, Inderbir Padda, Mayur S. Parmar

HPD Articles

Wilson disease (WD) is a complex metabolic disorder caused by disruptions to copper regulation within the body, leading to an unregulated accumulation of copper within various tissues. A less understood organ affected by the collection of copper is the brain, which further leads to the generation of oxygen-free radicals and resultant demyelination. Healthcare providers must keep the neurological form of WD in their list of differentials when patients present with diverse neurological manifestations. The initial step to diagnosis will be to distinguish the characteristic disease presentation with a thorough history and physical and neurological examination. A high clinical disease suspicion …


Parent Perspectives On Barriers And Facilitators To Optimal Healthcare And Medical Screenings For Children With Down Syndrome In South Carolina, Vinita Oberoi Leedom 2023 University of South Carolina

Parent Perspectives On Barriers And Facilitators To Optimal Healthcare And Medical Screenings For Children With Down Syndrome In South Carolina, Vinita Oberoi Leedom

Theses and Dissertations

Children with Down syndrome (DS) often have co-occurring conditions affecting vision, hearing, sleeping, and more. Screenings, as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), can help prevent secondary disability, and allow children to thrive. Studies have evaluated the receipt of recommended screenings, but barriers and facilitators surrounding access to screenings and care have not been described.

Parents of 24 children with DS in SC were recruited through schools and family support groups. One-hour long interviews were conducted in English and Spanish. Information was collected on health, healthcare quality, respiratory concerns, pandemic effects, access to care, and knowledge about AAP …


Pamam- Cyclodextrin Conjugate Upregulates Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor In Arpe-19 Cells, Gopika Ashokan 2023 University of South Florida

Pamam- Cyclodextrin Conjugate Upregulates Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor In Arpe-19 Cells, Gopika Ashokan

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major contributor to death and disability due to motorvehicle accidents, sports, physical abuse, and battlefield injuries. The primary insult to the brain leads to inflammation, vascular dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the brain as well as in the eye. This leads to loss of Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) and downregulation of Brain derived Neurotopic Factor (BDNF). BDNF is a neurotrophic factor that binds to Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase B (TrkB) receptor to promote cell growth, survival, and differentiation. Current treatment strategies do not promote neuronal regeneration. Therefore, novel treatments are needed to restore vision …


Potential Of Constructed Wetlands For The Treatment Of Heavy Metals From Wastewater, Hasnain Raza, Qurat ul Ain, Haseena Bibi, Tehmina Bibi, Huda Bilal 2023 Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences. MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan. Pakistan.

Potential Of Constructed Wetlands For The Treatment Of Heavy Metals From Wastewater, Hasnain Raza, Qurat Ul Ain, Haseena Bibi, Tehmina Bibi, Huda Bilal

Journal of Bioresource Management

Overpopulation, urbanization, and economic race increase the pressure on freshwater resources resulted in water scarcity challenges around the globe. Moreover, the generation of wastewater also enhancing the scarcity threats for freshwater resources. Water scarcity issues forced the policymaker, thinker, scientist, and researcher to think about non-conventional water resources to cope with the increasing demands. Because of this wastewater recycling and treatment play an evident role to fulfill the growing demand for freshwater in socioeconomic sectors especially, for agriculture due to its 70 % dependency on freshwater resources. Different wastewater treatment methods along with merits and demerits are in practice for …


Morphological And Physiological Responses Of A Halophyte (Atriplex Halimus) To The Effect Of Heavy Metal Case Of Cadmium, Abderrezzeq Chebout, Hana Souahi, Zahia Kadi, Rania Gacem 2023 Bioactive Molecules and Applications Laboratory. Faculty of Exact Sciences and Natural and Life Sciences. Echahid Cheikh Larbi Tebessi University Algeria

Morphological And Physiological Responses Of A Halophyte (Atriplex Halimus) To The Effect Of Heavy Metal Case Of Cadmium, Abderrezzeq Chebout, Hana Souahi, Zahia Kadi, Rania Gacem

Journal of Bioresource Management

Today, cadmium (Cd) contamination challenges the environmental quality and food security. This experiment was realized to study the morphological and physiological response of the halophyte species Atriplex halimus L to cadmium toxicity by applying different concentrations of Cd (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) on the plant A.halimus for two weeks after 60 days of seeding. The morphological parameters and physiological wish evaluated the stem length (SL), root length (RL), leaf area (LA), chlorophylls (a, b, t and carotenoids), and the relative water content (RWC). The results show a decrease in stem elongation, (11.333 ± 3.512 cm in Cd treatments …


Diketopiperazine Cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Leu) Produced By Periconia Pseudobyssoides K5 Isolated From Toona Sureni (Meliaceae) And Its Heme Polymerization Inhibition Activity, Azmi Azhari, Desi Harneti, Asri Peni Wulandari, Yeni Mulyani, Sari Purbaya, Aprilia Permata Sari, Galih Bayu Pratama, Unang Supratman, Yoshihito Shiono 2023 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia

Diketopiperazine Cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Leu) Produced By Periconia Pseudobyssoides K5 Isolated From Toona Sureni (Meliaceae) And Its Heme Polymerization Inhibition Activity, Azmi Azhari, Desi Harneti, Asri Peni Wulandari, Yeni Mulyani, Sari Purbaya, Aprilia Permata Sari, Galih Bayu Pratama, Unang Supratman, Yoshihito Shiono

Makara Journal of Science

Fungi endophytes are living microorganisms colonizing inside the internal tissue of a plant and provide ecological benefits for their host. Endophytes provide various metabolites for plant adaptation toward biotic and abiotic stresses and have tremendous pharmacological activities. Toona sureni (T. sureni) (Meliaceae) belongs to the Toona genera and is reported to have antimalarial activity. To determine the compounds produced by the endophytic fungus from this plant, we isolated a compound from Periconia pseudobyssoides (P. pseudobyssoides) K5 endophytes from the stem bark of T. sureni. Diketopiperazine cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Leu), a non-ribosomal peptide, was isolated from brown …


Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Passivated Fluorescent Iron Oxide Quantum Dots For Turn-Off Detection Of Tetracycline In Biological Fluids, Sri Sudewi, Lutfi Chabib, Muhammad Zulfajri, Gangaraju Gedda, Genin Gary Huang 2023 Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Passivated Fluorescent Iron Oxide Quantum Dots For Turn-Off Detection Of Tetracycline In Biological Fluids, Sri Sudewi, Lutfi Chabib, Muhammad Zulfajri, Gangaraju Gedda, Genin Gary Huang

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Tetracycline is an antibiotic that has been prescribed for COVID-19 treatment, raising concerns about antibiotic resistance after long-term use. This study reported fluorescent polyvinylpyrrolidone-passivated iron oxide quantum dots (IO QDs) for detecting tetracycline in biological fluids for the first time. The as-prepared IO QDs have an average size of 2.84 nm and exist a good stability under different conditions. The IO QDs’ tetracycline detection performance could be attributed to a combination of static quenching and inner filter effect. The IO QDs displayed high sensitivity and selectivity toward tetracycline and achieved a good linear relationship with the corresponding detection limit being …


Chemical Transformation Of Cannabidiol Into Psychotropic Cannabinoids Under Acidic Reaction Conditions: Identification Of Transformed Products By Gc-Ms, Minsun Jeong, Sangin Lee, Chaeyoung Seo, Eunjeong Kwon, Soohyang Rho, Mansoo Cho, Moon Yeon Kim, Wonwoong Lee, Yong Sup Lee, Jongki Hong 2023 College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea

Chemical Transformation Of Cannabidiol Into Psychotropic Cannabinoids Under Acidic Reaction Conditions: Identification Of Transformed Products By Gc-Ms, Minsun Jeong, Sangin Lee, Chaeyoung Seo, Eunjeong Kwon, Soohyang Rho, Mansoo Cho, Moon Yeon Kim, Wonwoong Lee, Yong Sup Lee, Jongki Hong

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Recently, cannabidiol (CBD), one of the major components of the Cannabis species, has been a focus in the cannabis industry due to its various pharmacological effects. Interestingly, CBD can be converted into several psychoactive cannabinoids, such as 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and its structural isomers, under acidic reaction conditions. In this study, chemical transformation of CBD in ethanol solution was conducted with variation in pH at 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 by addition of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). These resulting solutions were derivatized with trimethylsilyl (TMS) reagent and analyzed using GC/MS-scan mode. Time profiles of CBD degradation and transformation of …


Development Of A Metabolomics-Based Data Analysis Approach For Identifying Drug Metabolites Based On High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Hsiao-Hsien Ting, Yi-Shiou Chiou, Tien-Yi Chang, Guan-Yu Lin, Pei-Jhen Li, Chia-Lung Shih 2023 Department of Anesthesiology, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chia-Yi City 60002, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Development Of A Metabolomics-Based Data Analysis Approach For Identifying Drug Metabolites Based On High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Hsiao-Hsien Ting, Yi-Shiou Chiou, Tien-Yi Chang, Guan-Yu Lin, Pei-Jhen Li, Chia-Lung Shih

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

A metabolomics-based approach to data analysis is required for drug metabolites to be identified quickly. This study developed such an approach based on high-resolution mass spectrometry. Our approach is a two-stage one that combines a time-course experiment with stable isotope tracing. Pioglitazone (PIO) was used to improve glycemic management for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Consequently, PIO was taken as a model drug for identifying metabolites. During Stage I of data analysis, 704 out of 26626 ions exhibited a positive relationship between ion abundance ratio and incubation time in a time-course experiment. During Stage II, 25 isotope pairs were identified among …


Digital Commons powered by bepress