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Nutritional Epidemiology Commons

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Prospective Relations Between Red Blood Cell Ω-6 And Ω-3 Fatty Acid Composition And Cognitive Function Among Older Puerto Rican Adults, Sherman J. Bigornia, Tammy Scott, William S. Harris, Katherine L. Tucker 2016 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Prospective Relations Between Red Blood Cell Ω-6 And Ω-3 Fatty Acid Composition And Cognitive Function Among Older Puerto Rican Adults, Sherman J. Bigornia, Tammy Scott, William S. Harris, Katherine L. Tucker

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Objectives: To examine the association between red blood cell (RBC) ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acid (FA) composition and cognitive function over 2-y follow-up among older U.S. mainland Puerto Ricans.

Methods: Data are from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (74% female; 57±8 y). RBC membrane FA status was ascertained at baseline. Individual FA were expressed as a percentage of total FA identified. Cognitive function was measured at baseline and at 2-y using the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), where a higher score ranging from 0-30 indicates better function. Cognitive impairment was defined as MMSE scores ≤21, ≤23, and ≤24 ...


Exploration Of Malnutrition Coding Practices At Nebraska Medicine, Frances C. Becker 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Exploration Of Malnutrition Coding Practices At Nebraska Medicine, Frances C. Becker

Theses & Dissertations

Background: Malnutrition is present in 25-50% of hospitalized patients. Patients identified as malnourished are assigned a code based on the type and severity of malnutrition in order to gain the necessary reimbursement to care for the patients. There is a current gap in the research regarding the characteristics that define the difference between malnourished patients classified with a major complications and comorbidities (MCC) code versus a complications and comorbidities (CC) code.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which malnutrition codes are being used at Nebraska Medicine. Additionally, this study obtained clinical factors that are associated with malnutrition ...


Using The Des-28 Tool To Determine The Relationship Among Diabetes Self-Empowerment, Diet Quality, And Glycemic Control In A Southeastern United States African American Population, Makala Katuscak Smith 2016 Winthrop University

Using The Des-28 Tool To Determine The Relationship Among Diabetes Self-Empowerment, Diet Quality, And Glycemic Control In A Southeastern United States African American Population, Makala Katuscak Smith

Graduate Theses

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Protein Source At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Health, And Food Intake: A Pilot Study, Lauren A. Cambias 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Protein Source At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Health, And Food Intake: A Pilot Study, Lauren A. Cambias

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Over 30% of adults in the US are obese. A primary contributor to obesity is an unhealthy diet related to imbalanced macronutrients. Diets higher in protein (PRO) are associated with increased energy expenditure (EE) and reduced food intake. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if protein source at breakfast influences EE in young men (n=4; ages 18-35). Participants consumed three isocaloric (whey (WP), pea (PP), beef (BP); 275 kcal, 62% PRO, 23% CHO, 15% Fat) drinks in randomized, crossover design with a one-week washout period. Each test day EE, appetite, and cravings were assessed at ...


A Pilot Study For Plant The Seed: A Nutrition Education Program Using Local Food Environment To Put Theory Into Action, Yeon Bai, Shahla M. Wunderlich, Karen A. Lee 2016 Montclair State University

A Pilot Study For Plant The Seed: A Nutrition Education Program Using Local Food Environment To Put Theory Into Action, Yeon Bai, Shahla M. Wunderlich, Karen A. Lee

Department of Nutrition and Food Studies Scholarship and Creative Works

The purpose of this study is to implement Plant the Seed, a garden-based nutrition education program designed to reconnect children with locally grown food, food environments of the past and present, and the benefits of eating seasonal foods. The pilot study investigates the environmental context and theory variables known to influence healthy food choice behavior. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) provided a framework for the program’s curriculum and evaluation. The target audience is middle school students. Plant the Seed is a two-part program. In Part 1 (classroom), students participate in practical, interactive activities based on specific educational objectives that target ...


Promoting Healthy Eating And Physical Activity: A Qualitative Examination Of Community-Based Obesity Interventions In Rural Kentucky, Brooke F. Butterworth 2016 University of Kentucky

Promoting Healthy Eating And Physical Activity: A Qualitative Examination Of Community-Based Obesity Interventions In Rural Kentucky, Brooke F. Butterworth

Theses and Dissertations--Dietetics and Human Nutrition

Rural Americans are medically underserved groups and are at greater risk of becoming obese than urban Americans. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the perceived causes of obesity in six counties of rural Kentucky and to determine how to customize strategies to reduce obesity in these areas. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service Agents formed coalitions in each of the six counties to assess their communities’ needs and assets to inform plans for implementing evidence-based obesity interventions. Between February and August of 2015, the coalitions were convened for a total of 11 meetings. Each of the coalition ...


Barriers To Healthy Eating Among The Senior Populations In Brookfield, Ct, Yueyue Shen 2016 University of Vermont College of Medicine

Barriers To Healthy Eating Among The Senior Populations In Brookfield, Ct, Yueyue Shen

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

In the U.S, the cost of diseases associated with unhealthy eating reaches $157 billion a year. In the Western Connecticut area, hypertension and diabetes are the top two reasons for admitting seniors to the hospital. Both of them can be managed by healthy diet and exercise. This project aims to identify the barriers to eating healthy among elderly in Brookfield, CT, and to discuss potential interventions that can be implanted to address the identified barriers.


Childhood Obesity, A Public Health Crisis: Narrative Review Of Public Health Interventions For Childhood Obesity, Sumera Aziz Ali, Savera Aziz Ali, Nadir Suhail, Shiyam Sunder Tikmani, Gulshan Bano 2016 Aga Khan University

Childhood Obesity, A Public Health Crisis: Narrative Review Of Public Health Interventions For Childhood Obesity, Sumera Aziz Ali, Savera Aziz Ali, Nadir Suhail, Shiyam Sunder Tikmani, Gulshan Bano

Community Health Sciences

Introduction: Child obesity is the major pediatric public health crisis of the current century and its trend is increasing in the developing countries due to nutrition and epidemiologic transition. Considering the burden of childhood obesity and its associated outcomes need for obesity prevention in children has become priority both for government and researchers.
Objective: The objective of this review is to provide the updated knowledge and evidence from various research studies, designed to provide interventions either in school or at home.
Methodology: Electronic databases like Google scholar, PubMed and Sciencedirect were used as search engines. Key terms used during the ...


Mechanisms By Which Dietary Ellagic Acid Attenuates Obesity And Obesity-Mediated Metabolic Complications, Inhae Kang 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanisms By Which Dietary Ellagic Acid Attenuates Obesity And Obesity-Mediated Metabolic Complications, Inhae Kang

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenol found in various fruits and plants, such as berries, pomegranates, muscadine grapes, nuts and bark of oak tree. EA has been known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects in various types of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of EA on obesity. Herein, 1) the lipid-lowering role of EA was identified in primary human adipose stem cells (hASCs) and human hepatoma Huh7 cells; 2) the molecular mechanisms by which EA attenuates adipogenesis by epigenetic modification were identified; 3) the effects of EA on high fat and high sucrose-mediated obesity was determined ...


Gestational Diabetes, Infant Feeding Practices, And Early Indicators Of Obesity Risk In A Sample Of Mother-Infant Dyads In The U.S., Kimberly N. Doughty 2015 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Gestational Diabetes, Infant Feeding Practices, And Early Indicators Of Obesity Risk In A Sample Of Mother-Infant Dyads In The U.S., Kimberly N. Doughty

Doctoral Dissertations

Research suggests that the trajectory to obesity and its associated metabolic disorders begins early in life. Prenatal exposure to maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk, while breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk. Breastfeeding may influence obesity risk by preventing rapid postnatal weight gain. Mothers with gestational diabetes may not breastfeed as intensely as healthy mothers, potentially exacerbating the risk to their infants. We conducted three distinct investigations related to gestational diabetes, breastfeeding, and infant weight gain. All used data from the U.S. Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate associations ...


Exploring Cross-Sectional Associations Between Unhealthy Food Outlet Exposure And Bmi Z-Score In Elementary School Children In London, Canada, Krista Cook 2015 The University Western University

Exploring Cross-Sectional Associations Between Unhealthy Food Outlet Exposure And Bmi Z-Score In Elementary School Children In London, Canada, Krista Cook

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The food environment has been implicated in the continuing epidemic of childhood obesity in Canada. The purpose of this thesis is to examine associations between the food environment, childhood weight, and unhealthy diets using data collected by the Spatial Temporal Environmental and Activity Monitoring (STEAM) project conducted among children (N=852) aged 9 to 14 years in Southwestern Ontario between 2010 and 2013. Global Positioning System (GPS) monitors and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to determine the time children spent within 100m of an unhealthy food outlet on weekdays. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the effect of ...


Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Screen Time, Physical Activity, And Diet Quality: A Dissertation, Carol Curtin 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Screen Time, Physical Activity, And Diet Quality: A Dissertation, Carol Curtin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background. Emerging evidence suggests that youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may engage in sub-optimal health behaviors including high levels of screen time, low physical activity participation, and consumption of poor diets. These are independent risk factors for adverse health outcomes, and health-related behavior patterns established in childhood can track into adulthood. Thus, identifying and addressing dietary and physical activity habits in sub-populations of youth have important implications for health over the lifespan. The specific aims of this dissertation were to: (1) compare screen time between youth with and without ADHD and to assess its relationship to ADHD symptomatology ...


Novel Biomarkers For Calcium And Phosphorus Metabolism In Breeder Hens And Broilers, Andrew Dick Magnuson 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Novel Biomarkers For Calcium And Phosphorus Metabolism In Breeder Hens And Broilers, Andrew Dick Magnuson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Broiler breeder hens are subject to the dual expectation to not only maintain a high production of eggs for an extended time period, but to produce eggs which can support the life of chicks which will be used for either meat production or as parent stock. Egg fertility and hatchability are heavily influenced by the thickness of the egg shell, the mineral calcium carbonate shell of the egg necessary for protecting the embryo growing inside. Many factors affect egg shell quality including age of the hen, diet, environmental conditions, genetic strain, stress, disease, and nutrition. Laying hens will mobilize calcium ...


Water Consumption Behavior In Broilers, David Harold McCreery 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Water Consumption Behavior In Broilers, David Harold Mccreery

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A series of trials were conducted to analyze broiler water consumption behaviors under commercial conditions. The first trial was to quantify the number of broilers drinking at times of peak water demand. Birds were evaluated at time intervals of 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes from the start of the light period to establish the percentage birds having consumed water by that point in time. Significant differences were found by bird age in the 5, 10, and 15 minute intervals, however there were no significant differences in the percentage of birds having consumed water in the 30, 45 ...


Maternal Obesity And Incidence Of Depression, Caroline A. Habjan 2015 Syracuse University

Maternal Obesity And Incidence Of Depression, Caroline A. Habjan

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Obesity is a national epidemic in the United States, which both directly and indirectly affects the social productivity of individuals, the American macro economy and individuals’ personal health and well being. Depression often interferes with an individual’s ability to work, sleep, study, eat, and enjoy life. A maternal state of both obesity and depression may cause serious adverse medical conditions in the mother’s child. Taking steps to treat depression and obesity are critical in the construct of modern medicine. This project yields results that have the potential to make treatment options better tailored, more efficient, effective and economically-sound ...


The Pathological Role Of Acrolein In Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis And Multiple Sclerosis, Melissa A. Tully 2015 Purdue University

The Pathological Role Of Acrolein In Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis And Multiple Sclerosis, Melissa A. Tully

Open Access Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating neuropathy that affects nearly 2.5 million people worldwide. Despite substantial efforts, few treatments are currently available largely due to limited knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms underlying the disease. The immune-inflammatory nature of the pathology has prompted investigation of the role of oxidative stress in disease development and progression; however targeting reactive oxygen species for neutralization has had marginal success therapeutically, suggesting that an alternate oxidative stress-related target would prove beneficial. Recently, our lab has implicated acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde that is both a byproduct and catalyst of lipid peroxidation, as a potential ...


Hourly Employees’ Perceptions About Farm To School Program Barriers And Keys To Success: Differences By State And Number Of Meals Served, Nathan Stokes, Susan W. Arendt, Catherine H. Strohbehn 2015 Eastern Kentucky University

Hourly Employees’ Perceptions About Farm To School Program Barriers And Keys To Success: Differences By State And Number Of Meals Served, Nathan Stokes, Susan W. Arendt, Catherine H. Strohbehn

Apparel, Events and Hospitality Management Publications

Farm to school (FTS) programs are growing in popularity among school districts and provide opportuniƟes for school nutriƟon programs to source ingredients locally. Hourly employees working with FTS programs prepare, promote, and serve local produce to students daily. However, liƩle research has focused on their percepƟons of FTS programs. A quesƟonnaire was used to assess barriers and keys to success when implemenƟng and maintaining FTS programs from perspecƟves of hourly, non‐management school foodservice employees. An examinaƟon of survey responses suggests differences exist between barriers and keys to success by geographic locaƟon and school nutriƟon program parƟcipaƟon rates.


Changing Cigarette Consumption Patterns And Their Relationship To Tobacco Control Policies In A Population Of Low-Intensity Smokers, Santosha Kamala Swayampakala 2015 University of South Carolina

Changing Cigarette Consumption Patterns And Their Relationship To Tobacco Control Policies In A Population Of Low-Intensity Smokers, Santosha Kamala Swayampakala

Theses and Dissertations

Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of premature death and disability in the world. Every year six million people will die from tobacco-related diseases. To curb the growing tobacco epidemic, World Health Organization (WHO) adopted its first-ever global public health treaty, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) that obligates ratifying countries to implement a range of tobacco control policies. Most of the evidence for the effectiveness of the WHO’s FCTC recommended tobacco control policies comes from high-income countries (HICs). This evidence suggests that as smoking prevalence declines in response to tobacco control policies and programs, the proportion ...


Dietary Variety: An Overlooked Strategy For Obesity And Chronic Disease Control.Pdf, Maya Vadiveloo, Niyati Parekh 2014 University of Rhode Island

Dietary Variety: An Overlooked Strategy For Obesity And Chronic Disease Control.Pdf, Maya Vadiveloo, Niyati Parekh

Maya Vadiveloo

No abstract provided.


Dietary Variety Is Inversely Associated With Body Adiposity Among Us Adults Using A Novel Food Diversity Index.Pdf, Maya Vadiveloo, L. Beth Dixon, Tod Mijanovich, Brian Elbel, Niyati Parekh 2014 University of Rhode Island

Dietary Variety Is Inversely Associated With Body Adiposity Among Us Adults Using A Novel Food Diversity Index.Pdf, Maya Vadiveloo, L. Beth Dixon, Tod Mijanovich, Brian Elbel, Niyati Parekh

Maya Vadiveloo

Background: Consuming a variety (vs. monotony) of energy-poor, nutrient-dense foods may help individuals adhere to
dietary patterns favorably associated with weight control.
Objective: The objective of this study was to examine whether greater healthful food variety quantified using the US
Healthy Food Diversity (HFD) index favorably influenced body adiposity.
Methods: Men and nonpregnant, nonlactating women aged $20 y with two 24-h recalls from the cross-sectional NHANES
2003–2006 (n = 7470) were included in this study. Dietary recalls were merged with the MyPyramid Equivalent database to
generate the US HFD index, which ranges from 0 to ;1, with higher scores indicative ...


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