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Vegetarian Diets, Maybe Not As Healthy As You Think, Darryl Goh, Debbie Chan, Merson Hoo, Ian Wong 2021 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Vegetarian Diets, Maybe Not As Healthy As You Think, Darryl Goh, Debbie Chan, Merson Hoo, Ian Wong

Introduction to Research Methods RSCH 202

Many are approaching vegetarianism as a viable diet option in recent years, presuming that adopting a vegetarian diet would provide health benefits. This paper explores the possibilities of physical and mental effects that vegetarianism may have on humans and its extent by the use of regression analysis. To measure the possible impacts vegetarian diets may hold on both the physiology and physical aspects of humans, we have utilized the measures of life expectancy and prevalence of depression respectively. Cross-sectional data were examined from sources such as the World Health Organization, Our World In Data and the World Bank, with figures ...


Perivascular Adipose Tissue In Relation To Diet, Thermogenesis And Cardiovascular Health, Ginger Paquette, Caitlin Stieber, Ashely Soucy, Benjamin Tero, Lucy Liaw 2021 University of Southern Maine

Perivascular Adipose Tissue In Relation To Diet, Thermogenesis And Cardiovascular Health, Ginger Paquette, Caitlin Stieber, Ashely Soucy, Benjamin Tero, Lucy Liaw

Thinking Matters Symposium

Adipose tissue is a diverse and crucial component to vascular health due to its role in energy storage and heat production. The primary function of white adipose tissue (WAT) is energy storage while the function of mitochondria-rich brown adipose tissue (BAT) is heat production. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which surrounds blood vessels, contains both WAT and BAT adipocytes. Dietary calorie restriction is associated with increased lifespan with decreased adiposity. Increased prevalence of WAT-like PVAT, due to high-fat diets and obesity, leads to increased metabolic disfunction and cardiovascular-disease. We used a calorie-restriction model in C57BL6/J mice to test the hypothesis ...


Excessive Intake Of Iodine And Low Prevalence Of Goiter In School Age Children Five Years After Implementation Of National Salt Iodization In Shebedino Woreda, Southern Ethiopia, Elilta Elias, Workneh Tsegaya, Barbara J. Stoecker, Tafere Gebreegziabher Belay 2021 Hawassa University

Excessive Intake Of Iodine And Low Prevalence Of Goiter In School Age Children Five Years After Implementation Of National Salt Iodization In Shebedino Woreda, Southern Ethiopia, Elilta Elias, Workneh Tsegaya, Barbara J. Stoecker, Tafere Gebreegziabher Belay

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of the Sciences

Background

Iodine is a trace element required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. The multiple effects of iodine deficiency on human health are called iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs). IDDs have been common nutritional problems in Ethiopia. In 2012, Ethiopia launched a national salt iodization program to address IDDs. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of this program after 5 years by measuring urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and prevalence of goiter in school age children as well as household salt iodine concentration (SIC).

Methods

A school-based cross-sectional design was employed. After ethical approval, 408 children from eight ...


The Association Of The Inflammatory Potential Of Diet With Inflammation And Depression Among U.S. Adults: Nhanes 2005-2010, Deniz Azarmanesh 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Association Of The Inflammatory Potential Of Diet With Inflammation And Depression Among U.S. Adults: Nhanes 2005-2010, Deniz Azarmanesh

Doctoral Dissertations

Depression affects 8% of adults in America. Women are twice as likely as men to experience depression. The economic burden in the U.S. is $83 billion in direct (e.g., pharmaceutical) and indirect costs (e.g., absenteeism from work). The etiology of depression includes non-modifiable (e.g., genetics) and modifiable risk factors (e.g., diet). Depression is concurrent with an increase in inflammatory biomarkers, such as c-reactive protein (CRP). Emerging research suggests that a pro-inflammatory diet may increase odds of experiencing depression. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) assesses the inflammatory potential of diet.

According to our narrative review of ...


State-Level Income Inequality And The Odds For Meeting Fruit And Vegetable Recommendations Among Us Adults, Masako Horino, Sze Yan Liu, Eun-Young Lee, Ichiro Kawachi, Roman Pabayo 2020 John Hopkins University

State-Level Income Inequality And The Odds For Meeting Fruit And Vegetable Recommendations Among Us Adults, Masako Horino, Sze Yan Liu, Eun-Young Lee, Ichiro Kawachi, Roman Pabayo

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Background

Previous research indicates that income inequality is associated with risk for mortality, self-rated health status, chronic conditions, and health behavior, such as physical activity. However, little is known about the relationship between income inequality and dietary intake, which is a major risk factor for common chronic diseases including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and certain types of cancers. The objective of this study is to determine the association between US state income inequality and fruit and vegetable consumption among adults.

Methods

Cross-sectional data on 270,612 U.S. adults from the U.S. 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was ...


Examining The Correlates Of Adolescent Food And Nutrition Knowledge In London, Ontario, Rachel Ann Brown 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Examining The Correlates Of Adolescent Food And Nutrition Knowledge In London, Ontario, Rachel Ann Brown

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Food literacy is a set of skills and knowledge that are integral to diet. It is common among teenagers to not have basic food literacy skills needed to consume a healthy diet. This exploratory study examined: (1) the current state of food and nutrition knowledge among adolescents in grades 9-12 in the London-Middlesex region of Ontario; and (2) predictors of food knowledge among adolescents. Data for this study were drawn from baseline youth and parent survey data collected for the SmartAPPetite project, a smartphone application-based intervention study which aims to improve food and nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents ...


Housing Stability And Diabetes Among People Living In New York City Public Housing, Sungwoo Lim, Sze Yan Liu, Melanie H. Jacobson, Eugenie Poirot, Aldo Crossa, Sean Locke, Jennifer Brite, Elizabeth Hamby, Zinzi Bailey, Stephanie Farquhar 2020 New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

Housing Stability And Diabetes Among People Living In New York City Public Housing, Sungwoo Lim, Sze Yan Liu, Melanie H. Jacobson, Eugenie Poirot, Aldo Crossa, Sean Locke, Jennifer Brite, Elizabeth Hamby, Zinzi Bailey, Stephanie Farquhar

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Public housing provides affordable housing and, potentially, housing stability for low-income families. Housing stability may be associated with lower incidence or prevalence and better management of a range of health conditions through many mechanisms. We aimed to test the hypotheses that public housing residency is associated with both housing stability and reduced risk of diabetes incidence, and the relationship between public housing and diabetes risk varies by levels of housing stability. Using 2004-16 World Trade Center Health Registry data, we compared outcomes (housing stability measured by sequence analysis of addresses, self-reported diabetes diagnoses) between 730 New York City public housing ...


Elucidating The Relation Between Human Milk Fatty Acids, Extracellular Vesicles, And Infant Developmental Outcomes In The First Year Of Life, Diana Bickmore 2020 Chapman University

Elucidating The Relation Between Human Milk Fatty Acids, Extracellular Vesicles, And Infant Developmental Outcomes In The First Year Of Life, Diana Bickmore

Food Science (MS) Theses

For most infants, human milk is the recommended source of nutrition. Improved developmental outcomes have been reported in infants that consume human milk compared to infant formula. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) confer health benefits. However, EFAs cannot be synthesized by the body, and therefore must be consumed in diet. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoparticles containing a lipid bilayer membrane and are present in human milk. Methods of EV isolation such as ultracentrifugation (UC) may not be feasible for the study of EVs in human milk due to the need for large sample volume, which may not be available. The objectives ...


Resilience And Cvd-Protective Health Behaviors In Older Women: Examining Racial And Ethnic Differences In A Cross-Sectional Analysis Of The Women's Health Initiative, Sparkle Springfield, FeiFei Qin, Haley Hedlin, Charles B. Eaton, Milagros C. Rosal, Herman Taylor, Ursula M. Staudinger, Marcia L. Stefanick 2020 Loyola University Chicago

Resilience And Cvd-Protective Health Behaviors In Older Women: Examining Racial And Ethnic Differences In A Cross-Sectional Analysis Of The Women's Health Initiative, Sparkle Springfield, Feifei Qin, Haley Hedlin, Charles B. Eaton, Milagros C. Rosal, Herman Taylor, Ursula M. Staudinger, Marcia L. Stefanick

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Little is known about the relationship between self-reported psychological resilience (resilience) and health behaviors shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study examines the associations between resilience and CVD-related risk factors, such as diet, smoking, physical activity, sleep, and alcohol consumption among older American women from diverse backgrounds.

METHODS: A cross-sectional secondary analysis was conducted on 77,395 women (mean age 77 years, Black (N = 4475, 5.8%), non-Hispanic white (N = 69,448, 89.7%), Latina (N = 1891, 2.4%), and Asian or Pacific Islander (N = 1581, 2.0%)) enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Extension ...


Effects Of Broccoli And Carrots On Fecal Microrna Expression In Infants: A Short-Term Feeding Study, Kaleigh E. Beane 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Broccoli And Carrots On Fecal Microrna Expression In Infants: A Short-Term Feeding Study, Kaleigh E. Beane

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Diets, through multiple mechanisms, cause significant impact on human health and disease etiology; proposed modes of action include modulation of non-coding RNAs and influences on the gut microbiome. Specifically, phytochemicals change human miRNA expression thereby impacting gut microbiome and/or increasing host immune functions. Apiaceous and cruciferous vegetables have been linked to decreased chronic inflammation, which is closely related with the host immune system, yet it is not investigated how these two classes of vegetables influence the colonic miRNA profile. In this study, therefore we aimed to determine the effects of short-term feeding of broccoli and carrot to infants on ...


Screening For Iron-Deficiency Anemia In The Pediatric Population (Ages 1-17) In Gonaïves, Haiti, Cara Rose Fratianni 2020 University of San Diego

Screening For Iron-Deficiency Anemia In The Pediatric Population (Ages 1-17) In Gonaïves, Haiti, Cara Rose Fratianni

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this pilot project is to screen for iron-deficiency anemia in pediatric patients (ages 1-17) in a primary school in Gonaïves, Haiti. Patients with anemia will be treated with oral supplemental iron for a period of four weeks according to WHO guidelines (WHO, 2011). All students will be treated empirically for helminths per WHO guidelines, unless treated elsewhere in the last six months (WHO, 2017). Nutritional status will also be assessed using MUAC according to WHO guidelines (2017).

Background Summary: Malnutrition contributes significantly to the problem of iron-deficiency anemia, with one in four children exhibiting stunting ...


Intervention To Influence Healthy Eating Habits Among Dominican University Students: An Examination Of Eating Habits, Kathy Le 2020 Dominican University of California

Intervention To Influence Healthy Eating Habits Among Dominican University Students: An Examination Of Eating Habits, Kathy Le

Global Public Health | Senior Theses

Food insecurity among college students has become an issue among many universities nationwide. Campus food pantries emerged to combat this problem by providing students with a diverse selection of fresh foods. Most universities are in the pilot process of their food pantries and not many studies have been done to examine the use of healthy ingredients among students. This study included 23 eligible participants who filled out pre- and post-intervention surveys as well as visited the pantry at least once during the intervention stage. The intervention was recipe posters based on the number of ingredients included, difficulty, total preparation and ...


Association Of Micronutrient Inadequacy And Body Mass Index In Young Adults, Taylor Peabody 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Association Of Micronutrient Inadequacy And Body Mass Index In Young Adults, Taylor Peabody

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background

Micronutrient inadequacy has been found at higher levels in overweight and obese individuals in a broad range of ages relative to healthy weight. Insufficient micronutrient levels can have a negative impact on physical and mental health along with excess weight.

Objective

Due to health consequences related to inadequate micronutrient intake and the understanding that the general population not only fails to meet the majority of micronutrient recommendations, but is also overweight or obese, the objective of this study is to first, determine if young adults in the Northwest Arkansas Region are consuming adequate levels of micronutrients and second, if ...


The Effect Of Breakfast Macronutrient Composition In Children Ages 7-17 Years Old As A Potential Method To Combat Childhood Obesity, Angela M. Tacinelli 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Breakfast Macronutrient Composition In Children Ages 7-17 Years Old As A Potential Method To Combat Childhood Obesity, Angela M. Tacinelli

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is an ongoing concern. Currently, approximately 20% of children in the United States are obese. While obesity was once regarded merely as excessive adiposity within the body, it is has emerged as a major risk factor for chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is multifactorial in nature. Weight gain can result from an energy imbalance in the body due to excess energy intake (calories in) and decreased energy expenditure (calories out). Identifying methods to combat obesity is essential. Nutritional intervention may be a strategy to help ...


Efficacy Of Multivitaim-Mineral Supplementation On Health-Related Quality Of Life And Physical Activity In Young Adults, Sarah Pendergraft 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Efficacy Of Multivitaim-Mineral Supplementation On Health-Related Quality Of Life And Physical Activity In Young Adults, Sarah Pendergraft

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Micronutrients are essential for both physical and mental health. There is a correlation between poor health and mood and micronutrient deficiencies. Young adults age 18-24 are an at-risk, understudied population likely to benefit from multivitamin mineral supplementation. Multivitamin mineral supplementation is a potential way to bridge gaps in micronutrient levels, thus influencing health-related outcomes. Here, we provide the first attempt at influencing health-related quality of life and physical activity with a multivitamin mineral supplement in young adults. Using a supplement formulated without herbal extracts and caffeine, this double-blind study examined the efficacy of a daily multivitamin mineral supplement for 30 ...


Pinto Beans And Green Beans Result In Comparable Glycemic Control In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Pilot Trial, Andrea Hutchins, Donna M. Winham 2020 University of Colorado, Colorado Springs

Pinto Beans And Green Beans Result In Comparable Glycemic Control In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Pilot Trial, Andrea Hutchins, Donna M. Winham

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Aims: Glucose control is essential to slow disease progression in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The acute effects of dry bean consumption on glucose control are well established, but their long-term effects in daily diets are less known.

Methods: The effect of daily consumption of ½ cup pinto beans, compared to ½ cup green beans, on fasting glucose, postprandial glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in adults with T2DM was examined. After a 2-week wash-in period, 13 participants were randomized to two 12-week long treatments: pinto beans and green beans. Before and after each intervention period, a fasted venous ...


Midwest Consumer Shopping Habits, Nutrition Knowledge, And Latino Tienda Use, Shelly M. Palmer, Donna M. Winham 2020 Iowa State University

Midwest Consumer Shopping Habits, Nutrition Knowledge, And Latino Tienda Use, Shelly M. Palmer, Donna M. Winham

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

In this study, we assessed the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community influences on nutrition knowledge, views on healthy foods, grocery store choice, and grocery shopping patterns specifically at Latino tiendas, among Midwestern adults by Hispanic or non-Hispanic ethnicity. Methods: We surveyed a convenience sample of adults on an open-ended definition of healthy foods, nutrition knowledge, shopping behaviors, and reasons for store choice. Results: Of the 149 respondents, no ethnic differences were observed in qualitative definitions of healthy foods (low fat, unprocessed, high nutrient content). Fewer Hispanics than non-Hispanics correctly identified healthier options for rice, canned fruits, and canned tuna. Respondents indicated ...


The Nutritional Status Of Children Living Within Institutionalized Care: A Systematic Review, Emily DeLacey, Cally Tann, Nora Groce, Maria Kett, Michael Quiring, Ethan Bergman, Caryl Garcia, Marko Kerac 2020 Holt International

The Nutritional Status Of Children Living Within Institutionalized Care: A Systematic Review, Emily Delacey, Cally Tann, Nora Groce, Maria Kett, Michael Quiring, Ethan Bergman, Caryl Garcia, Marko Kerac

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of the Sciences

Background. There are an estimated 2.7 million children living within institutionalized care worldwide. This review aimed to evaluate currently available data on the nutrition status of children living within institutionalized care.

Methods. We searched four databases (Pubmed/Medline, CINHAL Plus, Embase and Global Health Database) for relevant articles published from January 1990 to January 2019. Studies that included information on anthropometry or micronutrient status of children living within institutionalized care were eligible for inclusion. The review is registered on PROSPERO: CRD42019117103.

Results. From 3,602 titles screened, we reviewed 98 full texts, of which 25 papers were eligible. Two ...


Food Behaviors, Health, And Bean Nutrition Awareness Among Low-Income Men: A Pilot Study, Michelle M. Heer, Donna M. Winham 2020 Iowa State University

Food Behaviors, Health, And Bean Nutrition Awareness Among Low-Income Men: A Pilot Study, Michelle M. Heer, Donna M. Winham

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Bean consumption is known to lower blood cholesterol and postprandial blood glucose. With higher chronic disease risk, low-income men could theoretically benefit from increased bean intakes. The study objective was to explore low-income men’s food behaviors, bean health benefit awareness, and bean consumption practices and preferences. Seventy-one low-income men aged 18–65 years (µ 41 ± 12.7; 53% white, 16% black, 31% Hispanic) completed a survey on health risks, food behaviors, bean health knowledge, attitudes toward dry and canned beans, and bean preferences. Eighty-seven percent had one or more health risk factors of physical inactivity, smoking, or obesity. Most ...


The Self-Perceived Impact Of A Food Recovery-Meal Delivery Program On Homebound Seniors’ Food Security, Nutrition Health, And Well-Being, Alice Marie Sanchez 2020 University of North Florida

The Self-Perceived Impact Of A Food Recovery-Meal Delivery Program On Homebound Seniors’ Food Security, Nutrition Health, And Well-Being, Alice Marie Sanchez

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

For many senior citizens, meeting nutritional needs is essential to good health and daily function. Studies indicate that many American older adults are not meeting their nutrition needs and often suffer from food insecurity. Meals on Wings (MOW) is a food recovery-meal delivery program that attempts to decrease the influence of food insecurity among older adults. This study aims to explore the self-perceived impact of a food recovery-meal delivery program on homebound seniors’ nutrition health, food security, and well-being.

Semi-structured interviews were administered to adults age 55 and older on the waitlist for Meals on Wheels America in Duval County ...


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