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Building The Genomic Base-Layer Of The Oral “Omic” World, The Forsyth Metagenomic Support Consortium, Jacques Izard 2010 The Forsyth Metagenomic Support Consortium

Building The Genomic Base-Layer Of The Oral “Omic” World, The Forsyth Metagenomic Support Consortium, Jacques Izard

Department of Food Science and Technology: Faculty Publications

With the shift of molecular technologies directed toward the understanding of greater biological complexity of the oral cavity, a knowledge gap was created by the lack of genomic data from the diverse oral microorganisms. To facilitate and enable the interpretation of metagenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data generated or soon to be generated from oral biofilms, we are providing reference genomic information from phylogenetically diverse oral bacterial isolates. This work, initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research as an isolated effort, is now part of the Human Microbiome Project. The goal of this effort is the public release …


Visible Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging For The Identification And Discrimination Of Brown Blotch Disease On Mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus) Caps, Edurne Gaston, Jesus Maria Frias, Patrick Cullen, Colm O’Donnell, Aoife Gowen 2010 Technological University Dublin

Visible Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging For The Identification And Discrimination Of Brown Blotch Disease On Mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus) Caps, Edurne Gaston, Jesus Maria Frias, Patrick Cullen, Colm O’Donnell, Aoife Gowen

Articles

Brown blotch, caused by pathogenic Pseudomonas tolaasii (P. tolaasii), is the most problematic bacterial disease in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. Although it does not cause any health problems, it reduces the consumer appeal of mushrooms in the market place, generating important economical losses worldwide. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a non-destructive technique that combines imaging and spectroscopy to obtain information from a sample. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of HSI for brown blotch identification and discrimination from mechanical damage on mushrooms. Hyperspectral images of mushrooms subjected to i) no treatment, ii) mechanical damage or iii) …


Effect Of Ultrasonic Processing On Food Enzymes Of Industrial Importance, Paula Bourke, Brijesh Tiwari, Colm O Donnell, Patrick Cullen 2010 Technological University Dublin

Effect Of Ultrasonic Processing On Food Enzymes Of Industrial Importance, Paula Bourke, Brijesh Tiwari, Colm O Donnell, Patrick Cullen

Articles

In the last decade power ultrasound has emerged as an alternative processing option to conventional thermal approaches for pasteurisation and sterilisation of food products. While sonication alone is not adequate for inactivation of various spoilage and harmful enzymes present in food, ultrasound in combination with mild heat treatment and/or pressure has shown potential for both enzyme and pathogen inactivation. Numerous studies have investigated ultrasound for inactivating enzymes such as pectinmethylesterase, polyphenoloxidases and peroxidases responsible for deterioration of fruit & vegetable juice and various enzymes pertinent to milk quality. The efficacy of ultrasound for the inactivation of enzymes in food is …


Effect Of Drying Method On The Antioxidant Capacity Of Six Larniaceae Herbs, M. Hossain, Catherine Barry-Ryan, Ana Belen Martin-Diana, N. Brunton 2010 Technological University Dublin

Effect Of Drying Method On The Antioxidant Capacity Of Six Larniaceae Herbs, M. Hossain, Catherine Barry-Ryan, Ana Belen Martin-Diana, N. Brunton

Articles

The present study investigated the changes in total phenols (TP), rosmarinic acid content and antioxidant capacity of six Lamiaceae herbs (rosemary, oregano, marjoram, sage, basil and thyme) after three drying treatments (air-, freeze- and vacuum oven-drying) stored for 60 days at −20 °C and compared to fresh samples. Ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were used as markers for antioxidant capacity. Air-dried samples had significantly (p < 0.05) higher TP, rosmarinic acid content and antioxidant capacity than had freeze-dried and vacuum oven-dried samples throughout the storage period. Fresh samples had the lowest values for the parameters tested. Vacuum oven-drying resulted in higher TP and FRAP values in rosemary and thyme during 60 days of storage than did freeze-drying. In ORAC assay, the difference was significantly higher only in thyme. Storage did not show any effect on the dried samples for the parameters tested.


Analysis Of Water Soluble Vitamins In Energy Drinks By Hplc, Stephen P. Sibley, Sarah E.G. Porter 2010 Longwood University

Analysis Of Water Soluble Vitamins In Energy Drinks By Hplc, Stephen P. Sibley, Sarah E.G. Porter

Theses & Honors Papers

Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was utilized to analyze the ingredients of various dietary supplements. Dietary supplements are classified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as foods rather than drugs, and as such have very different labeling laws. Specifically, we tested several types of "vitamin water", 5-hour energy, and multi-vitamin supplements to determine if the advertised contents were actually present at the levels specified. Using our method, we were able to simultaneously analyze the B-vitamins present. It was determined that several of the energy drinks contained B-vitamins that were not in agreement with their …


Prediction Of Polyphenol Oxidase Activity Using Visible Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging On Mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus) Caps., Edurne Gaston, Jesus Maria Frias, Patrick Cullen, Colm O'Donnell, Aoife Gowen 2010 Technological University Dublin

Prediction Of Polyphenol Oxidase Activity Using Visible Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging On Mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus) Caps., Edurne Gaston, Jesus Maria Frias, Patrick Cullen, Colm O'Donnell, Aoife Gowen

Articles

Physical stress (i.e. bruising) during harvesting, handling and transportation triggers enzymatic discoloration of mushrooms, a common and detrimental phenomenon largely mediated by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzymes. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a non-destructive technique that combines imaging and spectroscopy to obtain information from a sample. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of HSI to predict the activity of PPO on mushroom caps. Hyperspectral images of mushrooms subjected to various damage treatments were taken, followed by enzyme extraction and PPO activity measurement. Principal component regression (PCR) models (each with 3 PCs) built on raw reflectance and multiple scatter …


Development Of New Functional Food Applications Of Edible Irish Seaweed, Sabrina Cox 2010 Technological University Dublin

Development Of New Functional Food Applications Of Edible Irish Seaweed, Sabrina Cox

Conference papers

No abstract provided.


Sodexo Leading Environmental Change At Lehigh Valley Health Network, Andrew Barsky CDM, CFPP 2010 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Sodexo Leading Environmental Change At Lehigh Valley Health Network, Andrew Barsky Cdm, Cfpp

Clinical Nutrition Service

No abstract provided.


Proposal For A Food Systems Spire Of Excellence At The University Of Vermont, Vernon P. Grubinger, et al. 2010 University of Vermont

Proposal For A Food Systems Spire Of Excellence At The University Of Vermont, Vernon P. Grubinger, Et Al.

UVM Extension Faculty Publications

The field of food systems focuses on connections among food production, promotion of human health and well-being, and maintenance of the environment. Modern food systems provide unparalleled productivity but are accompanied by unacceptable levels of diet-related health problems, food-borne disease, hunger and agricultural pollution. Meanwhile solutions are critical within the next 40 years to discern how to provide more food without intensifying environmental damage and concurrently coping with climate change. The University of Vermont is uniquely positioned to address these concerns by generating knowledge through transdisciplinary teaching, research and outreach. Already, more than 100 faculty and 400 community partners are …


Co-Localization Of Amanitin And A Candidate Toxin-Processing Prolyl Oligopeptidase In Amanita Basidiocarps, Hong Lou, Heather E. Hallen-Adams, John S. Scott-Craig, Jonathan D. Walton 2010 University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Co-Localization Of Amanitin And A Candidate Toxin-Processing Prolyl Oligopeptidase In Amanita Basidiocarps, Hong Lou, Heather E. Hallen-Adams, John S. Scott-Craig, Jonathan D. Walton

Department of Food Science and Technology: Faculty Publications

Fungi in the basidiomycetous ge nus Amanita owe their high mammalian toxicity to the bicyclic octapeptide amatoxins such as ∝-amanitin. Amatoxins and the related phallotoxins (such as the heptapeptide phalloidin) are encoded by members of the “MSDIN” gene family and synthesized on ribosomes as short (34 - 35 amino acid) proproteins. Anti-amanitin antibodies and confocal microscopy were used to determine the cellular and subcellular localization of amanitin accumulation in basidiocarps (mushrooms) of the Eastern North American destroying angel (Amanita bisporigera). Consistent with previous studies, amanitin is present throughout the basidiocarp (stipe, pileus, lamellae, trama, and universal veil), but …


A Partial Chromosomal Deletion Caused By Random Plasmid Integration Resulted In A Reduced Virulence Phenotype In Fusarium Graminearum, Thomas K. Baldwin, Iffa Gaffoor, John Antoniw, Corrie Andries, John Guenther, Martin Urban, Heather E. Hallen-Adams, John Pitkin, Kim E. Hammond-Kosack, Frances Trail 2010 Rothamsted Research, Harpenden

A Partial Chromosomal Deletion Caused By Random Plasmid Integration Resulted In A Reduced Virulence Phenotype In Fusarium Graminearum, Thomas K. Baldwin, Iffa Gaffoor, John Antoniw, Corrie Andries, John Guenther, Martin Urban, Heather E. Hallen-Adams, John Pitkin, Kim E. Hammond-Kosack, Frances Trail

Department of Food Science and Technology: Faculty Publications

Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae) is an Ascomycete fungal plant pathogen which infects a range of agriculturally important crops, including wheat, barley, and maize. A random plasmid insertion mutagenesis approach was used to analyze the pathogenicity of the PH-1 strain, for which full genomic information is available. Fungal transformants were initially screened for their ability to infect wheat ears. From a total of 1,170 transformants screened, eight were confirmed to be highly reduced in pathogenicity toward wheat ears and roots. These were designated disease-attenuated F. graminearum (daf) mutants. The in vitro growth rate and appearance of each daf …


Individuality In Gut Microbiota Composition Is A Complex Polygenic Trait Shaped By Multiple Environmental And Host Genetic Factors, Andrew K. Benson, Scott A. Kelly, Ryan Legge, Fangrui Ma, Soo Jen Low, Jaehyoung Kim, Min Zhang, Phaik Lyn Oh, Derrick Nehrenberg, Kunjie Hua, Stephen D. Kachman, Etsuko N. Moriyama, Jens Walter, Daniel A. Peterson, Daniel Pomp 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Individuality In Gut Microbiota Composition Is A Complex Polygenic Trait Shaped By Multiple Environmental And Host Genetic Factors, Andrew K. Benson, Scott A. Kelly, Ryan Legge, Fangrui Ma, Soo Jen Low, Jaehyoung Kim, Min Zhang, Phaik Lyn Oh, Derrick Nehrenberg, Kunjie Hua, Stephen D. Kachman, Etsuko N. Moriyama, Jens Walter, Daniel A. Peterson, Daniel Pomp

Department of Food Science and Technology: Faculty Publications

In vertebrates, including humans, individuals harbor gut microbial communities whose species composition and relative proportions of dominant microbial groups are tremendously varied. Although external and stochastic factors clearly contribute to the individuality of the microbiota, the fundamental principles dictating how environmental factors and host genetic factors combine to shape this complex ecosystem are largely unknown and require systematic study. Here we examined factors that affect microbiota composition in a large (n = 645) mouse advanced intercross line originating from a cross between C57BL/6J and an ICR-derived outbred line (HR). Quantitative pyrosequencing of the microbiota defined a core measurable microbiota (CMM) …


Characterization Of Phenolics Composition In Lamiaceae Spices By Lc-Esi-Ms/Ms, Mohammad Hossain, Dilip Rai, Nigel Brunton, Ana Belen Martin-Diana, Catherine Barry-Ryan 2010 Technological University Dublin

Characterization Of Phenolics Composition In Lamiaceae Spices By Lc-Esi-Ms/Ms, Mohammad Hossain, Dilip Rai, Nigel Brunton, Ana Belen Martin-Diana, Catherine Barry-Ryan

Articles

A total of 38 phenolic compounds in the solid/liquid extracts of five Lamiaceae spices such as rosemary, oregano, sage, basil and thyme were identified in the present study using LC-ESI-MS/MS. These compounds were distributed in four major categories namely hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, flavonoids and phenolic terpenes. Among them, the category of flavonoids was the largest with 17 compounds. Identification of the phenolic compounds was carried out by comparing retention times and mass spectra with those of authentic standards. In case of unavailability of standards, phenolic compounds were identified based on accurate mass of pseudomolecular [M-H]- ions and …


Quality And Safety Assessment During The Ozonation Of Cloudy Apple Juice, Sonal Patil, B. Torres, Brijesh Tiwari, Hilda Wingaard, Paula Bourke, Patrick Cullen, C. O'Donnell, Vasilis Valdramidis 2010 Technological University Dublin

Quality And Safety Assessment During The Ozonation Of Cloudy Apple Juice, Sonal Patil, B. Torres, Brijesh Tiwari, Hilda Wingaard, Paula Bourke, Patrick Cullen, C. O'Donnell, Vasilis Valdramidis

Articles

Traditionally, ozone processing within the food industry has focused on solid foods by either gaseous treatment or washing with ozonated water. However, with the FDA’s approval of ozone as a direct additive to food, the potential for liquid applications has emerged. This study investigates the effect of ozone processing on microbial inactivation (E. coli ATCC 25922 and NCTC 12900), and quality parameters (colour, phenolic content) of apple juice. Apple juice samples were ozonated at room temperature (20±1.5oC) with an ozone concentration of 0.048 mg O3 min-1 ml-1 and treatment time of 0 to 10 …


Untreated And Enzyme-Modified Bovine Whey Products Reduce Association Of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Cronobacter Malonaticus (Formerly Enterobacter Sakazakii) To Caco-2 Cells, Rachel Halpin, D.B. Brady, E.D. O’Riordan, M. O’Sullivan 2010 Technological University Dublin

Untreated And Enzyme-Modified Bovine Whey Products Reduce Association Of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Cronobacter Malonaticus (Formerly Enterobacter Sakazakii) To Caco-2 Cells, Rachel Halpin, D.B. Brady, E.D. O’Riordan, M. O’Sullivan

Articles

Adhesion of a micro-organism to a cell surface is often considered to be the first step in pathogenesis. Inhibiting this process may have therapeutic effects in vivo. This study investigates the inhibitory effects of various bovine whey products on the association of Salm. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7 and C. malonaticus (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) to the human CaCo-2 cell line. Invasion of CaCo-2 cells by Salm. Typhimurium and C. malonaticus was also examined.


Contents, Discovery Editors 2010 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Contents, Discovery Editors

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda 2010 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Discovery: The Student Journal Of Dale Bumpers College Of Agricultural, Food And Life Sciences - Volume 11 2010, Several Authors 2010 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Discovery: The Student Journal Of Dale Bumpers College Of Agricultural, Food And Life Sciences - Volume 11 2010, Several Authors

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


High Crimes, Not Misdemeanors: Deterring The Production Of Unsafe Food, Rena I. Steinzor 2010 University of Maryland School of Law

High Crimes, Not Misdemeanors: Deterring The Production Of Unsafe Food, Rena I. Steinzor

Faculty Scholarship

In the fall of 2008, Minnesota public health officials became alarmed by an unusually high number of illnesses and deaths caused by salmonella poisoning. Federal and state regulators and the news media eventually traced the outbreak back to products supplied by the Peanut Corporation of America (PCA). Employees shipped batches that tested positive for salmonella from a plant with a leaking roof, mold growing on ceilings and walls, rodent infestation, filthy processing receptacles, and feathers and feces in the air filtration system. Under an agreement with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Georgia state inspectors visited the PCA plant nine …


Potassium For High Rainfall Pastures, Mike Bolland, Bill Russell 2010 Agriculture Western Australia

Potassium For High Rainfall Pastures, Mike Bolland, Bill Russell

Bulletins 4000 -

Potassium plays a major role in plant growth. It maintains the solutions in plant cells at ionic strengths suitable for maintaining strong plant walls and for the proper functioning of leaf pores (stomata) and plant processes such as photosynthesis, transport of sugars and enzyme activation.

Potassium does not become a direct part of the plant structure but acts to regulate water balances, nutrient and sugar movement in plant tissue. Plants deficient in potassium cannot use other nutrients and water efficiently. They are less tolerant of stresses such as drought and waterlogging and are more susceptible to pests and diseases.


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