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Environmental And Endogenous Factors Influencing Emigration In Juvenile Anadromous Alewives, Benjamin I. Gahagan, Eric T. Schultz, Katie E. Gherard 2010 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Environmental And Endogenous Factors Influencing Emigration In Juvenile Anadromous Alewives, Benjamin I. Gahagan, Eric T. Schultz, Katie E. Gherard

EEB Articles

We analyzed juvenile anadromous alewife migration at Bride Lake, a coastal lake in Connecticut, during summer 2006 and found that migration on 24-hour and seasonal timescales was influenced by conditions of the environment and characteristics of the individual. To identify environmental cues of juvenile migration, we continuously video recorded fish at the lake outflow and employed information-theoretic model selection to identify the best predictors of daily migration rate. More than 80% of the approximately 320,000 juveniles that migrated from mid-June to mid-August departed in three pulses lasting one or two days. Pulses of migration were associated with precipitation events ...


Leptodactylus Savagei, W. R. Heyer, Miriam M. Heyer, Rafael O. de Sá 2010 University of Richmond

Leptodactylus Savagei, W. R. Heyer, Miriam M. Heyer, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Adult Leptodactylus savagei are large, the head is as wide as long or usually wider than long, and the hind limbs are moderate in length (Table 1; Heyer and Thompson (2000) provided definitions of adult size and leg length categories for Leptodactylus). Male vocal sacs are not visible externally. Sexually active males have hypertrophied forearms, usually 1 large black spine on each thumb, rarely with 1 large spine and a prepollical bump, and a pair of black chest spines. A pair of entire dorsolateral folds extend anteriorly from at least one_half to full distance from eye to groin, the dorsolateral ...


Do Zoos And Aquariums Promote Attitude Change In Visitors? A Critical Evaluation Of The American Zoo And Aquarium Study, Lori Marino, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Randy Malamud, Nathan Nobis, Ron Broglio 2010 Emory University

Do Zoos And Aquariums Promote Attitude Change In Visitors? A Critical Evaluation Of The American Zoo And Aquarium Study, Lori Marino, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Randy Malamud, Nathan Nobis, Ron Broglio

Zoos and Aquariums Collection

Modern-day zoos and aquariums market themselves as places of education and conservation. A recent study conducted by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) (Falk et al., 2007) is being widely heralded as the first direct evidence that visits to zoos and aquariums produce long-term positive effects on people’s attitudes toward other animals. In this paper, we address whether this conclusion is warranted by analyzing the study’s methodological soundness. We conclude that Falk et al. (2007) contains at least six major threats to methodological validity that undermine the authors’ conclusions. There remains no compelling evidence for the claim ...


Integrated Pest Management (Ipm) For Vertebrates: Do We Need To Broaden This Concept?, John Hadidian 2010 The Humane Society of the United States

Integrated Pest Management (Ipm) For Vertebrates: Do We Need To Broaden This Concept?, John Hadidian

Ecology Collection

The concepts and practices of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) are historically grounded in programs aimed at insects and disease-causing organisms affecting agriculture. When applied to vertebrates, IPM concepts have most often been used in rodent control programs. Still, IPM is a powerful model that arguably can, and should, apply to conflicts with any “pest” or problem-causing organism. It may be time to examine contemporary IPM approaches and their relation to traditional vertebrate pest control more closely. Vertebrate IPM should encompass not only the development of sound and practical steps to shape decision-making and actions, but a dialogue about ethics as ...


The Delimitation Of Flammulina Fennae, Soňa Ripková, Karen Hughes, Slavomír Adamčík, Viktor Kučera, Katarína Adamčíková 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Delimitation Of Flammulina Fennae, Soňa Ripková, Karen Hughes, Slavomír Adamčík, Viktor Kučera, Katarína Adamčíková

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Multivariate morphometric analyses of micromorphological characters measured on 35 specimens of Flammulina fennae and related species show that only a combination of spore dimensions and ixohyphidia characters are suitable for delimitation of this species. In order to confirm species identifications based on micromorphology, ribosomal ITS DNA sequences were obtained and compared with those previously deposited in GenBank, and phylogenetic analyses were performed using an ITS dataset of all known Flammulina species. All six specimens morphologically determined as F. fennae were identified by molecular data. Two of twelve specimens morphologically assigned to F. velutipes had F. elastica sequences. One ITS sequence ...


A New Genus To Accommodate Gymnopus Acervatus (Agaricales), Karen Hughes, David A. Mather, Ronald H. Peterson 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

A New Genus To Accommodate Gymnopus Acervatus (Agaricales), Karen Hughes, David A. Mather, Ronald H. Peterson

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Phylogenies based on ITS and LSU nrDNA sequences show Agaricus (Gymnopus) acervatus as unique within the Gymnopus/Rhodocollybia complex. These phylogenies imply that a separate genus is necessary, and Connopus is proposed. Infraspecific morphological and DNA-based variation within C. acervatus suggests that a western North American clade might be reproductively isolated from the eastern North American/Scandinavian clade and that in this species complex the European and eastern North American clade might be conspecific. A Scandinavian exemplar is selected for bar-coding. Two GenBank sequences with name-phylogenetic placement inconsistencies are identified.


Temporal Dynamics Of Group Size And Sexual Segregation In Ibex, N. J. Singh, S. Amgalanbaatar, Richard P. Reading 2010 Imperial College London

Temporal Dynamics Of Group Size And Sexual Segregation In Ibex, N. J. Singh, S. Amgalanbaatar, Richard P. Reading

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

Group size is an important variable describing behavioral ecology of animals. A variety of factors such as habitat characteristics, life history, spatio-temporal resource dynamics, population density, predation risk, competition with kin, and social learning often determine group size in large mammals. We studied temporal dynamics of group size in Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica) in a protected area in Mongolia. We measured monthly and yearly variations in typical group size and used the sexual segregation and aggregation statistic to assess sexual segregation. Ibex formed the largest groups in November and smallest groups in July. However, group sizes did not significantly differ ...


Aging And Its Demographic Measurement, Anne M. Bronikowski, Thomas Flatt 2010 Iowa State University

Aging And Its Demographic Measurement, Anne M. Bronikowski, Thomas Flatt

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Aging is an inevitable fact of life. But as life span increases, do aging processes slow down? Here, we introduce how to measure life span, aging rate, and frailty, in cohorts and populations.


The Influence Of Temporal And Seasonal Changes On Genetic Diversity And Population Structure Of The Tsetse Fly, Glossina Pallidipes In Kenya, J. O. Ouma, E. S. Krafsur 2010 Kenya Agricultural Research Institute

The Influence Of Temporal And Seasonal Changes On Genetic Diversity And Population Structure Of The Tsetse Fly, Glossina Pallidipes In Kenya, J. O. Ouma, E. S. Krafsur

Entomology Publications

The Tsetse fly. Glossina palltdipes. (Diptera: Glossinidae) is an important vector of animal trypanosomiasis It has also been implicated in the transmission of pathogens that cause human African trypanosomiasis. Understanding how G. palhdipes populations vary temporally is necessary for effective intervention. Temporal variation in allele frequencies at eight microsatelhte loci was assessed by sampling local populations of G. palltdtpes. Samplings were carried out in 2000, 200 I, and 2003 in the Lambwe Valley and Nguruman areas in Kenya. Six polymorphic loci were scored. Allele frequencies were homogenous between seasons. Genetic differentiation was higher among dry season samples (F,, = 0.051 ...


A Unique Population Of Cave Bears (Carnivora: Ursidae) From The Middle Pleistocene Of Kents Cavern, England, Based On Dental Morphometrics, Donald A. McFarlane, Martin Sabol, Joyce Lundberg 2010 Claremont McKenna College; Pitzer College; Scripps College

A Unique Population Of Cave Bears (Carnivora: Ursidae) From The Middle Pleistocene Of Kents Cavern, England, Based On Dental Morphometrics, Donald A. Mcfarlane, Martin Sabol, Joyce Lundberg

WM Keck Science Faculty Papers

The ‘breccia’ stratum from Kents (we follow local tradition in using the form ‘Kents’, without an apostrophe) Cavern, England, has been well known for its rich yield of cave-bear material since excavations began in the mid-19th century. Recent work has established that the bears are of latest MIS 12 or earliest MIS 11 age. A life table based on a collection of 67 molariform teeth is consistent with the use of the cave as a hibernaculum. Univariate and morphological assessment of the teeth shows an unusual range of primitive and more derived characters. Multivariate morphometric analysis of cave-bear teeth from ...


Reproductive Behavior In Horseshoe Crabs: Does Density Matter?, Jennifer Mattei, Mark Beekey, Adam Rudman, Alyssa Woronik 2010 Sacred Heart University

Reproductive Behavior In Horseshoe Crabs: Does Density Matter?, Jennifer Mattei, Mark Beekey, Adam Rudman, Alyssa Woronik

Biology Faculty Publications

While the four species of horseshoe crabs share many common reproductive traits with respect to their reproductive systems, they do differ with respect to their mating behavior (monogamy vs. polygynandry). Past research has attributed these differences to a number of factors including: spawning densities, operational sex ratios (OSR’s), male condition (or age), environmental and/or genetic factors, or a combination thereof. Mating behaviors in the three Asian horseshoe crab species (Tachypleus gigas , T. tridentatus, and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda ) with low spawning densities and 1:1 operational sex ratios are typically monogamous. In Limulus polyphemus , mating behavior is more variable ranging ...


Movement Patterns And Population Genetics Of The American Horseshoe Crab In Relation To Long Island Sound Conservation Strategies, Jo-Marie Kasinak, Kirk A. Bartholomew, Mark Beekey, Jennifer Mattei 2010 Sacred Heart University

Movement Patterns And Population Genetics Of The American Horseshoe Crab In Relation To Long Island Sound Conservation Strategies, Jo-Marie Kasinak, Kirk A. Bartholomew, Mark Beekey, Jennifer Mattei

Biology Faculty Publications

The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) established three no-harvest zones for the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) population as part of a conservation plan for the species. Data from a long-term mark/recapture study of horseshoe crabs in conjunction with a microsatellite-based genetic survey of the population were analyzed to determine if this plan was appropriate to conserve genetic diversity and broaden our knowledge of movement patterns of Limulus in Long Island Sound (LIS). To date, ~53,000 crabs have been tagged over a 10 year period through the Project Limulus program with an annual average recapture rate of 12 ...


The Ratio Of Gametophytes To Tetrasporophytes Of Intertidal Chondrus Crispus (Gigartinaceae) Across A Salinity Gradient, Michele Guidone, Sean Grace 2010 Sacred Heart University

The Ratio Of Gametophytes To Tetrasporophytes Of Intertidal Chondrus Crispus (Gigartinaceae) Across A Salinity Gradient, Michele Guidone, Sean Grace

Biology Faculty Publications

Population studies of the Gigartinaceae (Rhodophyta) have often observed that the ratio of gametophytes to tetrasporophytes varies with the location of the population or the time of sampling. For some species, patterns have emerged that correlate this ratio to one or a few particular environmental variables, such as elevation, wave exposure, or season. Identifying these distributional patterns is an important step towards understanding what (if any) ecological differences exist between the two free-living life history stages.

The purpose of this study was to measure the ratio of gametophytes to tetrasporophytes of intertidal populations of Chondrus crispus across a decreasing salinity ...


Promiscuous Mating In Feral Pigs (Sus Scrofa) From Texas, Usa, Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Angeline Zamorano, Randy W. DeYoung, Tyler A. Campbell, David G. Hewitt, David B. Long 2010 Texas A&M University-Kingsville

Promiscuous Mating In Feral Pigs (Sus Scrofa) From Texas, Usa, Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Angeline Zamorano, Randy W. Deyoung, Tyler A. Campbell, David G. Hewitt, David B. Long

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Context. Feral pigs represent a significant threat to agriculture and ecosystems and are disease reservoirs for pathogens affecting humans, livestock and other wildlife. Information on the behavioural ecology of feral pigs might increase the efficiency and effectiveness of management strategies.

Aims. We assessed the frequency of promiscuous mating in relation to oestrous synchrony in feral pigs from southern Texas, USA, an agroecosystem with a widespread and well established population of feral pigs. An association between multiple paternity of single litters and synchrony of oestrous may indicate alternative mating strategies, such as mateguarding.

Methods. We collected gravid sows at nine sites ...


Assessing Genetic Differentiation Among Populations Of The Invasive Plant Impatiens Glandulifera In Maine, Jordan R. Schoonover 2010 Colby College

Assessing Genetic Differentiation Among Populations Of The Invasive Plant Impatiens Glandulifera In Maine, Jordan R. Schoonover

Honors Theses

The annual herbaceous plant Impatiens glandulifera Royle is native to the Himalayas and is a significant invasive species in Europe. In the past century, it was introduced to the United States, where it has become established in 12 states. This study evaluated genetic differentiation among four Maine populations, to address a theory that posits hybridization of distinct lineages as a trigger for invasiveness. Regions of microsatellite repeats were evaluated at two polymorphic loci for 41 plants sampled from the four populations. A striking finding was that the observed heterozygosity was substantially higher than the heterozygosity expected from random combination of ...


Response To Vaccination With A Commercial Inactivated Rabies Vaccine In A Captive Colony Of Brazilian Free-Tailed Bats (Tadarida Brasiliensis), Amy Turmelle, Louise Allen, Barbara Schmidt-French, Felix Jackson, Thomas Kunz, Charles Rupprecht, Gary McCracken 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Response To Vaccination With A Commercial Inactivated Rabies Vaccine In A Captive Colony Of Brazilian Free-Tailed Bats (Tadarida Brasiliensis), Amy Turmelle, Louise Allen, Barbara Schmidt-French, Felix Jackson, Thomas Kunz, Charles Rupprecht, Gary Mccracken

Gary F. McCracken

A captive colony of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) was vaccinated with a commercial monovalent inactivated rabies virus (RABV) vaccine (RABVAC 1). Baseline rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) and the response to vaccination were measured in 50 bats. Rabies VNA was detected in the plasma of 64% (27/42) of bats that had been vaccinated 1 yr prior, but only 19% (8/42) had levels considered adequate. Rabies VNA was detected in the plasma of 63% (5/8) of bats with no record of previous vaccination, suggesting natural RABV exposure before captivity. All bats demonstrated a VNA response by 10 ...


Host Immunity To Repeated Rabies Virus Infection In Big Brown Bats, Gary McCracken 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Host Immunity To Repeated Rabies Virus Infection In Big Brown Bats, Gary Mccracken

Gary F. McCracken

Bats are natural reservoirs for the majority of lyssaviruses globally, and are unique among mammals in having exceptional sociality and longevity. Given these facets, and the recognized status of bats as reservoirs for rabies viruses (RABVs) in the Americas, individual bats may experience repeated exposure to RABV during their lifetime. Nevertheless, little information exists with regard to within-host infection dynamics and the role of immunological memory that may result from abortive RABV infection in bats. In this study, a cohort of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was infected intramuscularly in the left and right masseter muscles with varying doses [10 ...


Genetic Variation For Susceptibility To Storm-Induced Stem Breakage In Solidago Altissima: The Role Of Stem Height And Morphology, M. Wise, W. Abrahamson 2009 Bucknell University

Genetic Variation For Susceptibility To Storm-Induced Stem Breakage In Solidago Altissima: The Role Of Stem Height And Morphology, M. Wise, W. Abrahamson

Warren G. Abrahamson, II

While storms can have obvious ecological impacts on plants, plants’ potential to respond evolutionarily to selection for increased resistance to storm damage has received little study. We took advantage of a thunderstorm with strong wind and hail to examine genetic variation for resistance to stem breakage in the herbaceous perennial Solidago altissima. The storm broke the apex of nearly 10% of 1883 marked ramets in a common-garden plot containing 26 genets of S. altissima. Plant genets varied 20-fold in resistance to breakage. Stem height was strongly correlated with resistance to breakage, with taller stems being significantly more susceptible. A stem ...


Echolocation Behavior Of Brazilian Free-Tailed Bats During Dense Emergence Flights, E. Gillam, N. Hristov, Gary McCracken 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Echolocation Behavior Of Brazilian Free-Tailed Bats During Dense Emergence Flights, E. Gillam, N. Hristov, Gary Mccracken

Gary F. McCracken

Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) emerge from cave roosts in dense columns in which adjacent bats are separated by only small distances. We describe and quantify variation in the structure of echolocation calls produced by these emerging bats and determine if call structure changes in relation to the rate of emergence measured using thermal infrared imaging. We recorded emergence calls at 2 roosts, 1 housing approximately 200,000 bats and the other approximately 17,000 bats. We found that Brazilian free-tailed bats emit distinct frequency-modulated (FMstart) and constant frequency (CFstart) calls during emergence that are significantly different from echolocation calls ...


The Genus Xerula, Ronald Petersen, Karen Hughes 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Genus Xerula, Ronald Petersen, Karen Hughes

Karen Hughes

No abstract provided.


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