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Impacts Of Environmental Stressors On Native South Dakota Amphibian Physiology And Survival, Danielle Jean Galvin 2023 University of South Dakota

Impacts Of Environmental Stressors On Native South Dakota Amphibian Physiology And Survival, Danielle Jean Galvin

Dissertations and Theses

Amphibian populations around the world are declining, with some of the most likely drivers behind these declines including emerging infectious diseases and environmental contaminants. To address major gaps in the current literature, I sought to evaluate the effect of two major environmental stressors on various aspects of amphibian physiology: emerging infectious diseases and environmental contaminants. Emerging infectious diseases of amphibians include fungal, viral, and parasitic pathogens which have expanded in host range, either geographically or in competent host species. Environmental contaminants include chemicals which may be naturally occurring in the environment, or which may be introduced to the environment, often …


Interactions Between Sediment Mechanical Structure And Infaunal Community Structure Following Physical Disturbance, William Cyrus Roger Clemo 2023 University of South Alabama

Interactions Between Sediment Mechanical Structure And Infaunal Community Structure Following Physical Disturbance, William Cyrus Roger Clemo

Theses and Dissertations

Shallow, river-influenced coastal sediments are important for global carbon storage and nutrient cycling and provide a habitat for diverse communities of invertebrates (infauna). Elevated bed shear stress from extreme storms can resuspend, transport, and deposit sediments, disrupting the cohesive structure of muds, and sorting and depositing sand eroded from beaches. These physical disruptions can also resuspend or smother infauna, decreasing abundances and changing community structure. Infaunal activities such as burrowing, tube construction, and feeding can impact sediment structure and stability. However, little is known about how physical disturbance impacts short and long-term sediment habitat suitability and whether disturbance-tolerant infauna influence …


Do Mesopelagic Fish Biomass Patterns Change In Response To Major Oceanographic Features In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico?, Ian M. Areford 2023 Nova Southeastern University

Do Mesopelagic Fish Biomass Patterns Change In Response To Major Oceanographic Features In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico?, Ian M. Areford

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

In recent years interest in mesopelagic fishes has grown due to their ecological significance and economic potential. A major outstanding question is how the assemblage is potentially structured by mesoscale (10 - 100s km) oceanographic features such as eddies, fronts, and riverine plumes. Mesoscale features are known to influence micronekton and zooplankton’s spatial distributions but data on individual mesopelagic fish species’ responses are limited. The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is an area of particular interest due to its diverse mesopelagic fish assemblage, its well-defined mesoscale oceanographic features, its history of anthropogenic impacts such as oil spills, and its diverse mesopelagic …


Lizard Communities In A Shifting Landscape: The Current State Of Insectivorous Lizard Communities In The Jornada Basin Between Grassland, Mesquite Dune, And Creosote Bush Habitats In A Semi-Arid Landscape Undergoing Shrubification, Julie Marie Schlichte 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Lizard Communities In A Shifting Landscape: The Current State Of Insectivorous Lizard Communities In The Jornada Basin Between Grassland, Mesquite Dune, And Creosote Bush Habitats In A Semi-Arid Landscape Undergoing Shrubification, Julie Marie Schlichte

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Lizard communities in arid lands can act as model systems of how diversity and abundance are impacted in the face of ongoing climate variability and change, as they are sensitive to shifts in precipitation, temperature, and changing vegetation structure. The main research question we hope to answer is how the community composition of lizards varies between dominant vegetation types (Mesquite dunes, grasslands, and Creosote Bush flats). Nine sites (3 of each dominant vegetation type) with 16 pitfall traps each (n = 144) were surveyed from June 2016 -- June 2017. 12 lizard species were captured, consisting of 923 total captures …


How Beavers (Castor Canadensis) Affect Habitat Availability For Two Native Oregon Turtles: Actinemys Marmorata And Chrysemys Picta Bellii, Rodé Krige 2023 Portland State University

How Beavers (Castor Canadensis) Affect Habitat Availability For Two Native Oregon Turtles: Actinemys Marmorata And Chrysemys Picta Bellii, Rodé Krige

University Honors Theses

Oregon is home to two native freshwater turtle species: the northwestern pond turtle and the western painted turtle. Both turtles are Oregon conservation strategy species with a status rating of sensitive, indicating declining populations. Oregon’s decline in these turtle’s populations is thought to be predominantly due to loss and degradation of habitat that results from development and urbanization. Beavers’ ability to dam streams and create ponds may be creating habitat usable by turtles, but the relationship is under-studied. This study assessed water temperature, basking habitat, and overall turtle habitat suitability at beaver-dammed and control ponds in Portland, Oregon. Average basking …


Developing Next-Generation Ecoinformatics Tools For Advancing Global Change Science, Ifeanyi H. Nwigboji 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Developing Next-Generation Ecoinformatics Tools For Advancing Global Change Science, Ifeanyi H. Nwigboji

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Ecosystems are responding to a variety of human-induced, interlinked stressors that have emerged from changing climate, alteration to the global water cycle, sea-level rise, and land use and land cover change, among others. Quantifying these changes and their associated impacts on ecosystems requires a huge amount of long-term data. Due to advances in data collection techniques, such as remote sensing platforms, environmental sensors, synthesized datasets, and various software technologies, the volume and variety of long-term ecological data being collected has tremendously increased. Although there are several complex models and analyses that are increasingly parametrized with data from such sensors, there …


Evolution Of Forest Bitis (Macrocerastes) In Africa: Phylogeography, Population Genetics, And Potential As A Model For Batesian Mimicry, Eugene Richard Vaughan 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Evolution Of Forest Bitis (Macrocerastes) In Africa: Phylogeography, Population Genetics, And Potential As A Model For Batesian Mimicry, Eugene Richard Vaughan

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The major biogeographical patterns characterizing the diversification of widely distributed species in the African rainforest remain poorly understood because of the low number of well-sampled studies that are focused on this region. I examine the phylogeography and population genetics of two broadly sympatric sister lineages of large African forest vipers (genus Bitis, subgenus Macrocerastes), the rhinoceros viper (B. nasicornis) and the Gaboon vipers (B. gabonica and B. rhinoceros). Despite their close relationship, these two lineages have notably different patterns of divergence in time and space. A time-calibrated phylogeny with sequence data from five genes, and population structure and PCA analyses …


What Gives Me Hope, Heather M. Leslie 2023 University of Maine

What Gives Me Hope, Heather M. Leslie

Maine Policy Review

The commentary focuses on the author's experiences over the last several years in Maine where she has conducted research, mentored students, and collaboratde with diverse community partners on a number of projects focused on shellfish fisheries co-management and other community-led resilience projects in coastal Maine.


An Integrative Approach To Managing A Species Of Conservation Concern: Resource Selection, Spatial Ecology, And Population Genetics Of The Green Salamander (Aneides Aeneus), Megan Novak 2023 Clemson University

An Integrative Approach To Managing A Species Of Conservation Concern: Resource Selection, Spatial Ecology, And Population Genetics Of The Green Salamander (Aneides Aeneus), Megan Novak

All Dissertations

The relationship between wildlife and the environment they inhabit is dependent on both spatial and temporal scales. It is therefore crucial that biological investigations account for ecological scale when analyzing patterns and processes established, particularly when such investigations inform conservation management plans. This dissertation provides extensive insight into the conservation biology of the green salamander (Aneides aeneus), a critically imperiled species in South Carolina. The green salamander is a species that exists in a patchy network of rock outcrops within mountainous forest landscapes, and most studies on habitat suitability for green salamanders have been conducted on the macrohabitat, …


Landings, Vol. 31, No. 12, Maine Lobstermen’s Community Alliance, Rebecca Nuzzi, Amber-Jean Nickel 2023 President, Maine Lobstermen's Community Alliance

Landings, Vol. 31, No. 12, Maine Lobstermen’S Community Alliance, Rebecca Nuzzi, Amber-Jean Nickel

Landings: News & Views from Maine's Lobstering Community

Landings content emphasizes science, history, resource sustainability, economic development, and human interest stories related to Maine's lobster industry. The newsletter emphasizes lobstering as a traditional, majority-European American lifeway with an economic and social heritage unique to the coast of Maine. The publication focuses how ongoing research to engage in sustainable, non-harmful, and non-wasteful commercial fishing practices benefit both the fishery and Maine's coastal legacy.

For more information, please visit the Maine Lobstermen’s Community Alliance (MLCA) website.


Activity Patterns Of Whiptail Lizards (Aspidoscelis) Found In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Guillermo Alvarez 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Activity Patterns Of Whiptail Lizards (Aspidoscelis) Found In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Guillermo Alvarez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Traditional lizard pitfall traps were modified to allow organisms to escape, while collecting valuable ecological data. Modified camera traps were capable of detecting the same species as traditional traps in a semi-arid environment, without posing the associated mortality risks. Pitfall-camera traps were used to sample the activity of the Side-blotched Lizard (Uta stansburiana) and the Southwestern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus cowlesi) in an urban wetland during four continuous years. Evaluations on activity pattern and the activity overlap between the two species revealed extensive overlap, with minor but significant seasonal shifts mediating coexistence. Traps were also effective at detecting other reptiles, invertebrates, …


Evaluation Of Evapotranspiration Estimates Using An Existing Hybrid Machine Learning Model In A Natural And A Managed Dryland Site, Katya Esquivel Herrera 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Evaluation Of Evapotranspiration Estimates Using An Existing Hybrid Machine Learning Model In A Natural And A Managed Dryland Site, Katya Esquivel Herrera

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Evapotranspiration (ET) is a critical component of the hydrologic cycle, encompassing both evaporative water loss from surfaces and transpiration through plant stomata. The environmental factors influencing ET include water and energy availability, atmospheric capacity for water uptake, and various meteorological variables. ET serves as a unique climate variable linking water, energy, and carbon cycles. In agroecosystems, accurate ET quantification is vital for optimizing water use efficiency, irrigation management, and crop yield. Traditional methods for ET estimation involve direct measurements and indirect models, with both presenting limitations.

Recent years have witnessed the integration of remote sensing and machine learning (ML) algorithms …


Effects Of A Protection Zone In A Reaction-Diffusion Model With Strong Allee Effect., Isaac Johnson 2023 University of Louisville

Effects Of A Protection Zone In A Reaction-Diffusion Model With Strong Allee Effect., Isaac Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A protection zone model represents a patchy environment with positive growth over the protection zone and strong Allee effect growth outside the protection zone. Generally, these models are considered through the corresponding eigenvalue problem, but that has certain limitations. In this thesis, a general protection zone model is considered. This model makes no assumption on the direction of the traveling wave solution over the Strong Allee effect patch. We use phase portrait analysis of this protection zone model to draw conclusions about the existence of equilibrium solutions. We establish the existence of three types of equilibrium solutions and the necessary …


Breaking Virulent: The Coincidental Evolution Of Virulence Factors In Bacteria., Rhiannon Emmanuelle Cecil 2023 University of Louisville

Breaking Virulent: The Coincidental Evolution Of Virulence Factors In Bacteria., Rhiannon Emmanuelle Cecil

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding how innocuous organisms can evolve to be pathogenic to humans is of increasing global concern. Further, understanding how existing pathogens may evolved to be more virulent is also vital to our ability to provide healthcare to people afflicted with diseases that promote chronic bacterial infections, such as cystic fibrosis. With the rise of antibiotic resistance in both bacteria and fungi it is paramount that new therapeutics are identified. Understanding what mutations occur that result in increased virulence in microbes can potentially provide new targets for antimicrobial drugs to combat antibiotic resistance. The Coincidental Evolution Hypothesis is a fundamental hypothesis …


Can The Vegetation Structure And Composition In Urban Green Spaces Determine Diversity Of Green Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)?, Jose I. Martinez, Raiza J. Castillo, Adrián Ardila-Camacho, Charles V. Covell, José Isabel López-Arroyo, Francisco Javier Nava-Guízar 2023 University of Florida

Can The Vegetation Structure And Composition In Urban Green Spaces Determine Diversity Of Green Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)?, Jose I. Martinez, Raiza J. Castillo, Adrián Ardila-Camacho, Charles V. Covell, José Isabel López-Arroyo, Francisco Javier Nava-Guízar

Insecta Mundi

Green spaces represent the only natural areas in several cities around the world, providing good shelters for the local fauna. Based on this premise, many ecological studies have been conducted focused on these areas. Most of these works are about insects, particularly butterflies and beetles. Our study is centered on a different group: green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). These insects exhibit a similar feeding behavior to some other groups, such as beetles. We estimated diversity, richness, distribution, abundance and similarity employing two methods: sweep netting and suction trapping. Also, oviposition hosts were identified in 20 different green spaces. Approximately 740 specimens …


The Stick Insects (Insecta: Phasmatodea) From The Cloud Forest Of The Chicaque Natural Park, Colombia, Andres David Murcia, Oscar J. Cadena-Castañeda 2023 Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas.

The Stick Insects (Insecta: Phasmatodea) From The Cloud Forest Of The Chicaque Natural Park, Colombia, Andres David Murcia, Oscar J. Cadena-Castañeda

Insecta Mundi

A faunal study for the order Phasmatodea of the Chicaque Natural Park is presented, including a list of species found, descriptions, redescriptions, and biological notes. A total of nine species were found and studied; two new genera: Ramandeun new genus, Nubilophasma new genus, and four new species: Atrato­morpha jorgei new species, Isagoras franciscoverai new species, Nubilophasma chicaquensis new genus and new species, and Ramandeum coronatum new genus and new species are described. The description of the eggs of the new taxa, of the previously unknown eggs of Paraceroys quadrispinosus (Redtenbacher, 1906), and the redescription of …


Predicting The Potential Distribution In South Korea Of Two Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Intercepted On Pineapples In Quarantine, S Bin Kim, Soo-Jung Suh 2023 Jeju National University

Predicting The Potential Distribution In South Korea Of Two Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Intercepted On Pineapples In Quarantine, S Bin Kim, Soo-Jung Suh

Insecta Mundi

Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley are major pests of pine­apples, ornamentals, and vegetable crops in many countries around the world. The potential distribution of these mealybug pests into South Korea remains a prime concern because of their high incidence in intercep­tions screened during inspection. Hence, these species prompted a modelling effort to assess their potential risk of introduction. Potential risk maps were developed for these pests with the CLIMEX model based on occurrence records under environmental data. The potential distribution of these pests in South Korea in the 2020s, 2050s and 2090s is projected based on the RCP …


A New Species Of Colyphus Spinola (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Clerinae) From Veracruz, Mexico, Jacques Rifkind 2023 California State Collection of Arthropods

A New Species Of Colyphus Spinola (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Clerinae) From Veracruz, Mexico, Jacques Rifkind

Insecta Mundi

Colyphus lostuxtlas new species (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Clerinae) is described from Veracruz, Mexico.

With the addition of the new species described herein, the genus Colyphus Spinola now comprises 27 species, distributed from Mexico to Panama (Ekis 1977; Rifkind 1997, 2014, 2020, 2023; Rifkind and Barr 2011). The spe­cies described herein is known only from a cloud forest reserve (part of La Reserva Biosfera Los Tuxtlas) on the lower slopes of Volcán San Martín in Veracruz, Mexico. Other Colyphus species with distributions in cloud forests include the Costa Rican species C. hansoni Rifkind, C. irazu Ekis, and C. ska Rifkind and Barr, …


An Illustrated Type Catalog Of Trichodesma Leconte, 1861 (Coleoptera: Ptinidae) From Mexico, With Description Of A New Species, Kyle E. Schnepp 2023 Florida State Collection of Arthropods

An Illustrated Type Catalog Of Trichodesma Leconte, 1861 (Coleoptera: Ptinidae) From Mexico, With Description Of A New Species, Kyle E. Schnepp

Insecta Mundi

Trichodesma nancyae, new species (Coleoptera: Ptinidae), is described from Mexico. The species is illustrated and diagnosed, bringing the total number of extant species in the genus to 73. Lectotypes for Trichodesma beyeri Fall, Trichodesma scripta Champion, and Trichodesma texana Schaeffer are here designated. Habitus and label photographs are provided for types of 12 of the 13 species occurring in Mexico.


Defensive Behaviors Of The Mealybug Nipaecoccus Nipae (Maskell, 1893) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) And The Green Lacewing Ceraeochrysa Claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), With Videos Of Dorsal Packet Loading And Mealybug Ostiole Function, Erin C. Powell 2023 Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Defensive Behaviors Of The Mealybug Nipaecoccus Nipae (Maskell, 1893) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) And The Green Lacewing Ceraeochrysa Claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), With Videos Of Dorsal Packet Loading And Mealybug Ostiole Function, Erin C. Powell

Insecta Mundi

The interactions between the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) larva and the coconut mealybug Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were recorded. The third-instar lacewing larva constructed a dorsal packet using mealybug wax from both male pupal cases and the bodies of adult females. Surprisingly, live nymphs were also frequently placed into the dorsal packet. Prey mealybugs were discarded and not incorporated into the packet after consumption. When disturbed, adult female mealybugs reflex bled from their dorsal ostioles, contacting the mouthparts of the lacewing. The lacewing quickly retreated to clean the mouthparts on the substrate, providing further evidence that ostiolar …


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