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Mechanism Of Catch Force: Tethering Of Thick And Thin Filaments By Twitchin., Thomas M Butler, Marion J Siegman 2010 Jefferson Medical College

Mechanism Of Catch Force: Tethering Of Thick And Thin Filaments By Twitchin., Thomas M Butler, Marion J Siegman

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Faculty Papers

Catch is a mechanical state occurring in some invertebrate smooth muscles characterized by high force maintenance and resistance to stretch during extremely slow relaxation. During catch, intracellular calcium is near basal concentration and myosin crossbridge cyctng rate is extremely slow. Catch force is relaxed by a protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of sites near the N- and C- temini of the minititin twitchin (approximately 526 kDa). Some catch force maintenance car also occur together with cycling myosin crossbridges at submaximal calcium concentrations, but not when the muscle is maximally activated. Additionally, the link responsible for catch can adjust during shortening of ...


Mzm1 Influences A Labile Pool Of Mitochondrial Zinc Important For Respiratory Function, Aaron Atkinson, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Pamela Smith, Hana Sabic, David Eide, Dennis R. Winge 2010 University of Utah Health Sciences

Mzm1 Influences A Labile Pool Of Mitochondrial Zinc Important For Respiratory Function, Aaron Atkinson, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Pamela Smith, Hana Sabic, David Eide, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Zinc is essential for function of mitochondria as a cofactor for

several matrix zinc metalloproteins. We demonstrate that a

labile cationic zinc component of low molecular mass exists in

the yeast mitochondrial matrix. This zinc pool is homeostatically

regulated in response to the cellular zinc status. This pool

of zinc is functionally important because matrix targeting of a

cytosolic zinc-binding protein reduces the level of labile zinc

and interferes with mitochondrial respiratory function. We

identified a series of proteins that modulate the matrix zinc

pool, one of which is a novel conserved mitochondrial protein

designated Mzm1. Mutant mzm1∆ cells have ...


Analysis Of Leigh Syndrome Mutations In The Yeast Surf1 Homolog Reveals A New Member Of The Cytochrome Oxidase Assembly Factor Family, Megan Bestwick, Mi-Young Jeong, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Hyung Kim, Dennis R. Winge 2010 University of Utah Health Sciences Center

Analysis Of Leigh Syndrome Mutations In The Yeast Surf1 Homolog Reveals A New Member Of The Cytochrome Oxidase Assembly Factor Family, Megan Bestwick, Mi-Young Jeong, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Hyung Kim, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Three missense SURF1 mutations identified in patients with Leigh syndrome (LS) were evaluated in the yeast homolog Shy1 protein. Introduction of two of the Leigh mutations, F249T and Y344D, in Shy1 failed to significantly attenuate the function of Shy1 in cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) biogenesis as seen with the human mutations. In contrast, a G137E substitution in Shy1 results in a nonfunctional protein conferring a CcO deficiency. The G137E Shy1 mutant phenocopied shy1 Δ cells in impaired Cox1 hemylation and low mitochondrial copper. A genetic screen for allele-specific suppressors of the G137E ...


Formation Of The Redox Cofactor Centers During Cox1 Maturation In Yeast Cytochrome Oxidase, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Megan Bestwick, Brigitte Meunier, Talina C. Watts, Dennis R. Winge 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Formation Of The Redox Cofactor Centers During Cox1 Maturation In Yeast Cytochrome Oxidase, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Megan Bestwick, Brigitte Meunier, Talina C. Watts, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase initiates with synthesis and maturation of the mitochondrionencoded Cox1 subunit prior to the addition of other subunits. Cox1 contains redox cofactors, including the low-spin heme a center and the heterobimetallic heme a3:CuB center. We sought to identify the step in the maturation of Cox1 in which the redox cofactor centers are assembled. Newly synthesized Cox1 is incorporated within one early assembly intermediate containing Mss51 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subsequent Cox1 maturation involves the progression to downstream assembly intermediates involving Coa1 and Shy1. We show that the two heme a cofactor sites in ...


The Role Of Coa2 In Hemylation Of Yeast Cox1 Revealed By Its Genetic Interaction With Cox10, Megan Bestwick, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Fabien Pierrel, Dennis R. Winge 2010 University of Utah Health Sciences Center

The Role Of Coa2 In Hemylation Of Yeast Cox1 Revealed By Its Genetic Interaction With Cox10, Megan Bestwick, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Fabien Pierrel, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) assembly factor Coa2 are impaired in Cox1 maturation and exhibit a rapid degradation of newly synthesized Cox1. The respiratory deficiency of coa2 Δ cells is suppressed either by the presence of a mutant allele of the Cox10 farnesyl transferase involved in heme a biosynthesis or through impaired proteolysis by the disruption of the mitochondrial Oma1 protease. Cox10 with an N196K substitution functions as a robust gain-of-function suppressor of the respiratory deficiency of coa2 Δ cells but lacks suppressor activity for two other CcO assembly mutant strains, the coa1 Δ and shy1 ...


Evolution Of New Enzymatic Function By Structural Modulation Of Cysteine Reactivity In Pseudomonas Fluorescens Isocyanide Hydratase, Mahadevan Lakshminarasimhan, Peter Madzelan, Ruth Nan, Nicole Marie Milkovic, Mark A. Wilson 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evolution Of New Enzymatic Function By Structural Modulation Of Cysteine Reactivity In Pseudomonas Fluorescens Isocyanide Hydratase, Mahadevan Lakshminarasimhan, Peter Madzelan, Ruth Nan, Nicole Marie Milkovic, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Isocyanide (formerly isonitrile) hydratase (EC 4.2.1.103) is an enzyme of the DJ-1 superfamily that hydrates isocyanides to yield the corresponding N-formamide. In order to understand the structural basis for isocyanide hydratase (ICH) catalysis, we determined the crystal structures of wild-type and several site-directed mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens ICH at resolutions ranging from 1.0 to 1.9 Å. We also developed a simple UV-visible spectrophotometric assay for ICH activity using 2-naphthyl isocyanide as a substrate. ICH contains a highly conserved cysteine residue (Cys101) that is required for catalysis and interacts with Asp17, Thr102, and an ordered ...


Incorporating Genomics And Bioinformatics Across The Life Sciences Curriculum, Jayna L. Ditty, Christopher A. Kvaal, Brad Goodner, Sharyn K. Freyermuth, Cheryl Bailey, Robert A. Britton, Stuart G. Gordon, Sabine Heinhorst, Kelynne Reed, Zhaohui Xu, Erin R. Sanders-Lorenz, Seth Axen, Edwin Kim, Mitrick Johns, Kathleen Scott, Cheryl A. Kerfeld 2010 University of St. Thomas

Incorporating Genomics And Bioinformatics Across The Life Sciences Curriculum, Jayna L. Ditty, Christopher A. Kvaal, Brad Goodner, Sharyn K. Freyermuth, Cheryl Bailey, Robert A. Britton, Stuart G. Gordon, Sabine Heinhorst, Kelynne Reed, Zhaohui Xu, Erin R. Sanders-Lorenz, Seth Axen, Edwin Kim, Mitrick Johns, Kathleen Scott, Cheryl A. Kerfeld

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Undergraduate life sciences education needs an overhaul, as clearly described in the National Research Council of the National Academies’ publication BIO 2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. Among BIO 2010’s top recommendations is the need to involve students in working with real data and tools that reflect the nature of life sciences research in the 21st century [1]. Education research studies support the importance of utilizing primary literature, designing and implementing experiments, and analyzing results in the context of a bona fide scientific question [1–12] in cultivating the analytical skills necessary to become a scientist. Incorporating ...


Regulation Of Sealing Ring Formation By L-Plastin And Cortactin In Osteoclasts, Tao Ma, Kavitha Sadashivalah, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Meenakshi A. Chellaia 2010 Dental School, University of Maryland

Regulation Of Sealing Ring Formation By L-Plastin And Cortactin In Osteoclasts, Tao Ma, Kavitha Sadashivalah, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Meenakshi A. Chellaia

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The aim of this study is to identify the exact mechanism(s) by which cytoskeletal structures are modulated during bone resorption. In this study, we have shown the possible role of different actin-binding and signaling proteins in the regulation of sealing ring formation. Our analyses have demonstrated a significant increase in cortactin and a corresponding decrease in L-plastin protein levels in osteoclasts subjected to bone resorption for 18 h in the presence of RANKL, M-CSF, and native bone particles. Time-dependent changes in the localization of L-plastin (in actin aggregates) and cortactin (in the sealing ring) suggest that these proteins may ...


Structural Basis For Feedback And Pharmacological Inhibition Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Glutamate Cysteine Ligase, Ekaterina I Biterova, Joseph J. Barycki 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Structural Basis For Feedback And Pharmacological Inhibition Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Glutamate Cysteine Ligase, Ekaterina I Biterova, Joseph J. Barycki

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Structural characterization of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), the enzyme that catalyzes the initial, rate-limiting step in glutathione biosynthesis, has revealed many of the molecular details of substrate recognition. To further delineate the mechanistic details of this critical enzyme, we have determined the structures of two inhibited forms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCL (ScGCL), which shares significant sequence identity with the human enzyme. In vivo, GCL activity is feedback regulated by glutathione. Examination of the structure of ScGCL-glutathione complex (2.5 A ; R = 19.9%, Rfree = 25.1%) indicates that the inhibitor occupies both the glutamate- and the presumed cysteine- binding ...


Functional Hybrid Rubisco Enzymes With Plant Small Subunits And Algal Large Subunits Engineered Rbcs Cdna For Expression In Chlamydomonas, Todor Genkov, Moritz Meyer, Howard Griffiths, Robert J. Spreitzer 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Functional Hybrid Rubisco Enzymes With Plant Small Subunits And Algal Large Subunits Engineered Rbcs Cdna For Expression In Chlamydomonas, Todor Genkov, Moritz Meyer, Howard Griffiths, Robert J. Spreitzer

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

There has been much interest in the chloroplast-encoded large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) as a target for engineering an increase in net CO2 fixation in photosynthesis. Improvements in the enzyme would lead to an increase in the production of food, fiber, and renewable energy. Although the large subunit contains the active site, a family of rbcS nuclear genes encodes the Rubisco small subunits, which can also influence the carboxylation catalytic efficiency and CO2/O2 specificity of the enzyme. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, small subunits from spinach ...


Cug Start Codon Generates Thioredoxin/Glutathione Reductase Isoforms In Mouse Testes, Maxim Gerashchenko, Dan Su, Vadim Gladyshev 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Cug Start Codon Generates Thioredoxin/Glutathione Reductase Isoforms In Mouse Testes, Maxim Gerashchenko, Dan Su, Vadim Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Mammalian cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin reductases are essential selenocysteine-containing enzymes that control thioredoxin functions. Thioredoxin/glutathione reductase (TGR) is a third member of this enzyme family. It has an additional glutaredoxin domain and shows highest expression in testes. Herein, we found that human and several other mammalian TGR genes lack any AUG codons that could function in translation initiation. Although mouse and rat TGRs have such codons, we detected protein sequences upstream of them by immunoblot assays and direct proteomic analyses. Further gene engineering and expression analyses demonstrated that a CUG codon, located upstream of the sequences previously thought to ...


Identification And Characterization Of Oxalate Oxidoreductase, A Novel Thiamine Pyrophosphate-Dependent 2-Oxoacid Oxidoreductase That Enables Anaerobic Growth On Oxalate, Elizabeth Pierce, Donald F. Becker, Stephen W. Ragsdale 2010 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Identification And Characterization Of Oxalate Oxidoreductase, A Novel Thiamine Pyrophosphate-Dependent 2-Oxoacid Oxidoreductase That Enables Anaerobic Growth On Oxalate, Elizabeth Pierce, Donald F. Becker, Stephen W. Ragsdale

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Moorella thermoacetica is an anaerobic acetogen, a class of bacteria that is found in the soil, the animal gastrointestinal tract, and the rumen. This organism engages the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO2 fixation for heterotrophic or autotrophic growth. This paper describes a novel enzyme, oxalate oxidoreductase (OOR), that enables M. thermoacetica to grow on oxalate, which is produced in soil and is a common component of kidney stones. Exposure to oxalate leads to the induction of three proteins that are subunits of OOR, which oxidizes oxalate coupled to the production of two electrons and CO2 or bicarbonate. Like ...


Structure Of The Proline Utilization A Proline Dehydrogenase Domain Inactivated By N-Propargylglycine Provides Insight Into Conformational Changes Induced By Substrate Binding And Flavin Reduction, Dhiraj Srivastava, Weidong Zhu, William H. Johnson Jr., Christian P. Whitman, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner 2010 University of Missouri-Columbia

Structure Of The Proline Utilization A Proline Dehydrogenase Domain Inactivated By N-Propargylglycine Provides Insight Into Conformational Changes Induced By Substrate Binding And Flavin Reduction, Dhiraj Srivastava, Weidong Zhu, William H. Johnson Jr., Christian P. Whitman, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Proline utilization A (PutA) from Escherichia coli is a flavoprotein that has mutually exclusive roles as a transcriptional repressor of the put regulon and a membrane-associated enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate. Previous studies have shown that the binding of proline in the proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) active site and subsequent reduction of the FAD trigger global conformational changes that enhance PutA-membrane affinity. These events cause PutA to switch from its repressor to enzymatic role, but the mechanism by which this signal is propagated from the active site to the distal membrane-binding domain is largely unknown. Here, it ...


Identification And Characterization Of Small Compound Inhibitors Of Human Fatp2, Angel Sandoval, Aalap Chokshi, Elliot D. Jesch, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. DiRusso 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Identification And Characterization Of Small Compound Inhibitors Of Human Fatp2, Angel Sandoval, Aalap Chokshi, Elliot D. Jesch, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. Dirusso

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins, which transport long chain fatty acids into cells and activate very long chain fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. In an effort to understand the linkage between cellular fatty acid transport and the pathology associated with excessive accumulation of exogenous fatty acids, we targeted FATP-mediated fatty acid transport in a high throughput screen of more than 100,000 small diverse chemical compounds in yeast expressing human FATP2 (hsFATP2). Compounds were selected for their ability to depress the transport of the fluorescent long chain fatty acid analogue, C1-BODIPY-C12. Among ...


Quantitative Nuclear Proteomics Identifies Mtor Regulation Of Dna Damage Response, Sricharan Bandhakavi, Young-Mi Kim, Seung-Hyun Ro, Hongwei Xie, Getiria Onsongo, Chang-Bong Jun, Do-Hyung Kim, Timothy J. Griffin 2010 University of Minnesota

Quantitative Nuclear Proteomics Identifies Mtor Regulation Of Dna Damage Response, Sricharan Bandhakavi, Young-Mi Kim, Seung-Hyun Ro, Hongwei Xie, Getiria Onsongo, Chang-Bong Jun, Do-Hyung Kim, Timothy J. Griffin

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Cellular nutritional and energy status regulates a wide range of nuclear processes important for cell growth, survival, and metabolic homeostasis. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a key role in the cellular responses to nutrients. However, the nuclear processes governed by mTOR have not been clearly defined. Using isobaric peptide tagging coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry, we performed quantitative proteomics analysis to identify nuclear processes in human cells under control of mTOR. Within 3 h of inhibiting mTOR with rapamycin in HeLa cells, we observed downregulation of nuclear abundance of many proteins involved in translation and RNA modification ...


Diversity Of Protein And Mrna Forms Of Mammalian Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B1 Due To Intronization And Protein Processing, Xinwen Liang, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Deame Hua, Alaattin Kaya, Vadim N. Gladyshev 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Diversity Of Protein And Mrna Forms Of Mammalian Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B1 Due To Intronization And Protein Processing, Xinwen Liang, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Deame Hua, Alaattin Kaya, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are repair enzymes that protect proteins from oxidative stress by catalyzing stereospecific reduction of oxidized methionine residues. MsrB1 is a selenocysteine-containing cytosolic/nuclear Msr with high expression in liver and kidney.

Principal Findings: Here, we identified differences in MsrB1 gene structure among mammals. Human MsrB1 gene consists of four, whereas the corresponding mouse gene of five exons, due to occurrence of an additional intron that flanks the stop signal and covers a large part of the 39-UTR. This intron evolved in a subset of rodents through intronization of exonic sequences, whereas the human gene structure ...


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