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Prediction And Evaluation Of Breast Myopathy, Barbara de Almeida Mallmann 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Prediction And Evaluation Of Breast Myopathy, Barbara De Almeida Mallmann

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Broiler breast myopathies, including woody breast, white striping, and spaghetti breast, negatively impact the industry. Therefore, evaluation, prediction, and frequency of these muscle abnormalities on modern birds are important for decision making. Modern broilers are not highly active and often sit with the breast of the bird resting on the floor. Therefore, the first experiment was to promote bird movement and explore the impact on the breast myopathies. The movement was stimulated by human interaction (walking through pen) and higher light intensity so that birds walked around the pen more often throughout the day. The control group had normal low ...


Technologies To Increase Animal Performance In Beef Production Systems, Caleb P. Weiss 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Technologies To Increase Animal Performance In Beef Production Systems, Caleb P. Weiss

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Three monensin levels during a stocker phase (0, 800, 1600 g/ton in a free choice mineral) and two levels during finishing (0 [U] or 37.5 mg/kg diet DM [M]) were used to determine the effects of monensin supplementation during a stocker and subsequent finishing phase on beef calves. Steers (n = 605, BW = 278 ± 27 kg) were fed pearl millet hay with soybean hull and corn gluten feed supplement (0.5% BW daily [AF basis] Block 1) or grazed fall wheat (Block 2), spring wheat (Block 3), bermudagrass (Blocks 4 & 5) or wheat with mixed-grass baleage (Block 6 ...


The Influence Of Different Packaging Materials And Atmospheric Conditions On The Properties Of Pork Rinds, Kristi Kõrge, Katrin Laos 2019 TalTech (Tallinn University of Technology)

The Influence Of Different Packaging Materials And Atmospheric Conditions On The Properties Of Pork Rinds, Kristi Kõrge, Katrin Laos

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Rancidity development in high fat content products is a common off-flavor flaw in snack foods. Packaging is often used to avoid spoilage and extend shelf-life. The properties of pork rinds packaged in four different packaging materials with and without nitrogen were studied during 120 days of storage (22 °C, RH 60%, absence of light). The influence of different packaging materials and atmospheric conditions on pork rinds’ water activity, hardness, crispness and rancidity development was determined. The PET/PE packaging material had lower barrier properties for the product in both atmospheric conditions compared with PP/metPP (40 and 50 μm) and ...


Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller

Research Reports and Research Bulletins

Agriculture and associated agricultural activities are major contributors to the Arkansas economy. Agriculture is defined as the sum of agricultural production and processing activities, unless otherwise specified, and includes crop and animal production and processing, agricultural support industries, forestry and forest products, and textile goods. Agriculture contributes to the economy through direct agricultural production and value-added processing, and also leads to economic activity in other parts of the economy. This report is the eleventh in a series of reports examining agriculture’s economic contribution to the Arkansas economy. The total economic contribution of agriculture (direct, indirect, and induced effects) on ...


Postnatal Nutrient Repartitioning Due To Adaptive Developmental Programming, Robert J. Posont, Dustin T. Yates 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Postnatal Nutrient Repartitioning Due To Adaptive Developmental Programming, Robert J. Posont, Dustin T. Yates

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The consequences of prenatal stress on lifelong metabolic function and health was first proposed by David Barker and Nicholas Hales with the publication of their Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis in the early 1990s.1,2 Subsequent studies in humans and animals have further demonstrated that stress-induced adaptive fetal programming leads to tissue-specific changes in metabolic function and growth capacity.3,4 Developmental adaptations to the intrauterine nutrient restriction that accompanies most maternofetal stressors target regulatory pathways for nutrient utilization in non-essential tissues such as skeletal muscle.4-6 This aids intrauterine survival by re-appropriating nutrients to support neural, cardiac, and endocrine tissue ...


Utilizing An Electronic Feeder To Measure Mineral And Energy Supplement Intake In Beef Heifers Grazing Native Range, Kacie L. McCarthy, Sarah R. Underdahl, Michael Undi, Stephanie Becker, Carl R. Dahlen 2019 North Dakota State University--Fargo

Utilizing An Electronic Feeder To Measure Mineral And Energy Supplement Intake In Beef Heifers Grazing Native Range, Kacie L. Mccarthy, Sarah R. Underdahl, Michael Undi, Stephanie Becker, Carl R. Dahlen

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

No abstract provided.


The Impacts Of Administering Metabolites Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae On Broiler Performance, Yields And Salmonella Content Of Component Portions, Bill Douglas Potter 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Impacts Of Administering Metabolites Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae On Broiler Performance, Yields And Salmonella Content Of Component Portions, Bill Douglas Potter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The impacts of using health-promoting Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation metabolites in poultry production and processing can be measured in respect to multiple measures of success. Traditionally this yeast-based compound has been administered to poultry, livestock, poultry, and other species to improve animal performance and production volume output. In addition, Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation metabolites have also been shown in more recent research to reduce colonization of pathogenic bacteria in the host organism’s gastro-intestinal tract. In this dissertation, the impacts of administering a functional ingredient containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites on broiler performance measures and pathogen reduction were measured. One of the studies ...


Validation Of Lethality Processes For Products With Slow Come Up Time: Bacon And Bone-In Ham, J. Sindelar, K. Glass, R. Hanson, J. G. Sebranek, J. Cordray, J.S. Dickson 2019 Meat Science & Muscle Biology Laboratory, Madison, WI

Validation Of Lethality Processes For Products With Slow Come Up Time: Bacon And Bone-In Ham, J. Sindelar, K. Glass, R. Hanson, J. G. Sebranek, J. Cordray, J.S. Dickson

Animal Science Publications

Pork bellies and boneless hams were smoked or cooked using unusually long processes to determine the impact of extended come-up times on the populations of Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The products were formulated using brine formulations representative of what might be used in commercial production, and the thermal processes were more than doubled in length. Pork bellies and boneless hams were inoculated on the surface as well as 1 cm below the surface, and samples were collected every 3 h. The populations of C. perfringens (spores and vegetative cells) at internal locations of pork bellies ...


The Potential Role Of Nitrite-Embedded Film Technology In Extending The Color Stability And Shelf Life Of A Cured, Cooked Meat Product, Michael S. Cropp, James S. Dickson, Rodrigo Tarté, Joseph G. Sebranek 2019 Iowa State University

The Potential Role Of Nitrite-Embedded Film Technology In Extending The Color Stability And Shelf Life Of A Cured, Cooked Meat Product, Michael S. Cropp, James S. Dickson, Rodrigo Tarté, Joseph G. Sebranek

Animal Science Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Objectives

Alternatively-cured meats often contain lower amounts of nitrate and/or nitrite in the formulation, which can lead to decreased color stability and reduced shelf life. Alternatively-cured meats rely on natural sources of nitrate and/or nitrite which are primarily derived from vegetable sources, but these natural sources can result in vegetablelike flavors; thus, processors often decrease the relative ingoing level of nitrite and/or nitrate. This reduction can potentially lead to decreased color stability and negatively affect the product’s shelf life. Furthermore, consumer perception of natural sources of nitrite has led to consideration of other nitrite alternatives. The ...


Eating Some Invasive Species Could Help To Mitigate The Impacts Of Climate Change-Related Invasions, And May Increase Future Food Security, Jesse Bull Saffeir 2019 SIT Study Abroad

Eating Some Invasive Species Could Help To Mitigate The Impacts Of Climate Change-Related Invasions, And May Increase Future Food Security, Jesse Bull Saffeir

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate change is predicted to increase the spread and abundance of invasive species and to erode global food security. I hypothesized that by incorporating edible invasive species into local food sheds, these two problems could help to mitigate each other. I set out to answer two questions: could eating invasive species reduce their spread and abundance? And could eating invasive species minimize the impacts of climate-change related food shocks? To answer these questions, I surveyed the existing literature on human consumption of invasive species, created a list of criteria that make an invasive species suitable for management through human consumption ...


Productivity And Meat Quality With Meat Goat Management, Trent Drae Dugas 2019 Louisiana State University

Productivity And Meat Quality With Meat Goat Management, Trent Drae Dugas

LSU Master's Theses

The growth of kid meat goats and their carcass and meat characteristics with monensin sodium or decoquinate coccidiostats in feed were studied. Seventy-three goats of various breeds were divided into six groups with the treatments of control, monensin and decoquinate. Half of the goats were harvested at day 45 and the rest at day 60. The second harvest monensin group had a larger percentage of the goat carcass as the hind leg (P

Supplementation of permanent pasture with sunn hemp forage or concentrate feed were compared for influences on growth, carcass traits, and meat properties of kid meat goats. Goats ...


Maternal Inflammation At Midgestation Impairs Subsequent Fetal Myoblast Function And Skeletal Muscle Growth In Rats, Resulting In Intrauterine Growth Restriction At Term, Caitlin N. Cadaret, Robert J. Posont, Kristin A. Beede, Hannah E. Riley, John Dustin Loy, Dustin T. Yates 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Maternal Inflammation At Midgestation Impairs Subsequent Fetal Myoblast Function And Skeletal Muscle Growth In Rats, Resulting In Intrauterine Growth Restriction At Term, Caitlin N. Cadaret, Robert J. Posont, Kristin A. Beede, Hannah E. Riley, John Dustin Loy, Dustin T. Yates

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Maternal inflammation induces intrauterine growth restriction (MI-IUGR) of the fetus, which compromises metabolic health in human offspring and reduces value in livestock. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal inflammation at midgestation on fetal skeletal muscle growth and myoblast profiles at term. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected daily with bacterial endotoxin (MI-IUGR) or saline (controls) from the 9th to the 11th day of gestational age (dGA; term = 21 dGA). At necropsy on dGA 20, average fetal mass and upper hindlimb cross-sectional areas were reduced (P < 0.05) in MI-IUGR fetuses compared with controls. MyoD+ and myf5+ myoblasts were less abundant (P < 0.05), and myogenin+ myoblasts were more abundant (P < 0.05) in MI-IUGR hindlimb skeletal muscle compared with controls, indicating precocious myoblast differentiation. Type I and Type II hindlimb muscle fibers were smaller (P < 0.05) in MI-IUGR fetuses than in controls, but fiber type proportions did not differ between experimental groups. Fetal blood plasma TNFα concentrations were below detectable amounts in both experimental groups, but skeletal muscle gene expression for the cytokine receptors TNFR1, IL6R, and FN14 was greater (P < 0.05) in MI-IUGR fetuses than controls, perhaps indicating enhanced sensitivity to these cytokines. Maternal blood glucose concentrations at term did not differ between experimental groups, but MI-IUGR fetal blood contained less (P < 0.05) glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Fetal-to-maternal blood glucose ratios were also reduced (P < 0.05), which is indicative of placental insufficiency. Indicators of protein catabolism, including blood plasma urea nitrogen and creatine kinase, were greater (P < 0.05) in MI-IUGR fetuses than in controls. From these findings, we conclude that maternal inflammation at midgestation causes muscle-centric fetal programming that impairs myoblast function, increases protein catabolism, and reduces skeletal muscle growth near term. Fetal muscle sensitivity to inflammatory cytokines appeared to be enhanced after maternal inflammation, which may represent a mechanistic target for improving these outcomes in MI-IUGR fetuses.


Yes-Associated Protein 1 Is Required For Proliferation And Function Of Bovine Granulosa Cells In Vitro, Michele R. Plewes, Xiaoying Hou, Pan Zhang, Aixin Liang, Guohua Hua, Jennifer R. Wood, Andrea S. Cupp, Xiangmin Lv, Cheng Wang, John S. Davis 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Yes-Associated Protein 1 Is Required For Proliferation And Function Of Bovine Granulosa Cells In Vitro, Michele R. Plewes, Xiaoying Hou, Pan Zhang, Aixin Liang, Guohua Hua, Jennifer R. Wood, Andrea S. Cupp, Xiangmin Lv, Cheng Wang, John S. Davis

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a major component of the Hippo signaling pathway. Although the exact extracellular signals that control the Hippo pathway are currently unknown, increasing evidence supports a critical role for the Hippo pathway in embryonic development, regulation of organ size, and carcinogenesis. Granulosa cells (GCs) within the ovarian follicle proliferate and produce steroids and growth factors, which facilitate the growth of follicle and maturation of the oocyte.We hypothesize that YAP1 plays a role in proliferation and estrogen secretion of GCs. In the current study, we examined the expression of the Hippo signaling pathway in bovine ovaries ...


Real Supermodels Wear Wool: Summarizing The Impact Of The Pregnant Sheep As An Animal Model For Adaptive Fetal Programming, Kristin A. Beede, Sean W. Limesand, Jessica L. Petersen, Dustin T. Yates 2019 University of Nebraska Lincoln

Real Supermodels Wear Wool: Summarizing The Impact Of The Pregnant Sheep As An Animal Model For Adaptive Fetal Programming, Kristin A. Beede, Sean W. Limesand, Jessica L. Petersen, Dustin T. Yates

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

• Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) continues to be a global epidemic that is associated with high early-life mortality rates and greater risk for developing metabolic disorders that lower length and quality of life in affected individuals.

• Fetal programming of muscle growth and metabolic function associated with IUGR is often comparable among nonlitter bearing mammalian species, which allows much of the information learned in domestic animal models to be applicable to humans (and other animals).

• Recent studies in sheep models of IUGR have begun to uncover the molecular mechanisms linking adaptive fetal programming and metabolic dysfunction.

• Targets of adaptive fetal programming indicated ...


Longitudinal Study Of Humoral Immunity To Bovine Coronavirus, Virus Shedding, And Treatment For Bovine Respiratory Disease In Pre-Weaned Beef Calves, Aspen M. Workman, Larry A. Kuehn, Tara G. McDaneld, Michael L. Clawson, John Dustin Loy 2019 USDA, ARS, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Longitudinal Study Of Humoral Immunity To Bovine Coronavirus, Virus Shedding, And Treatment For Bovine Respiratory Disease In Pre-Weaned Beef Calves, Aspen M. Workman, Larry A. Kuehn, Tara G. Mcdaneld, Michael L. Clawson, John Dustin Loy

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Background: Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is associated with respiratory infections in cattle of all ages; however, a temporal study to evaluate the effect of BCV immunity on virus shedding and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) incidence in pre-weaned beef calves has not been reported. Thus, we report here a prospective study in three herds of crossbred beef calves (n = 817) with endemic BCV. Serial blood samples for measurement of serum anti-BCV antibody titers and nasal swabs for detection of BCV and other common viral and bacterial BRD pathogens were collected from all calves or subsets of calves at predetermined times from birth ...


Metabolomics Profile And Targeted Lipidomics In Multiple Tissues Associated With Feed Efficiency In Beef Steers, Virginia M. Artegoitia, Andrew P. Foote, Ronald M. Lewis, Harvey C. Freetly 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Metabolomics Profile And Targeted Lipidomics In Multiple Tissues Associated With Feed Efficiency In Beef Steers, Virginia M. Artegoitia, Andrew P. Foote, Ronald M. Lewis, Harvey C. Freetly

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

A study of multiple tissues was conducted to identify potential metabolic differences in cattle differing in feed efficiency. Individual feed intake and body weight was measured on 144 steers during 105 days on a high-concentrate ration. Steers were selected according to differences in average daily gain (ADG) with those with the greatest ADG (n = 8; 1.96 ± 0.02 kg/day) and least ADG (n = 8; 1.57 ± 0.02 kg/day), whose dry matter intake was within 0.32 SD of the mean intake (10.10 ± 0.05 kg/day). Duodenum, liver, adipose, and longissimus-dorsi were collected at slaughter ...


Reducing Methane Production With Corn Oil And Calcium Sulfate: Responses On Whole-Animal Energy And Nitrogen Balance In Dairy Cattle, J. V. Judy, G. C. Bachman, T. M. Brown-Brandl, S. C. Fernando, K. E. Hales, P. S. Miller, R. R. Stowell, P. J. Kononoff 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Reducing Methane Production With Corn Oil And Calcium Sulfate: Responses On Whole-Animal Energy And Nitrogen Balance In Dairy Cattle, J. V. Judy, G. C. Bachman, T. M. Brown-Brandl, S. C. Fernando, K. E. Hales, P. S. Miller, R. R. Stowell, P. J. Kononoff

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The addition of fat and calcium sulfate to diets fed to ruminants has resulted in a reduction in methane production, but the effects on energy balance have not been studied. A study using indirect calorimetry and 16 multiparous (8 Holstein and 8 Jersey; 78 ± 15 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) lactating dairy cows was conducted to determine how mitigating methane production by adding corn oil or calcium sulfate to diets containing reduced-fat distillers grains affects energy and nitrogen balance. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 35-d periods (28 d of adaption and 4 d of collections) was ...


Perturbations In Lineage Specification Of Granulosa And Theca Cells May Alter Corpus Luteum Formation And Function, Mohamed A. Abedel-Majed, Sarah M. Romereim, John S. Davis, Andrea S. Cupp 2019 University of Jordan

Perturbations In Lineage Specification Of Granulosa And Theca Cells May Alter Corpus Luteum Formation And Function, Mohamed A. Abedel-Majed, Sarah M. Romereim, John S. Davis, Andrea S. Cupp

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Anovulation is a major cause of infertility, and it is the major leading reproductive disorder in mammalian females. Without ovulation, an oocyte is not released from the ovarian follicle to be fertilized and a corpus luteum is not formed. The corpus luteum formed from the luteinized somatic follicular cells following ovulation, vasculature cells, and immune cells is critical for progesterone production and maintenance of pregnancy. Follicular theca cells differentiate into small luteal cells (SLCs) that produce progesterone in response to luteinizing hormone (LH), and granulosa cells luteinize to become large luteal cells (LLCs) that have a high rate of basal ...


The Impact Of Heat Load On Cattle, Angela M. Lees, Veerasamy Sejian, Andrea L. Wallage, Cameron C. Steel, Terry L. Mader, Jarrod C. Lees, John B. Gaughan 2019 University of Queensland

The Impact Of Heat Load On Cattle, Angela M. Lees, Veerasamy Sejian, Andrea L. Wallage, Cameron C. Steel, Terry L. Mader, Jarrod C. Lees, John B. Gaughan

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Heat stress and cold stress have a negative influence on cattle welfare and productivity. There have been some studies investigating the influence of cold stress on cattle, however the emphasis within this review is the influence of heat stress on cattle. The impact of hot weather on cattle is of increasing importance due to the changing global environment. Heat stress is a worldwide phenomenon that is associated with reduced animal productivity and welfare, particularly during the summer months. Animal responses to their thermal environment are extremely varied, however, it is clear that the thermal environment influences the health, productivity, and ...


Farm Animals Are Important Biomedical Models, Debora L. Hamernik 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Farm Animals Are Important Biomedical Models, Debora L. Hamernik

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

This issue of Animal Frontiers, “Farm animals are im- portant biomedical models,” describes several examples in which cattle, sheep, pigs, or chickens provide an excellent physiological model for studies related to human health or disease (Figure 1). While previous reports have discussed the use of domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research (Ireland et al., 2008), this issue of Animal Frontiers provides additional and novel examples of the value of farm animals for biomedical re- search. Because farm animals are larger in size than labora- tory species, scientists are able to collect larger volumes and more ...


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