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Transcriptomic Data Of Bovine Ovarian Granulosa Cells Of Control And High A4 Cows, Alexandria P. Snider, Sarah Romereim, Renee McFee Fee, Adam F. Summers, William E. Pohlmeier, Scott G. Kurz, John S. Davis, Jennifer R. Wood, Andrea S. Cupp 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Transcriptomic Data Of Bovine Ovarian Granulosa Cells Of Control And High A4 Cows, Alexandria P. Snider, Sarah Romereim, Renee Mcfee Fee, Adam F. Summers, William E. Pohlmeier, Scott G. Kurz, John S. Davis, Jennifer R. Wood, Andrea S. Cupp

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Bovine GeneChip 1.0 ST Array to determine RNA expression analysis was performed on somatic granulosa cells from two different groups of cows classified based on androstenedione concentration within the follicular fluid (Control vs High A4) of estrogen-active dominant follicles. The normalized linear microarray data was deposited to the NCBI GEO repository (GSE97017 - RNA Expression Data from Bovine Ovarian Granulosa Cells from High or Low Androgen-Content Follicles). Subsequent ANOVA determined genes that were enriched (≥ 1.5 fold more) or decreased (≤ 1.5 fold less) in the High A4 granulosa cells compared to Control granulosa cells and ...


Successful Atac-Seq From Snap-Frozen Equine Tissues, Sichong Peng, Rebecca Bellone, Jessica Lynn Petersen, Theodore S. Kalbfleisch, Carrie J. Finno 2021 University of California-Davis

Successful Atac-Seq From Snap-Frozen Equine Tissues, Sichong Peng, Rebecca Bellone, Jessica Lynn Petersen, Theodore S. Kalbfleisch, Carrie J. Finno

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

An assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) has become an increasingly popular method to assess genome-wide chromatin accessibility in isolated nuclei from fresh tissues. However, many biobanks contain only snap-frozen tissue samples. While ATAC-seq has been applied to frozen brain tissues in human, its applicability in a wide variety of tissues in horse remains unclear. The Functional Annotation of Animal Genome (FAANG) project is an international collaboration aimed to provide high quality functional annotation of animal genomes. The equine FAANG initiative has generated a biobank of over 80 tissues from two reference female animals and experiments to begin ...


Effects Of Retail Case Environment And Led Lighting Temperature On Color Of Ground Beef Patties, Mesa Kutz 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Retail Case Environment And Led Lighting Temperature On Color Of Ground Beef Patties, Mesa Kutz

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objective of this study was to explore different type of retail cases and case environments, primarily lighting, to quantify the impact on shelf life. Coarse ground 80:20 beef from a local retail establishment was acquired between 7 and 10 d from the box date and fine ground through a 9.5 mm grinder plate, and then formed into 150.25 g patties with an automatic patty forming machine. Each patty was then individually packaged in PVC-overwrap packages and randomly assigned to one of the four different treatments: open, multideck cases with 3000 K lighting (OPEN3000),open 3500 K ...


Assessment Of Meat Quality Attributes Of Four Commercial Broiler Strains Processed At Various Market Weights, Ashleigh Jo Mueller 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Assessment Of Meat Quality Attributes Of Four Commercial Broiler Strains Processed At Various Market Weights, Ashleigh Jo Mueller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As the demand for poultry meat continues to grow, the industry is challenged with how to meet these needs of consumers. The growth rate of broilers is continuously improving in order to increase production efficiently resulting in greater yields and an increase in product to satisfy consumer needs. However, the industry has seen an increase in quality issues of the meat as growth rates and growth periods continue to increase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various strains (standard and high-yielding) and target weights on meat quality attributes such as pH, water holding capacity (WHC ...


Sustainable Winter-Feeding Practices For Meat Goats Within The Southeastern United States, Nikisha Ryan, Nar Gurung, Jeremy Byrant, Frank Abrahamsen, Wendell McElhenney 2021 Tuskegee University

Sustainable Winter-Feeding Practices For Meat Goats Within The Southeastern United States, Nikisha Ryan, Nar Gurung, Jeremy Byrant, Frank Abrahamsen, Wendell Mcelhenney

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Winter feeding systems were evaluated on male Kiko meat goats against the traditional practice of raising goats in the winter months. Forty-Five Kiko bucks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments; Treatment 1, Treatment 2, and Treatment 3 consisted, respectively, of Cosaque Oats, annual Ryegrass, Crimson Clover mix, and 1.0% of BW concentrate supplementation with free choice hay. Forage clippings were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber. Body weights were monitored over the grazing period. Blood samples were collected during the experiment, and animals were slaughtered for the evaluation of carcass traits. Data were ...


Effects Of Farrowing Stall Layout And Number Of Heat Lamps On Sow And Piglet Behavior, Suzanne M. Leonard, Hongwei Xin, Tami M. Brown-Brandl, Brett C. Ramirez, Anna K. Johnson, Somak Dutta, Gary A. Rohrer 2021 Iowa State University

Effects Of Farrowing Stall Layout And Number Of Heat Lamps On Sow And Piglet Behavior, Suzanne M. Leonard, Hongwei Xin, Tami M. Brown-Brandl, Brett C. Ramirez, Anna K. Johnson, Somak Dutta, Gary A. Rohrer

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Farrowing stalls are used in the United States swine industry to reduce pre-weaning piglet mortality, enable efficient individual animal management, and decrease facility construction and operating costs. The quantity and quality of space provided for sows and piglets in farrowing stalls are important economic and welfare considerations. To further explore the impacts of farrowing stall space allocation, a large-scale field study was conducted to compare sow and piglet behavior when housed in three farrowing stall layouts (TSL – traditional stall layout, ECSL – expanded creep area stall layout, ESCSL – expanded sow and creep area stall layout) with either one or two heat ...


A High-Androgen Microenvironment Inhibits Granulosa Cell Proliferation And Alters Cell Identity, Renee McFee Fee, Sarah Romereim, Alexandria P. Snider, Adam F. Summers, William E. Pohlmeier, Scott G. Kurz, Robert A. Cushman, John S. Davis, Jennifer R. Wood, Andrea S. Cupp 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A High-Androgen Microenvironment Inhibits Granulosa Cell Proliferation And Alters Cell Identity, Renee Mcfee Fee, Sarah Romereim, Alexandria P. Snider, Adam F. Summers, William E. Pohlmeier, Scott G. Kurz, Robert A. Cushman, John S. Davis, Jennifer R. Wood, Andrea S. Cupp

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

A naturally occurring bovine model with excess follicular fluid androstenedione (High A4), reduced fertility, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like characteristics has been identified. We hypothesized High A4 granulosa cells (GCs) would exhibit altered cell proliferation and/or steroidogenesis. Microarrays of Control and High A4 GCs combined with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that High A4 GCs had cell cycle inhibition and increased expression of microRNAs that inhibit cell cycle genes. Granulosa cell culture confirmed that A4 treatment decreased GC proliferation, increased anti-Müllerian hormone, and increased mRNA for CTNNBIP1. Increased CTNNBIP1 prevents CTNNB1 from interacting with members of the WNT signaling ...


Evaluation Of Supplementing Whole Cottonseed Within Feedlot Rations During The Stockerphase Of Production With The Goal Of Increasing Average Daily Gain, Emily Lauren Cook 2021 Western Kentucky University

Evaluation Of Supplementing Whole Cottonseed Within Feedlot Rations During The Stockerphase Of Production With The Goal Of Increasing Average Daily Gain, Emily Lauren Cook

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Beef calves are weaned at 6-months of age and enter the stocker phase of beef production. Stocker producers have the primary goal of adding weight inexpensively to increase profit on weaned calves. Whole cottonseed is an inexpensive feed ingredient that is popularly top-dressed within dairy and finishing beef diets and is high in protein and energy. During three periods lasting 50-days (fall 2019, fall 2020, and spring 2020), freshly weaned calves were placed on a finishing ration with the goal of increasing average daily gain. Base rations were calculated at 25% tall fescue hay, 23% corn, and 52% distillers’ solubles ...


Maternal Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation And Rate Of Maternal Weight Gain Affects Placental Expression Of Energy Metabolism And Transport-Related Genes, Wellison J.S. Diniz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Pawel P. Borowicz, Alison K. Ward, Kevin K. Sedivec, Kacie L. McCathy, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri T. Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, J Chris Forcherio, Ronald R. Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen 2021 North Dakota State University--Fargo

Maternal Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation And Rate Of Maternal Weight Gain Affects Placental Expression Of Energy Metabolism And Transport-Related Genes, Wellison J.S. Diniz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Pawel P. Borowicz, Alison K. Ward, Kevin K. Sedivec, Kacie L. Mccathy, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri T. Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, J Chris Forcherio, Ronald R. Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Maternal nutrients are essential for proper fetal and placental development and function. However, the effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation under two rates of maternal weight gain on placental genome-wide gene expression have not been investigated so far. Furthermore, biological processes and pathways in the placenta that act in response to early maternal nutrition are yet to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the impact of maternal vitamin and mineral supplementation (from pre-breeding to day 83 post-breeding) and two rates of gain during the first 83 days of pregnancy on the gene expression of placental caruncles (CAR; maternal placenta) and cotyledons ...


“Adopt-A-Tissue” Initiative Advances Efforts To Identify Tissue-Specific Histone Marks In The Mare, N B. Kingsley, Natasha A. Hamilton, Gabriella Lindgren, Ludovic Orlando, Ernie Bailey, Samantha Brooks, Molly McCue, T S. Kalbfleisch, James N. MacLeod, Jessica L. Petersen, Carrie J. Finno, Rebecca R. Bellone 2021 University of California, Davis

“Adopt-A-Tissue” Initiative Advances Efforts To Identify Tissue-Specific Histone Marks In The Mare, N B. Kingsley, Natasha A. Hamilton, Gabriella Lindgren, Ludovic Orlando, Ernie Bailey, Samantha Brooks, Molly Mccue, T S. Kalbfleisch, James N. Macleod, Jessica L. Petersen, Carrie J. Finno, Rebecca R. Bellone

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

No abstract provided.


Sensitivity Of Wild-Type And Rifampicin-Resistant O157 And Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli To Elevated Hydrostatic Pressure And Lactic Acid In Ground Meat And Meat Homogenate, Abimbola Allison, Aliyar Cyrus Fouladkhah 2021 Tennessee State University

Sensitivity Of Wild-Type And Rifampicin-Resistant O157 And Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli To Elevated Hydrostatic Pressure And Lactic Acid In Ground Meat And Meat Homogenate, Abimbola Allison, Aliyar Cyrus Fouladkhah

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Various serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli have been epidemiologically associated with foodborne disease episodes in the United States and around the globe, with E. coli O157: H7 as the dominant serogroup of public health concern. Serogroups other than O157 are currently associated with about 60% of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli related foodborne illness episodes. Current study evaluated sensitivity of the O157 and epidemiologically important non-O157 serogroups of the pathogen to elevated hydrostatic pressure and 1% lactic acid. Pressure intensity of 250 to 650 MPa were applied for 0 to 7 min for inactivation of strain mixtures of wild-type and ...


Generation Of A Biobank From Two Adult Thoroughbred Stallions For The Functional Annotation Of Animal Genomes Initiative, Callum G. Donnelly, Rebecca R. Bellone, Erin N. Hales, Annee Nguyen, Scott A. Katzman, Ghislaine A. Dujovne, Kelly E. Knickelbein, Felipe Avila, Ted S. Kalbfleisch, Elena Giulotto, Nicole B. Kingsley, Jocelyn Tanaka, Elizabeth Esdaile, Sichong Peng, Anna Dahlgren, Anna Fuller, Michael J. Mienaltowski, Terje Raudsepp, Verena K. Affolter, Jessica L. Petersen, Carrie J. Finno 2021 University of California, Davis

Generation Of A Biobank From Two Adult Thoroughbred Stallions For The Functional Annotation Of Animal Genomes Initiative, Callum G. Donnelly, Rebecca R. Bellone, Erin N. Hales, Annee Nguyen, Scott A. Katzman, Ghislaine A. Dujovne, Kelly E. Knickelbein, Felipe Avila, Ted S. Kalbfleisch, Elena Giulotto, Nicole B. Kingsley, Jocelyn Tanaka, Elizabeth Esdaile, Sichong Peng, Anna Dahlgren, Anna Fuller, Michael J. Mienaltowski, Terje Raudsepp, Verena K. Affolter, Jessica L. Petersen, Carrie J. Finno

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Following the successful creation of a biobank from two adult Thoroughbred mares, this study aimed to recapitulate sample collection in two adult Thoroughbred stallions as part of the Functional Annotation of the Animal Genome (FAANG) initiative. Both stallions underwent thorough physical, lameness, neurologic, and ophthalmic (including electroretinography) examinations prior to humane euthanasia. Epididymal sperm was recovered from both stallions immediately postmortem and cryopreserved. Aseptically collected full thickness skin biopsies were used to isolate, culture and cryopreserve dermal fibroblasts. Serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and gastrointestinal content from various locations were collected and cryopreserved. Under guidance of a board-certified veterinary anatomic ...


Genomic Comparisons Of Persian Kurdish, Persian Arabian And American Thoroughbred Horse Populations, Navid Yousefi-Mashouf, Hassan Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Ardeshir Nejati-Javaremi, Ernest Bailey, Jessica L. Petersen 2021 University of Kentucky

Genomic Comparisons Of Persian Kurdish, Persian Arabian And American Thoroughbred Horse Populations, Navid Yousefi-Mashouf, Hassan Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Ardeshir Nejati-Javaremi, Ernest Bailey, Jessica L. Petersen

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The present research aimed to characterize the Persian Kurdish horse population relative to the Persian Arabian and American Thoroughbred populations using genome-wide SNP data. Fifty-eight Kurdish, 38 Persian Arabian and 83 Thoroughbred horses were genotyped across 670,796 markers. After quality control and pruning to eliminate linkage disequilibrium between loci which resulted in 13,554 SNPs in 52 Kurdish, 24 Persian Arabian and 58 Thoroughbred horses, the Kurdish horses were generally distinguished from the Persian Arabian samples by Principal Component Analyses, cluster analyses and calculation of pairwise FST. Both Persian breeds were discriminated from the Thoroughbred. Pairwise FST ...


Longitudinal Assessment Of The Bovine Ocular Bacterial Community Dynamics In Calves, Alison Bartenslager, Nirosh D. Aluthge, John Dustin Loy, Matthew M. Hille, Matthew L. Spangler, Samodha C. Fernando 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Longitudinal Assessment Of The Bovine Ocular Bacterial Community Dynamics In Calves, Alison Bartenslager, Nirosh D. Aluthge, John Dustin Loy, Matthew M. Hille, Matthew L. Spangler, Samodha C. Fernando

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Background: Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), commonly known as pinkeye, is one of the most significant diseases of beef cattle. As such, IBK costs the US beef industry at least 150 million annually. However, strategies to prevent IBK are limited, with most cases resulting in treatment with antibiotics once the disease has developed. Longitudinal studies evaluating establishment of the ocular microbiota may identify critical risk periods for IBK outbreaks or changes in the microbiota that may predispose animals to IBK.

Results: In an attempt to characterize the establishment and colonization patterns of the bovine ocular microbiota, we conducted a longitudinal study ...


Longitudinal Assessment Of The Bovine Ocular Bacterial Community Dynamics In Calves, Alison Bartenslager, Nirosh D. Aluthge, John Dustin Loy 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Longitudinal Assessment Of The Bovine Ocular Bacterial Community Dynamics In Calves, Alison Bartenslager, Nirosh D. Aluthge, John Dustin Loy

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Background: Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), commonly known as pinkeye, is one of the most significant diseases of beef cattle. As such, IBK costs the US beef industry at least 150 million annually. However, strategies to prevent IBK are limited, with most cases resulting in treatment with antibiotics once the disease has developed. Longitudinal studies evaluating establishment of the ocular microbiota may identify critical risk periods for IBK outbreaks or changes in the microbiota that may predispose animals to IBK.

Results: In an attempt to characterize the establishment and colonization patterns of the bovine ocular microbiota, we conducted a longitudinal study ...


Utilizing An Electronic Feeder To Measure Individual Mineral Intake, Feeding Behavior, And Growth Performance Of Cow–Calf Pairs Grazing Native Range1, Kacie L. McCathy, Michael Undi, Stephanie Becker, Carl R. Dahlen 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Utilizing An Electronic Feeder To Measure Individual Mineral Intake, Feeding Behavior, And Growth Performance Of Cow–Calf Pairs Grazing Native Range1, Kacie L. Mccathy, Michael Undi, Stephanie Becker, Carl R. Dahlen

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Crossbred Angus cow–calf pairs (n = 28 pairs) at the Central Grasslands Research Extension Center (Streeter, ND) were used to evaluate an electronic feeder to monitor individual mineral intake and feeding behavior and their relationship with growth performance and liver mineral concentrations. Cows and calves were fitted with radio frequency identification ear tags that allowed access to an electronic feeder (SmartFeed system; C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) and were provided ad libitum minerals (Purina Wind and Rain Storm, Land O’Lakes, Inc., Arden Hills, MN). Mineral intake, number of visits, and duration at the feeder were recorded over a 95-d ...


Effects Of Increasing Dietary Oil Inclusion From Different Sources On Growth Performance, Carcass And Meat Quality Traits, And Fatty Acid Profile In Genetically Lean Immunocastrated Male Pigs, V. V. Almeida, J. P. M. Silva, A. P. Schinckel, A. N. Meira, G. C. M. Costa Monteiro Moreira, J. D. Gomes, M, D. Poleti, M. D. B. Dargelio, I. Patinho, C. J. Contreras-Castillo, L. L. Coutinho, G. B. Mourão, J. M. Reecy, D. Koltes, N. V. L. Serão, L. C. A. Regitano, H. Fukumasu, A. P. L. Brustolini, S. M. Alencar, A. Luchiari Filho, A. S. M. Cesar 2021 Federal University of Goiás

Effects Of Increasing Dietary Oil Inclusion From Different Sources On Growth Performance, Carcass And Meat Quality Traits, And Fatty Acid Profile In Genetically Lean Immunocastrated Male Pigs, V. V. Almeida, J. P. M. Silva, A. P. Schinckel, A. N. Meira, G. C. M. Costa Monteiro Moreira, J. D. Gomes, M, D. Poleti, M. D. B. Dargelio, I. Patinho, C. J. Contreras-Castillo, L. L. Coutinho, G. B. Mourão, J. M. Reecy, D. Koltes, N. V. L. Serão, L. C. A. Regitano, H. Fukumasu, A. P. L. Brustolini, S. M. Alencar, A. Luchiari Filho, A. S. M. Cesar

Animal Science Publications

Background There has been an increased interest in nutritional strategies to manipulate the fatty acid profile of pigs. Dietary regimens involving the use of oils that are high in monosaturated fatty acid (MUFA), primarily oleic acid (OA), such as canola oil (CO), as well as in omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), which are found in fish oil (FO), have been investigated aiming healthier fatty acid profile cuts, with a higher ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids. Therefore, the effects of including 3% soybean oil (SO), CO, or FO in growing-finishing pig diets vs. feeding a standard commercial ...


Nutritional Approaches To Slow Late Finishing Pig Growth: Implications On Carcass Composition And Pork Quality, Emma T. Helm, Jason W. Ross, John F. Patience, Steven M. Lonergan, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Laura L. Greiner, Leah M. Reever, Chad W. Hastad, Emily K. Arkfeld, Nicholas K. Gabler 2021 Iowa State University

Nutritional Approaches To Slow Late Finishing Pig Growth: Implications On Carcass Composition And Pork Quality, Emma T. Helm, Jason W. Ross, John F. Patience, Steven M. Lonergan, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Laura L. Greiner, Leah M. Reever, Chad W. Hastad, Emily K. Arkfeld, Nicholas K. Gabler

Animal Science Publications

Although pork producers typically aim to optimize growth rates, occasionally it is necessary to slow growth, such as when harvest facility capacity is limited. In finishing pigs, numerous dietary strategies can be used to slow growth so pigs are at optimal slaughter body weights when harvest facility capacity and/or access is restored. However, the impact of these diets on pork carcass quality is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dietary strategies to slow growth in late finishing pigs and evaluate their effects on carcass composition and pork quality. Mixed-sex pigs (n = 897; 125 ± 2 ...


Psxii-19 Urine Metabolomics Analysis Associated With Feed Efficiency On Crossbred Steers During The Growing And Finishing Period On Forage- And Concentrate- Based Diets., Virginia M. Artegoitia, John Newman, Ronald M. Lewis, Andrew P. Foote, Harvey C. Freetly 2021 USDA ARS

Psxii-19 Urine Metabolomics Analysis Associated With Feed Efficiency On Crossbred Steers During The Growing And Finishing Period On Forage- And Concentrate- Based Diets., Virginia M. Artegoitia, John Newman, Ronald M. Lewis, Andrew P. Foote, Harvey C. Freetly

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

A discovery project to identify non‐invasive biomarkers that can detect subtle metabolic discrepancies for cattle feed efficiency was performed using untargeted and targeted urine metabolomics by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual feed intake and body weight gain were measured in crossbred steers (n = 80) on a forage-based growing ration (stage-1) followed by a high-concentrate diet finishing ration (stage- 2). Urine was collected on study days 0, 21, 42, 63, and 83 for each dietary stage. In total, 28 steers with the greatest and the least average daily-gain (ADG) within 0.32 SD of the mean of dry-matter-intake (DMI) were ...


Comparison Of The Physical Attributes Of Plant-Based Ground Beef Alternatives To Ground Beef, K. M. Harr, S. G. Davis, S. B. Bigger, D. U. Thomson, M. D. Chao, J. L. Vipham, M. D. Apley, S. M. Ensley, M. D. Haub, M. D. Miesner, A. J. Tarpoff, K C. Olson, T. G. O'Quinn 2021 Kansas State University

Comparison Of The Physical Attributes Of Plant-Based Ground Beef Alternatives To Ground Beef, K. M. Harr, S. G. Davis, S. B. Bigger, D. U. Thomson, M. D. Chao, J. L. Vipham, M. D. Apley, S. M. Ensley, M. D. Haub, M. D. Miesner, A. J. Tarpoff, K C. Olson, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical attributes of three different plant-based, ground beef alternatives in comparison to ground beef of three different fat percentages.

Study Description: Ground beef of three different fat percentages, a retail pea protein-based ground beef alternative, and a traditional soy-based ground beef alternative were obtained from retail stores (n = 15 lots/treatment). Samples from 15 lots of a foodservice soy protein-based ground beef alternative were obtained from a foodservice chain. All samples were fabricated into 0.25 lb patties assigned to one of four assays: color analysis, texture profile analysis, shear ...


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