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Engaging Farmers, Culinary Schools, And Communities In Value-Added Production To Strengthen Local Food Systems, Lauren B. Errickson, Ethan D. Schoolman, Virginia Quick, Sarah Davis, Anthony Capece 2022 Rutgers Cooperative Extension

Engaging Farmers, Culinary Schools, And Communities In Value-Added Production To Strengthen Local Food Systems, Lauren B. Errickson, Ethan D. Schoolman, Virginia Quick, Sarah Davis, Anthony Capece

The Journal of Extension

Value-added products can generate farm income and improve community food access, yet lack of available kitchen infrastructure and labor can limit farm production capacity. This project explored how community-based culinary schools might fill the gap. A unique “product share” model was identified and piloted, meeting the collective needs of farmers, a culinary school, and urban consumers. By researching farmer crop availability and business model preferences, and aligning value-added production with community food preferences, we demonstrate a successful pilot indicative that similar initiatives can be replicated in other metropolitan areas, with potential to engage cross-disciplinary extension professionals.


Protecting Cattle Feedyard Workers In The Central States Region: Exploring State, Regional, And National Data On Fatal And Nonfatal Injuries In Agriculture And The Beef Production Sector, Athena K. Ramos, Suraj Adhikari, Risto Rautiainen, Aaron Yoder 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Protecting Cattle Feedyard Workers In The Central States Region: Exploring State, Regional, And National Data On Fatal And Nonfatal Injuries In Agriculture And The Beef Production Sector, Athena K. Ramos, Suraj Adhikari, Risto Rautiainen, Aaron Yoder

The Journal of Extension

Working in agriculture can be dangerous. Despite ongoing efforts of Extension, animal production worker safety has not been adequately addressed. We present state, regional, and national counts and rates on fatal and nonfatal injuries in agriculture and animal production using publicly available data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. We found that animal production had a high number of fatal injuries and a higher rate of nonfatal injuries than the average within agriculture. More needs to be done to protect livestock workers from injury. Extension professionals can play a key role in increasing safety knowledge and changing behaviors.


Weather Information And Decision-Support Tool Needs Assessment, Lily Calderwood, Glen Koehler, Sean Birkel, Erin H. Roche 2022 University of Maine Extension

Weather Information And Decision-Support Tool Needs Assessment, Lily Calderwood, Glen Koehler, Sean Birkel, Erin H. Roche

The Journal of Extension

University of Maine researchers developed three commodity-specific grower focus groups (lowbush blueberry, apple, mixed vegetable) to discuss and survey 1) current access to weather information, and 2) interest in weather-based decision support tools. NOAA National Weather Service (30%) (n=47) was most commonly cited as a weather information source. Growers ranked greater forecast accuracy (31%) and localization (19%) (n=48) as highest priorities. Only 34% of growers reported current use of weather-based decision support tools, but 86% expressed interest in future use (n=134). The project team is using grower input to improve weather data access and decision-support tools for Maine farmers.


Teaching Educators Basic Fruit Tree Grafting Methods, Jeffrey C. Wilson, Wayne Porter, Casey Barickman 2022 Mississippi State University

Teaching Educators Basic Fruit Tree Grafting Methods, Jeffrey C. Wilson, Wayne Porter, Casey Barickman

The Journal of Extension

Hands-on education has proven to be successful in teaching basic grafting methods. MSU Extension developed and conducted eleven statewide workshops teaching Extension Agents and Master Gardeners preferred fruit tree grafting methods. The hands-on workshops provided specialists, agents, and Master Gardeners training on teaching fruit tree grafting classes for clientele. Each workshop consisted of a pre-test, a PowerPoint presentation, a post-test, and a grafting demonstration. Post-test scores showed a significant gain in knowledge over pre-test scores. This training can be replicated/adapted by other organizations to conduct educational outreach.


The Heterogeneity In The Landscape Of Gene Dominance In Maize Is Accompanied By Unique Chromatin Environments, Liangwei Yin, Gen Xu, Jinliang Yang, Meixia Zhao 2022 Miami University

The Heterogeneity In The Landscape Of Gene Dominance In Maize Is Accompanied By Unique Chromatin Environments, Liangwei Yin, Gen Xu, Jinliang Yang, Meixia Zhao

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Subgenome dominance after whole-genome duplication (WGD) has been observed in many plant species. However, the degree to which the chromatin environment affects this bias has not been explored. Here, we compared the dominant subgenome (maize1) and the recessive subgenome (maize2) with respect to patterns of sequence substitutions, genes expression, transposable element accumulation, small interfering RNAs, DNA methylation, histone modifications, and accessible chromatin regions (ACRs). Our data show that the degree of bias between subgenomes for all the measured variables does not vary significantly when both of the WGD genes are located in pericentromeric regions. Our data further indicate that the …


Next-Generation Technologies Unlock New Possibilities To Track Rangeland Productivity And Quantify Multi-Scale Conservation Outcomes, Caleb P. Roberts, David E. Naugle, Brady W. Allred, Victoria M. Donovan, Dillon T. Fogarty, Matthew O. Jones, Jeremy D. Maestas, Andrew C. Olsen, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr 2022 University of Arkansas

Next-Generation Technologies Unlock New Possibilities To Track Rangeland Productivity And Quantify Multi-Scale Conservation Outcomes, Caleb P. Roberts, David E. Naugle, Brady W. Allred, Victoria M. Donovan, Dillon T. Fogarty, Matthew O. Jones, Jeremy D. Maestas, Andrew C. Olsen, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Historically, relying on plot-level inventories impeded our ability to quantify large-scale change in plant biomass, a key indicator of conservation practice outcomes in rangeland systems. Recent technological advances enable assessment at scales appropriate to inform management by providing spatially comprehensive estimates of productivity that are partitioned by plant functional group across all contiguous US rangelands. We partnered with the Sage Grouse and Lesser Prairie-Chicken Initiatives and the Nebraska Natural Legacy Project to demonstrate the ability of these new datasets to quantify multi-scale changes and heterogeneity in plant biomass following mechanical tree removal, prescribed fire, and prescribed grazing. In Oregon’s sagebrush …


Broiler Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines, Nelson E. Ward 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Broiler Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines, Nelson E. Ward

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

In a time of record feed prices, nutritionists and production managers continue to look for opportunities to lower growout costs. Even though their contribution seldom exceeds 1-2% of feed costs, vitamins are not immune to this cost-crunching scrutiny. Furthermore, in late 2017, an unparalleled drop in global vitamin supply resulted in sharply increased prices, and in some cases, outright shortages. Such events have placed pressure on vitamin fortification levels in broiler feeds. Nutritionists decide on the fortification rates based on a variety of criteria – bird age, production phase, field experience, research trials, and so forth. The rapid change in …


Cytogenetic And Genomic Characterization Of A Novel Tall Wheatgrass‑Derived Fhb7 Allele Integrated Into Wheat B Genome, Wei Zhang, Tatiana Danilova, Mingyi Zhang, Shuangfeng Ren, Xianwen Zhu, Qijun Zhang, Shaobin Zhong, Linda Dykes, Jason Fiedler, Steven Xu, Katherine Frels, Stephen Wegulo, Jeffrey Boehm Jr., Xiwen Cai 2022 Shanxi Agricultural University, North Dakota State University

Cytogenetic And Genomic Characterization Of A Novel Tall Wheatgrass‑Derived Fhb7 Allele Integrated Into Wheat B Genome, Wei Zhang, Tatiana Danilova, Mingyi Zhang, Shuangfeng Ren, Xianwen Zhu, Qijun Zhang, Shaobin Zhong, Linda Dykes, Jason Fiedler, Steven Xu, Katherine Frels, Stephen Wegulo, Jeffrey Boehm Jr., Xiwen Cai

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

A novel tall wheatgrass-derived (Thinopyrum elongatum, genome EE) Fhb7 allele, designated Fhb7The2, was identified and integrated into the wheat B genome through a small 7B–7E translocation (7BS·7BL–7EL) involving the terminal regions of the long arms. Fhb7The2 conditions significant Type II resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. Integration of Fhb7The2 into the wheat B genome makes this wild species-derived FHB resistance gene usable for breeding in both common and durum wheat. By contrast, other Fhb7 introgression lines involving wheat chromosome 7D can be utilized only in common wheat breeding programs, not in durum …


How Digital Is Agriculture In A Subset Of Countries From South America? Adoption And Limitations, Laila A. Puntel, É. L. Bolfe, R. J. M. Melchiori, R. Ortega, G. Tiscornia, A. Roel, F. Scaramuzza, S. Best, A. G. Berger, D. S. S. Hansel, D. Palacios Durán, G. R. Balboa 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

How Digital Is Agriculture In A Subset Of Countries From South America? Adoption And Limitations, Laila A. Puntel, É. L. Bolfe, R. J. M. Melchiori, R. Ortega, G. Tiscornia, A. Roel, F. Scaramuzza, S. Best, A. G. Berger, D. S. S. Hansel, D. Palacios Durán, G. R. Balboa

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Digital agriculture (DA) can contribute solutions to meet an increase in healthy, nutritious, and affordable food demands in an efficient and sustainable way. South America (SA) is one of the main grain and protein producers in the world but the status of DA in the region is unknown. A systematic review and case studies from Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile were conducted to address the following objectives: (1) quantify adoption of existing DA technologies, (2) identify limitations for DA adoption; and (3) summarise existing metrics to benchmark DA benefits. Level of DA adoption was led by Brazil and Argentina followed …


Cropland Reference Ecological Unit: A Land Classification Unit For Comparative Soil Studies, Saurav Das, Bijesh Maharjan 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Cropland Reference Ecological Unit: A Land Classification Unit For Comparative Soil Studies, Saurav Das, Bijesh Maharjan

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

There is a growing consensus on a need for measuring the dynamic soil properties of croplands and even comparisons with a reference state or native land. These measurements and paired comparisons will create the capacity to determine soil health management effects and targets. However, the complex soil heterogeneity and climate variations make soil health potential variable and confound the effects of land-use and management practices and comparisons between soils from different sites. Identifying a discrete landmass unit where all soils have similar health potential will be critical in conducting meaningful comparative studies and measuring the impact of conservation practices. This …


Recent Findings On Phosphorus Digestibility Of Feed Ingredients In Broilers, Jay Hampton, Wenting Li, Franco Mussini, Katie Hilton, Janet Remus, Samuel J. Rochell 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Recent Findings On Phosphorus Digestibility Of Feed Ingredients In Broilers, Jay Hampton, Wenting Li, Franco Mussini, Katie Hilton, Janet Remus, Samuel J. Rochell

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Accurately meeting the dietary P needs of broilers is critical to ensure optimal bird performance, health, and welfare without causing undue environmental burdens associated with excess dietary P excretion. Phosphorus is commonly supplied in broiler diets from inorganic phosphates derived from non-renewable sources, but it has been estimated that peak P production will occur between 2030-2040 and that the global supply of P could be depleted within this century (Cordell and Drangert, 2009; Nest and Cordell, 2012). To address these concerns, inorganic P use in agriculture, including use in broiler diet formulation, requires careful stewardship. To this end, the dietary …


Reduction Of Protein Levels In Broiler Feed For Commercial Application – A German Case, Andreas Lemme, Kilian Fenske, Heiner Westendarp, Mathias Guhe, Elmar Rother 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Reduction Of Protein Levels In Broiler Feed For Commercial Application – A German Case, Andreas Lemme, Kilian Fenske, Heiner Westendarp, Mathias Guhe, Elmar Rother

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

A project was initiated to apply dietary CP reduction under commercial conditions. The main objective was to demonstrate and validate that dietary CP can be reduced without compromising broiler performance in a production system which is already rather efficient. In addition, we wanted to demonstrate the potential of dietary CP reduction on reducing N-excretions especially in the context of German revised regulations and monitoring attempts. Finally, as previous research suggested, few further aspects such as impact of dietary CP reduction on litter quality and quantity, footpad health, change of ingredient inclusion levels and related impact on sustainability impact factors were …


Application Of Simulation Modelling In Broiler Integration: Is It A Necessary Nutritional Tool?, Peter Chrystal 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Application Of Simulation Modelling In Broiler Integration: Is It A Necessary Nutritional Tool?, Peter Chrystal

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Modelling techniques have been used in many industries globally to illustrate to others an understanding of the way processes work. Also, engineers and scientists employ models to predict the consequences of various courses of action. Simple pictorial models, such as the diagram of the chicken digestive system, are useful in education and may be more suitable than a photograph for the purposes of explaining how the animal converts ingested feed into components that can be assimilated, leaving residue that is excreted. Complex, predictive models seek to quantify a specified outcome based on defined inputs. Many attempts have been made over …


State Of The Art Pullet And Breeder Nutrition, Rick van Emous 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

State Of The Art Pullet And Breeder Nutrition, Rick Van Emous

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

During the last six to seven decades, broilers have been successfully selected for maximum growth and feed efficiency (Zuidhof et al., 2014). Modern fast-growing broilers reach a body weight of 2.0 to 2.5 kg in 35 to 45 days with an average daily growth of 55 or more gram a day (Augère-Granier, 2019). In a study with different broiler strains representative of broilers in 1957 or 1978 were compared with a broiler strain from 2005 (Zuidhof et al., 2014). The 2005 strain showed, over a 56-day growth period, a 4.6 times higher growth rate and a 50% lower feed conversion …


Broiler Breeder Males: Feed And Nutrition Discussion, Benton Hudson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Broiler Breeder Males: Feed And Nutrition Discussion, Benton Hudson

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The methods for feeding broiler breeder males have evolved over recent decades, and further revisions will likely be needed as males become more challenging to manage. Since the introduction of separate male feeding systems in the early 1980’s, breeder males’ nutrient needs have been better managed via daily feed restriction. If a breeder operation can effectively produce, haul, and store a separate male diet, then it provides more options to use different nutrient levels or feed additives that are designed to enhance fertility. This article will outline the history of male-separate feeding and revisit nutritional research on fertility of broiler …


Amino Acids Were Not All Created Equal, Peter H. Selle, Shemil P. Macelline, Peter V. Chrystal, Sonia Y. Liu 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Amino Acids Were Not All Created Equal, Peter H. Selle, Shemil P. Macelline, Peter V. Chrystal, Sonia Y. Liu

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The contention that amino acids were not all created equal is based on the simple premise that intestinal uptakes of non-bound (synthetic, crystalline, feed-grade) amino acids are more rapid than their protein-bound counterparts. The post-enteral ramifications of this difference in bioequivalence are amplified in broiler chickens given their express growth rates and just one complication is the post-prandial oxidation of amino acids. The lack of bioequivalence between non-bound and protein-bound amino acids is a real obstacle to the development and adoption of reduced-crude protein diets that have the potential to promote sustainable chicken-meat production Thus, the purpose of this paper …


Recent Advancements On Calcium And Phosphorus Recommendations In Broilers, Justina Caldas, Marcelo Silva 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Recent Advancements On Calcium And Phosphorus Recommendations In Broilers, Justina Caldas, Marcelo Silva

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Calcium and phosphorus have been recognized essential nutrients in chickens since 1950’s (Lesson & Summers, 2001) playing important roles in bone development, among other functions. Calcium is assumed an inexpensive nutrient in animal least cost formulation while phosphorus is considered expensive and scant. The actual economic impact comes from the influence of calcium on phosphorus requirements, changes in phosphorus digestibility, buffer capacity, gut health, trace mineral absorption, fat digestibility, welfare traits, etc. Both minerals have important interactions to be considered during formulation. Few changes have been made over the past 20 years to calcium and phosphorus recommendations because these values …


Decoding The Gut Microbiome; Providing Solutions For Poultry Production, Nichoals Evans, Peter Karnezos, Curtis Novak, Diana Ayala, Emily Kimminau, Kay Russo 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Decoding The Gut Microbiome; Providing Solutions For Poultry Production, Nichoals Evans, Peter Karnezos, Curtis Novak, Diana Ayala, Emily Kimminau, Kay Russo

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The term “microbiome” refers to all the micro-organisms within a particular environment. In poultry, the microbiome is influenced by the barn, diet, and age of the birds and is believed to modulate immunity and inflammation. In the past, culture methods were primarily used to evaluate the presence of the various micro-organisms present in the microbiome; however, recent technological advances in genomic sequencing have revolutionized sample analysis. This technology has opened new avenues of research in poultry production and our understanding of the associated health challenges. Turkey cellulitis has been a major economic and health concern for many years. Traditional bacterial …


Application Of Nutritional Immunology In The Mitigation Of Economic And Production Losses In The Poultry Industry Associated With Food-Borne Pathogens, Coccidiosis, And Necrotic Enteritis., Shahna Fathima, Ramesh K. Selvaraj 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Application Of Nutritional Immunology In The Mitigation Of Economic And Production Losses In The Poultry Industry Associated With Food-Borne Pathogens, Coccidiosis, And Necrotic Enteritis., Shahna Fathima, Ramesh K. Selvaraj

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Sub-therapeutic doses of antibiotics were used in poultry production since the 1950s for improved production, prophylaxis, and animal welfare. Extensive and indiscriminatory use of antibiotics led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens of public health significance (Jones & Ricke, 2003). As per the United States Centre for Disease Control, more than 2.8 million infections in 2019 were caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Due to public health concerns, the use of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock production was prohibited by Sweden and Denmark in 1986 and 1998 respectively (Hammerum et al., 2007). The European Union banned the use …


A Dynamic Approach To Feed Formulation, Rob Gous 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Dynamic Approach To Feed Formulation, Rob Gous

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the opportunity cost of using fixed tables of nutrient requirements when formulating feeds for broilers can be considerable, and that nutritionists should consider a more dynamic approach to defining the lower bounds of amino acids in particular, in line with the objective of the business, which is to maximise profit. In order to do this, it is necessary to consider the potential growth rate of the broiler, the cost of feed and amount of feed consumed, and the income generated from the sale of product.


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