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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Volume 5, Issue 2 (2022) 5.1.2 Migration, Community, And Environment During A Pandemic Dec 2022

Volume 5, Issue 2 (2022) 5.1.2 Migration, Community, And Environment During A Pandemic

International Journal on Responsibility

No abstract provided.


Predictors Of College Student Support Toward Colin Kaepernick’S National Anthem Protests, Brooke Coursen, Nicole Peiffer, Sakira Coleman, Philip Lucius Nov 2022

Predictors Of College Student Support Toward Colin Kaepernick’S National Anthem Protests, Brooke Coursen, Nicole Peiffer, Sakira Coleman, Philip Lucius

VA Engage Journal

Racial discrimination and inequality have perpetuated within the U.S. since its inception. In 2016, Colin Kaepernick initiated the national anthem protests to oppose the oppression of people of color in America. This study was developed in 2018 to identify social determinants of health underlying discriminatory beliefs and behaviors. The objective was to investigate the impacts of college students’ race, gender, political ideology, socio-economic status [SES], NFL interest, patriotism, and general protest support on support for the national anthem protests. We administered paper-and-pencil surveys across locations on the James Madison University campus using a convenience sample. There were 408 participants included, …


The Conquest Of Milk: The Rise Of Lactase Persistence And The Fall Of Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers, Nicholas Mays Nov 2022

The Conquest Of Milk: The Rise Of Lactase Persistence And The Fall Of Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers, Nicholas Mays

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

Over half of the global human population suffers from lactase nonpersistence, a condition marked by losing the ability to digest lactose after infancy. However, a minority of the global population, primarily located in Central and Northern Europe, has a genetic mutation that results in lactase persistence, which is the continued ability to process lactose after infancy. This interdisciplinary analysis blends archaeology, cultural anthropology, evolutionary biology, and archaeogenetics to explore the origin and rise of lactase persistence in Europe and its contribution to the end of hunter-gatherer societies in Scandinavia. Furthermore, the paper uses gene-culture coevolutionary theory to argue that lactase …


The Evolution Of Physical Security And Stockpile Management: A Successful Implementing Partnership Perspective, Lee Moroney, Mark Veneris Oct 2022

The Evolution Of Physical Security And Stockpile Management: A Successful Implementing Partnership Perspective, Lee Moroney, Mark Veneris

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

To avoid unplanned explosion of munitions (UEM) and to lower the risk of illicit diversion, the humanitarian requirements ensuring strong ammunition management structures, systems, and processes by states have been well documented in past issues of this Journal and other publications. These needs have led to the evolution of multilateral and bilateral support from donor nations that see the humanitarian value of supporting physical security and stockpile management (PSSM).


The Time Has Come For Digital Explosive Ordnance Risk Education, Robin Toal Oct 2022

The Time Has Come For Digital Explosive Ordnance Risk Education, Robin Toal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The increase in the number of civilian casualties from landmines and other explosive ordnance (EO) in recent years has driven the demand for new and innovative ways to provide communities with risk education. Additionally, with access limited by the COVID-19 pandemic, humanitarian organizations like MAG (Mines Advisory Group) have had to adapt their approach, focusing on digital explosive ordnance risk education (EORE) to reach individuals and communities affected by EO.


Mapping Unexploded Ordnance In Syria: Harnessing The Power Of Open-Source, Hampton Stall, Jennifer Hudson, Evan Leendertse, Hari Prasad, Chris Mcnaboe, Rana Shabb, Jonathan Robinson Oct 2022

Mapping Unexploded Ordnance In Syria: Harnessing The Power Of Open-Source, Hampton Stall, Jennifer Hudson, Evan Leendertse, Hari Prasad, Chris Mcnaboe, Rana Shabb, Jonathan Robinson

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

For over a decade, the widespread use of explosive weapons by all sides in the Syrian conflict has been well documented by a litany of public sources. Many of these explosive munitions fail to detonate as intended, thereby becoming unexploded ordnance (UXO) that threaten post-conflict recovery. To begin the process of clearing these explosive remnants of war (ERW), desk studies/non-technical studies can be utilized to initially assess the concentration and distribution of explosive weapons across a conflict zone, which in turn suggest the risk of UXO in an area. Traditional methods in non-technical surveys (NTS) focus on unweighted conflict intensity …


How Can Mine Action Improve The Management Of Free From Explosive (Ffe) Items?, Roly Evans Oct 2022

How Can Mine Action Improve The Management Of Free From Explosive (Ffe) Items?, Roly Evans

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Assessing and making items free from explosive (FFE) are among the most dangerous things we do in mine action and are perhaps the least regulated. Mine action operations use items that have been made FFE or INERT for training and demonstration purposes. However, the sector does not really have sufficient procedures or qualifications to assess items as certified free from explosive (CFFE), or to make items FFE/INERT. Assessing or making items FFE are explosive processes and should be treated as such more consistently within the mine action sector. This article will outline the current state of play concerning FFE items …


The Deadly Legacy Of World War Ii In Alaska, Kenneth Rutherford Oct 2022

The Deadly Legacy Of World War Ii In Alaska, Kenneth Rutherford

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In the middle of the Bering Sea—closer to Japan than the continental United States and more than 1,000 miles from Alaska’s largest city, Anchorage—sit the Alaskan islands of Attu and Kiska. It was the summer of 1942, nearly six months after Japan’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, that Japanese forces invaded these islands in what was some of World War II’s most brutal fighting and use of explosives.


Gender And Operational Efficiency, Raphaela Lark, David Hewitson, Dominic Wolsey Oct 2022

Gender And Operational Efficiency, Raphaela Lark, David Hewitson, Dominic Wolsey

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

This study explores the relationship between gender and operational efficiency in the context of staff in field-based mine action roles. The aim of the study is to address stereotypes and unproven assumptions that may still exist in the mine action sector regarding women’s performance and availability to work in certain field-based roles. Operational efficiency was investigated using two key indicators: individual operational productivity and availability to work. Operational and human resource data was collected from fourteen country programs from four separate mine action organizations across four continents. A quantitative analysis of the data found no meaningful difference in operational productivity …


Clear Then Grow: Integrating Mine Action With Food Security In Northeast Syria, Katarina Cvikl Balić Oct 2022

Clear Then Grow: Integrating Mine Action With Food Security In Northeast Syria, Katarina Cvikl Balić

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Over the past several years, considerable attention within the mine action community and in the wider development sector has been devoted to conceptualizing mine action interventions within the broader sustainable development goals (SDGs), or more recently, the so-called triple nexus. Aiming to find linkages between, for instance, clearance efforts and food security is not a new concept. This article, however, looks at the operationalization of these links through an integrated mine action and agricultural recovery program within Northeast Syria (NES).


A Brief History Of Mine Detection Dogs, Roly Evans Oct 2022

A Brief History Of Mine Detection Dogs, Roly Evans

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Since their first use in World War II, the use of Mine Detection Dogs (MDD) has been subject to ongoing debate. How effective are they really in finding mines? Are they really worth the expense they entail? As with so many aspects of modern survey and clearance operations, many of the lessons we continue to learn today have already been learned in the past. A brief history of the contribution of MDD over the past eight decades can help us put their performance into perspective and understand where they can add significant value, while also appreciating their limitations.


Explosive Weapons Use And The Environmental Consequences: Mapping Environmental Incidents In Ukraine, Linsey Cottrell, Eoghan Darbyshire, Phd, Kristin Holme Obrestad Oct 2022

Explosive Weapons Use And The Environmental Consequences: Mapping Environmental Incidents In Ukraine, Linsey Cottrell, Eoghan Darbyshire, Phd, Kristin Holme Obrestad

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

All conflicts result in environmental impacts. The use of explosive weapons can cause massive damage to civilian and industrial infrastructure, resulting in the contamination of air, soil and water resources. The war in Ukraine has highlighted the heavy toll on the environment, and the risk of significant environmental harm.


Open-Source Research And Mapping Of Explosive Ordnance Contamination In Ukraine, Andro Mathewson Oct 2022

Open-Source Research And Mapping Of Explosive Ordnance Contamination In Ukraine, Andro Mathewson

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Due to Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, the scale of explosive ordnance (EO) contamination in Ukraine has reached unprecedented levels, necessitating new methods to assess and track the different types of ordnance and the level of contamination across the country. As the most documented, active war on social media to date, The HALO Trust (HALO) has successfully harnessed open-source research to better plan and conduct survey, clearance operations, and explosive ordnance risk education (EORE) across the country.


Ukraine: Through The Eyes Of The People, Sean Sutton Oct 2022

Ukraine: Through The Eyes Of The People, Sean Sutton

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

I have seen first-hand the long-lasting destruction that can be caused by explosive weapons and landmines across the world. My trip to Ukraine in April 2022 was no different. Ukraine has been ravaged by conflict for more than eight months. During my time there, I found many examples of makeshift signs warning returning civilians that strategically planted explosive weapons were somewhere inside or nearby. Written in bold, the signs serve as a warning for all types of unexploded ordnance (UXO) such as bombs and booby traps and landmines.


The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction, Cisr Journal Oct 2022

The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction, Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


Being Present, Supporting Presence: Ideas For Online Teaching And Facilitation, Rebecca B. French, Jody Condit Fagan Oct 2022

Being Present, Supporting Presence: Ideas For Online Teaching And Facilitation, Rebecca B. French, Jody Condit Fagan

Libraries

Although many campuses are returning to in-person classes and meetings, plenty of libraries are still holding events online. How can you as a facilitator or teacher be more fully present when leading or teaching online? How can you support attendees’ ability to be present themselves, and for all to find human-to-human connection in virtual spaces? This webinar will cover:

  • planning and preparation work to support your presence as a facilitator and the needs of the group, considering the learning objectives or meeting goals
  • activities for opening and closing online events in a way that invites presence and connection
  • practices for …


Dynamic Return Relationships In The Market For Cryptocurrency: A Var Approach, Julian Gouffray Sep 2022

Dynamic Return Relationships In The Market For Cryptocurrency: A Var Approach, Julian Gouffray

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

This paper examines how the Bitcoin-altcoin return relationship has evolved in periods between 2015 and 2020. To understand this relation, we observe data on the cryptocurrency Bitcoin and prominent altcoins Ethereum, Litecoin, Ripple, Stellar, and Monero, which collectively represent over 90% of the market throughout the observed period. We employ a vector autoregressive model (VAR) to produce forecast error variance decompositions, orthogonal impulse response functions, and Granger-causality tests. We find evidence that Bitcoin return variation has increasingly explained altcoin returns and that market inefficiency increased between 2017 and 2020, as shown by increased Granger causality between Bitcoin and altcoins. These …


International Migrants And Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccinations: Social Media, Motivated Information Management, And Vaccination Willingness, Hyunjin Seo, Yuchen Liu, Muhammad Ittefaq, Fatemeh Shayesteh, Ursula Kamanga, Annalise Baines Sep 2022

International Migrants And Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccinations: Social Media, Motivated Information Management, And Vaccination Willingness, Hyunjin Seo, Yuchen Liu, Muhammad Ittefaq, Fatemeh Shayesteh, Ursula Kamanga, Annalise Baines

School of Communication Studies - Faculty Scholarship

Objective

This study examines how those who were born outside the United States and migrated to the country in the past decade used social media and other online sites to deal with uncertainties around the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. In particular, we examine how they used digital communication technologies to tap into online resources and social connections both in the United States and their origin country and how various aspects of online information management were associated with their willingness to get vaccinated against the virus.

Method

We conducted an online survey and in-depth interviews with international migrants aged 18–64 years …


Homosexuality In Leviticus: A Historical-Literary-Critical Analysis, Ian Jarosz Sep 2022

Homosexuality In Leviticus: A Historical-Literary-Critical Analysis, Ian Jarosz

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

The book of Leviticus from the Hebrew Bible is often referenced when discussing the LGBTQ+ community and related topics. This project offers historical, literary, and etymological analyses of Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13, exploring cultural and thematic similarities between Leviticus, the Avestan Vendidad of ancient Persia, and the Book of the Watchers in 1 Enoch. The influential views of other ancient Near Eastern cultures and the growing Persian culture during the time of the Exile establish a tolerant cultural background for the Levitical authors and for the Hebrew Bible. Moreover, the exilic priests who finalized the laws within Leviticus did not …


Ijr 5.1.1 - Migration, Community, And Environment During A Pandemic Sep 2022

Ijr 5.1.1 - Migration, Community, And Environment During A Pandemic

International Journal on Responsibility

No abstract provided.


A Survey Of School Psychologists To Promote Support For Developing Self-Advocacy Skills In Students With Disabilities, Kiarra K. Steer Aug 2022

A Survey Of School Psychologists To Promote Support For Developing Self-Advocacy Skills In Students With Disabilities, Kiarra K. Steer

Educational Specialist, 2020-current

Self-advocacy is a critical skill for effective communication and for individual assertion of interests, needs, and rights (Hengen & Weaver, 2018). It is especially important for people with disabilities to be able to self-advocate, which includes understanding their own abilities and rights and being able to voice when they need assistance or when their rights are being violated (Hengen & Weaver, 2018).

Even though self-advocacy has been determined to be a necessary skill for students with disabilities to develop, research indicates that self-advocacy instruction is often not provided to students with disabilities. Furthermore, while researchers have shown that teaching students …


Calm-Mo: An Integrative Tool For Psychological Mindfulness, Charles L. Miller Aug 2022

Calm-Mo: An Integrative Tool For Psychological Mindfulness, Charles L. Miller

Dissertations, 2020-current

Henriques has developed a “Unified Theory” that consists of eight key ideas he argues can effectively frame both the science of psychology and the practice of psychotherapy. CALM-MO, the eighth of these ideas, offers an integrative, principled approach to psychological mindfulness. CALM-MO is an acronym that encapsulates the process of cultivating a “calm” meta-cognitive observer that embodies the attitudes of curiosity, acceptance, loving compassion, and motivation toward valued states of being. Henriques posits that the idea consolidates key elements from across the various schools of thought to bring together essential therapeutic principles geared toward seeking and maintaining well-being. As such, …


The Impact Of Teacher Wellness Programming During Highly Stressful Times, Madeline Brawley Aug 2022

The Impact Of Teacher Wellness Programming During Highly Stressful Times, Madeline Brawley

Educational Specialist, 2020-current

The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of participating in a stress-management program on teachers’ self-reported stress and well-being. Participants included a small group of new teachers and their assigned veteran teacher mentors from an elementary school in a large school district in Central Virginia. Self-reported stress as it relates to teacher-teacher relationships and physical symptoms increased significantly from pre- to post-test completion. All other stress measures, with the exception of time management, also increased over time; however none of these changes were significant. Teaching efficacy and school connectedness declined over time, while teaching satisfaction increased. These …


The Role Of Teacher Efficacy In Readiness To Support Lgbtq+ Students In Schools, Andrew Levy Aug 2022

The Role Of Teacher Efficacy In Readiness To Support Lgbtq+ Students In Schools, Andrew Levy

Educational Specialist, 2020-current

LGBTQ+ students experience a myriad of difficulties associated specifically with their sexual or gender minority status. The current body of research has focused on negative outcomes of these difficulties, while there is a dearth of research into how schools can position stakeholders to support these students. Teachers often serve as consistent, direct points of contact for students in schools. As such, this study aims to explore teacher candidates’ sense of professional self-efficacy and its relationship with their confidence in supporting LGBTQ+ students in three ways: individual interventions, developing their own knowledge and skills, and systems-level advocacy. Teacher candidates were surveyed …


The Perceived Self-Efficacy Of School Counselors To Provide Interventions And Support To Students Using Substances And The Potential For Collaboration With School Psychologists, Monica Holtz Aug 2022

The Perceived Self-Efficacy Of School Counselors To Provide Interventions And Support To Students Using Substances And The Potential For Collaboration With School Psychologists, Monica Holtz

Educational Specialist, 2020-current

Substance use has the potential to impact a student’s academic success; however, school counselors are in a position to intervene and provide support to these students to potentially mitigate the impact of the students’ use. Research shows that school-based interventions are effective in reducing substance use, but school counselors may not feel clinically prepared to provide these services. A random sample of school counselors in the state of Virginia practicing at the middle and high school level completed a survey regarding their feelings and perceptions of substance use intervention and support, including their self-efficacy to provide services, level of training, …


The Theory Of Reasoned Action As A Basis For Investment In Cryptocurrency, Wrr Rinaldo Aug 2022

The Theory Of Reasoned Action As A Basis For Investment In Cryptocurrency, Wrr Rinaldo

Masters Theses, 2020-current

In the past decade and a half, emergent blockchain technology has gained widespread attention, especially in the past few years. For the most part, attention has been focused on cryptocurrencies, but non-fungible tokens (NFTs), that use similar technology, have been given attention as well. Many concerns about these technologies have arisen, particularly that of the environmental impacts associated with them. Utilizing the theory of reasoned action, diffusion of technology theory, and surveys conducted through Amazon Mechanical Turk, this research attempts to uncover if there is a link between the level of cryptocurrency knowledge that an individual possesses and the level …


Youth Caregiver Focus Group: An Exploration Of School Support Staff’S Perceptions Of Youth Caregivers, Rianna Taylor Aug 2022

Youth Caregiver Focus Group: An Exploration Of School Support Staff’S Perceptions Of Youth Caregivers, Rianna Taylor

Educational Specialist, 2020-current

The present study aimed to identify the level of knowledge, awareness, experience, and perceptions school support staff (school counselors, school psychologists, school social workers, and school nurses) have of youth caregivers. In addition, this study investigated school support staff’s confidence in their ability to identify and support this population specifically in Virginia schools. The focus group consisted of 4 school support staff participants which included two school nurses, one school counselor, and one school psychologist. The participants were asked a list of questions pertaining to the youth caregiver population during the 42-minute focus group meeting over Zoom. The focus group …


School Racial Climate And Discipline Practices, Maya Rivers Aug 2022

School Racial Climate And Discipline Practices, Maya Rivers

Educational Specialist, 2020-current

The disproportionate use of punitive discipline practices with students of color in American school systems is prevalent among many sources of literature. Consequently, student experiences and perceptions of school climate are often tainted, which has yielded school-wide initiatives to improve in these areas. As school psychologists work to improve school climate with the goal of decreasing the racial discipline gap, they may consider strategies to improve the school’s racial climate. Using the School Climate for Diversity – Secondary Scale (Byrd, 2017), the current study explored what relationship, if any, exists between school racial climate and discipline at the secondary level. …


Strategies And Methods Of Training Teacher Emotional Competence, Christina D. Beaton Aug 2022

Strategies And Methods Of Training Teacher Emotional Competence, Christina D. Beaton

Dissertations, 2020-current

Teaching is an emotional endeavor. That is why teachers must be equipped with skills to manage their emotions as well as emotions of their students. The present research investigates a strategies and methods for a model of training teacher emotional competency. Elementary school teachers (N=78) were asked about their perception of the importance of emotional competencies including emotional self-awareness, emotion regulation, effective emotional expression, identifying and responding to students’ emotions, promoting a positive emotional climate in the classroom, using emotions to promote learning, skills to promote student emotional competence, and skills to maintain teacher well-being. They also reported how often …


Does A Sender’S And Recipient’S Relationship Influence Readers’ Interpretation Of Message Tone?, Allison Arp Aug 2022

Does A Sender’S And Recipient’S Relationship Influence Readers’ Interpretation Of Message Tone?, Allison Arp

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Given the importance of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and the uniqueness of the cues that have meaning in this environment, research is warranted to investigate how the relationship between the people communicating via CMC might impact the way the message and cues are interpreted. This study aims to investigate whether different inherent levels of authority and familiarity between a message sender and recipient affect how email tone is interpreted. Previous studies demonstrate that when individuals communicate with authority figures, they employ different strategies than when communicating with peers. Furthermore, individuals adapt their behavior to mimic the interactants behavior, which in turn …