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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Same-Gender Pathways To Parenthood, Sydney T. Inger Apr 2022

Same-Gender Pathways To Parenthood, Sydney T. Inger

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

LGBTQ+ individuals and couples who want children negotiate systemic inequalities in the United States of America. This literature review surveys America’s confusing legal map and the gaps in its enduring scholarly theories. The paper then examines the challenges that LGBTQ+ individuals and couples confront in working through the common pathways—same-gender adoption and fostering, in vitro fertilization, and surrogacy—to become parents. Dispersing information on the pathways will be a positive step towards breaking down the inequities for those in the LGBTQ+ community who want to start a family.


Jmu Libraries Magazine, Jenne M. Klotz, Kristen S. Shuyler, Emily Blake Jan 2022

Jmu Libraries Magazine, Jenne M. Klotz, Kristen S. Shuyler, Emily Blake

Libraries

This magazine describes highlights from the JMU Libraries from 2020-2021.


More Alike Than Different: Student Perceptions Of Academic Librarians By Genders And Subject Areas, Elizabeth Price, Jody C. Fagan Dec 2021

More Alike Than Different: Student Perceptions Of Academic Librarians By Genders And Subject Areas, Elizabeth Price, Jody C. Fagan

Libraries

This study explored differences in how undergraduate students of different genders and academic disciplines perceived academic librarians at a U.S. public university. No evidence indicated differences between students identifying as male or female, and few statistically significant differences were found among four Subject Areas (Arts, Humanities + Social Sciences, Business, Health + Education, and STEM). Our results have implications for local practice though they are not generalizable to other institutions. Despite a lack of significant findings, librarians should continue to explore ways to measure how students of different disciplines perceive academic libraries and/or librarians as valuable to their academic success.


Multicultural Music Education: Preparedness, Perceptions, And Practice Among Virginia Elementary Music Educators, Benjamin Joel Luna Dec 2021

Multicultural Music Education: Preparedness, Perceptions, And Practice Among Virginia Elementary Music Educators, Benjamin Joel Luna

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Benjamin Joel Luna, M. M.

James Madison University, 2021

Supervisor: Lisa M. Maynard

The purpose of this study was to examine the Multicultural Music Education (MME) practices of established (i.e. more than three years of music teaching experience) Elementary Music Teachers in the state of Virginia by examining their responses to a series of survey questions specific to the topic. Participants (N=18) were all current Elementary Music Teachers in the state of Virginia with more than three years of experience.

Participants were asked to use Likert-scale ratings for the majority of the questions but were also given the ...


Endnotes, Cisr Jmu Dec 2021

Endnotes, Cisr Jmu

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


Unexplored Opportunities: Multi-Sector Strategies For Collaboration In Underwater Unexploded Ordnance Remediation, Chris Price Dec 2021

Unexplored Opportunities: Multi-Sector Strategies For Collaboration In Underwater Unexploded Ordnance Remediation, Chris Price

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Few global challenges are as ripe for multi-sector collaboration as underwater (UW) unexploded ordnance (UXO) remediation. Millions of metric tons of UXO are lying on and under the seabed corroding, decaying, and seeping toxic chemicals into the ecosystem—ultimately ending up in our food. Because most underwater UXO are from WWI and WWII, and given the corrosion rates of most metals from which ordnance is made, the inevitable problems with ordnance dumped, sunk, and fired into bodies of water (mostly in coastal regions) are catching up with us. The urgency is exacer-bated by biochemical changes in oceans due to climate ...


A Pressing Need: Decades Of Agreement, Few Results On Arms Record-Keeping, Philip Alpers Dec 2021

A Pressing Need: Decades Of Agreement, Few Results On Arms Record-Keeping, Philip Alpers

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Recent developments in computerized record-keeping for state-owned arms, ammunition, and explosives now offer simple, affordable solutions in the lowest-capacity environments. A global partnership between Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and the developers of ArmsTracker soft-ware promises to break a twenty-year logjam that, until now, has denied comprehensive, affordable weapon and ammunition record-keeping systems to states in greatest need.


Mechanical Equipment In Ied Clearance: Observations From Iraq, Pehr Lodhammar, Mark Wilkinson Ph.D. Dec 2021

Mechanical Equipment In Ied Clearance: Observations From Iraq, Pehr Lodhammar, Mark Wilkinson Ph.D.

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Mechanical equipment has been in the inventory of conventional military forces for the purposes of military engineering—including demining—since the Second World War. The integration of mechanical equipment into the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) Iraq clearance activities may have therefore seemed a natural evolution from what might be considered ‘conventional’ mine clearance, yet it brought with it a number of issues. First, the absence of any clear doctrine for the use of mechanical equipment in improvised explosive device (IED) clearance generated resistance and criticism from specialist IED clearance companies operating at that time in Iraq. It was ...


Hidden Crisis In Borno State, Sean Sutton Dec 2021

Hidden Crisis In Borno State, Sean Sutton

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

At the end of 2019, Nigeria reported a significant increase of landmine, explosive remnants of war (ERW), and improvised explosive device (IED) contamination in its states. In 2019 alone, a total of 239 known mine casualties were recorded in Nigeria. Although the exact amount of contamination in Nigeria today is unknown, the Landmine & Cluster Munition Monitor asserts that Borno is the most heavily affected state in the country. Due to mounting mine contamination and increasing pressure from non-state armed groups (NSAG), internally displaced persons (IDPs) and communities are unable to safely return to the region. Extensive landmine use by Boko ...


Barrier Analysis And Explosive Ordnance Risk Education, Kim Fletcher, India Mcgrath Dec 2021

Barrier Analysis And Explosive Ordnance Risk Education, Kim Fletcher, India Mcgrath

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In early 2020, The HALO Trust (HALO) in partnership with Al Ghad conducted a "barrier analysis" with youth in Mosul, Iraq to determine the constraints they faced in adopting safer behaviors related to explosive ordnance (EO). Through the barrier analysis, HALO and Al Ghad found that youth with lower perceived self-efficacy, beliefs that an EO accident would not likely result in severe consequences, and friends who encouraged unsafe behaviors were all more likely to engage in less safe behaviors than their counterparts were. The findings enabled HALO and Al Ghad to tailor their EORE messaging to these barriers in an ...


Tailoring Explosive Ordnance Risk Education: How Mag Addresses Gender/Cultural Sensitivities And Local Risk-Taking Behavior, Sebastian Kasack Dec 2021

Tailoring Explosive Ordnance Risk Education: How Mag Addresses Gender/Cultural Sensitivities And Local Risk-Taking Behavior, Sebastian Kasack

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The relevance of risk education is widely acknowledged as reflected in the Oslo Action Plan (OAP) with its distinct chapter on ‘Mine risk education and reduction’ and five explicit actions. Good risk education must be tailored. MAG’s experience delivering explosive ordnance risk education (EORE) in four-teen countries confirms the relevance of tailoring EORE to the local reality: to people’s risk taking behaviors, to the actual explosive ordnance (EO) threat, to seasonality, availability of people for risk education sessions, and approaches that re-spect gender and diversity and take conflict sensitivity into account.


Climate Change And Extreme Weather: How Can Mine Action Programs Adapt To Our Changing Environment?, Linsey Cottrell, Carlie Stowe Dec 2021

Climate Change And Extreme Weather: How Can Mine Action Programs Adapt To Our Changing Environment?, Linsey Cottrell, Carlie Stowe

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Extreme weather events around the world are already impacting land that is contaminated with explosive ordnance (EO). Chronicling these events is not yet standardized, but these events will become more frequent as our climate changes. The uncertainty around climate change, related risks, and how these will regionally impact mine action operations makes it difficult to prioritize and plan for mitigation and adaptation measures. With limited guidance currently in place for the mine action sector, the introduction of climate change adaptation principles must be supported, and operational and risk management plans must be scrutinized to ensure that any additional climate change ...


Accident Response To Mitigate Risk: A Call To Action, Lillian Gates Dec 2021

Accident Response To Mitigate Risk: A Call To Action, Lillian Gates

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Effective accident response in humanitarian mine action (HMA) contributes to increased safety in future demining work. Mine action organizations play a variety of roles in the improvement of accident response, with the U.S. Department of State’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs being the most recent to adjust their accident response process by establishing the Accident Review Panel (ARP). This panel consolidates the office’s efforts and allows for standardized accident response protocol and the collection and analysis of accident data. Other organizations active in cultivating better accident responses include the United ...


Exploratory Study On The Current Limitations Of Personal Protective Equipment And The Potential For Innovation, Kyaw Lin Htut Dec 2021

Exploratory Study On The Current Limitations Of Personal Protective Equipment And The Potential For Innovation, Kyaw Lin Htut

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Personal protective equipment (PPE) in mine action typically consists of a polycarbonate visor that fully covers the face and front neck, and body armor consisting of an apron made of aramid fabric (i.e., Kevlar) that fully covers the front torso, groin, and neck. PPE used in mine action is generally considered as “the last line of defense” since the primary method through which accidental deaths and injuries are prevented is through the application of and adherence to appropriate standard operating procedures (SOPs). However, with any operations, there is always an element of “acceptable risk,” and universal adherence to all ...


Innovative Finance For Mine Action, Camille Wallen, Peter Nicholas, Anna Von Griesheim Dec 2021

Innovative Finance For Mine Action, Camille Wallen, Peter Nicholas, Anna Von Griesheim

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Achieving a world free of landmines will require at least US$1 billion in additional funding. Bridging this gap will require using all available funding sources and maximizing the efficiency of spending. Innovative finance can help achieve both aims by accessing funding not tradition­ally available for mine action. To explore these options further, the UK government commissioned work to examine the potential roles of innovative finance in mine action. After discussions with a range of stakeholders, a broad consensus emerged around three approaches. First, outcomes finance, whereby funding disburses against independently verified results, such as mine clearance and recov ...


A Note From The Interim Director, Cisr Jmu Dec 2021

A Note From The Interim Director, Cisr Jmu

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction, Cisr Journal Dec 2021

The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction, Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Read Issue 25.2 on Issuu.com


Predictors Of Refugees’ Ability To Pass The United States Citizenship Exam, Molly Grover, Fern Hauck, Sarah Blackstone, Emily Cloyd Oct 2021

Predictors Of Refugees’ Ability To Pass The United States Citizenship Exam, Molly Grover, Fern Hauck, Sarah Blackstone, Emily Cloyd

Virginia Journal of Public Health

Background: Passing the United States citizenship exam can be challenging for refugee populations for several reasons, including affordability of English classes, time restraints, medical stressors, and limited formal education. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that may influence a refugees’ ability to pass the citizenship exam, including English proficiency, education, employment, and completion of English as a Second Language (ESL) classes.

Methods: Refugee patients at the International Family Medicine Clinic (IFMC) in Central Virginia participated in a survey that assessed their levels of English proficiency and whether or not they had passed the citizenship exam. The survey ...


Issue 25.1 Endnotes, Cisr Jmu Sep 2021

Issue 25.1 Endnotes, Cisr Jmu

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Issue 25.1 Endnotes


Recognizing And Reducing Risks From Ammunition And Explosives, Martina Salini, Samuel Paunila Sep 2021

Recognizing And Reducing Risks From Ammunition And Explosives, Martina Salini, Samuel Paunila

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) first engaged in the stockpile management of conventional ammunition in 2013 and has since developed in-house technical, operational, and strategic capabilities for ammunition through-life management. The GICHD is an active supporter of the ammunition management community of practice, and has authored and contributed to articles on this topic, including raising awareness of ammunition safety and security concepts.1 The GICHD also collaborates with the Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR) at James Madison University by jointly managing the Collaborative Ordnance Database Repository (CORD). This article discusses ammunition and explosives management from ...


A Virtual Reality Application For The Training Of Deminers, Lynn Al Khansa, Elias Bou Saada, Rachid Maalouf, Mohammed Al-Husseini Ph.D., Ali El-Hajj Ph.D., Mohammed Baydoun Ph.D., Hassan Ghaziri Ph.D. Sep 2021

A Virtual Reality Application For The Training Of Deminers, Lynn Al Khansa, Elias Bou Saada, Rachid Maalouf, Mohammed Al-Husseini Ph.D., Ali El-Hajj Ph.D., Mohammed Baydoun Ph.D., Hassan Ghaziri Ph.D.

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

As virtual reality (VR) tools continue to improve, more fields are finding ways of implementing the technology to take advantage of training opportunities that reduce costs, alleviate logistical challenges, and more. Where humanitarian deminers must prepare for dangerous work, VR facilitates training that minimizes the danger while giving trainers a level of control over the different conditions of the training and the ability to easily monitor and instruct the user. For this purpose, the American University of Beirut (AUB) and the Beirut Research and Innovation Center (BRIC) developed a VR application for the basic training of deminers, which is called ...


Mine Action: The Early Years, Ian Mansfield Sep 2021

Mine Action: The Early Years, Ian Mansfield

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

At the global level, the year 1997 was undoubtably the pinnacle of interest in mine action. This was the year that saw the award of the Nobel Peace Prize to Jody Williams and the International Campaign to Ban Land Mines (ICBL), the tragic death of Diana, Princess of Wales, the opening of the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC) for signature in Ottawa, the establishment of the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) as the UN focal point for mine action, the formation of the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), the genesis of the Mine Action Support Group (MASG ...


Letter From The Editor: The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction Celebrates 25 Years!, Steven Costner Sep 2021

Letter From The Editor: The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction Celebrates 25 Years!, Steven Costner

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction is the leading publication in the fields of humanitarian mine action (HMA) and munitions destruction and security. Since 1997, experts in these fields have shared their critical thinking and innovative ideas on how to make their practical work safer and more efficient at the same time. For this 25th edition of The Journal, I invite you to join me in celebrating all the present and past authors who have shared their ideas, inventions, and perspectives to improve the lives of countless communities around the world.


Managing Risk Through Transparency And Cooperation: Improving Lebanon’S Pssm Capacity, Jamie Mcghee Sep 2021

Managing Risk Through Transparency And Cooperation: Improving Lebanon’S Pssm Capacity, Jamie Mcghee

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Weapons and ammunition management (WAM) is a global issue in which nations are responsible for the physical security and stockpile management (PSSM) of weapons and ammunition to help mitigate weapons diversion and proliferation, and to prevent against an unplanned explosions at munitions sites (UEMS). Although in most instances preventable, UEMS incidents have increased, leading to significant loss of life, life-changing injuries to innocent civilians, and damage to property.¹


A Note From The Interim Director, Suzanne Fiederlein Ph.D. Sep 2021

A Note From The Interim Director, Suzanne Fiederlein Ph.D.

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


Past, Present, Future: Mine Action In Motion, Ambassador Stefano Toscano Ph.D. Sep 2021

Past, Present, Future: Mine Action In Motion, Ambassador Stefano Toscano Ph.D.

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The story of mine action is one of an adaptive and solution-oriented sector. Time and again, mine action has developed new approaches, tools, and standards to meet evolving challenges and circumstances at the field level. A strong partnership among all key actors has characterized the sector since its early years and has been instrumental to its agility and evolution.


Digital Rehabilitation Technologies Deliver Hope For Survivors, Abder Banoune Sep 2021

Digital Rehabilitation Technologies Deliver Hope For Survivors, Abder Banoune

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Humanity & Inclusion (HI) has been making prostheses and orthoses since its launch in refugee camps along the Thailand/Cambodia border in 1982, when it was known as Handicap International. The organization has since developed a global approach to disability, aiming to reduce poverty and situations of vulnerability, while working to ensure development and emergency responses are accessible to all. After nearly forty years of action, teams in fifty-five countries perform this critical work today.


An Innovative Approach To The Mental Health Needs Of Humanitarian Mine Action Personnel, Ken Falke, Bret A. Moore Psy.D., Abpp, Richard Tedeschi, Ph.D. Sep 2021

An Innovative Approach To The Mental Health Needs Of Humanitarian Mine Action Personnel, Ken Falke, Bret A. Moore Psy.D., Abpp, Richard Tedeschi, Ph.D.

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In the fields of humanitarian demining and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD), physical traumas related to blast and fragmentation injuries receive a great deal of research attention. In contrast, focus on the psychological health and wellness of humanitarian mine action personnel (HMAP) is lacking. Although research on the incidence of mental health disorders among HMAP is extremely limited, compared with the general population, this group likely suffers more from psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. HMAP work in a high state of hypervigilance because at any given moment in a demining operation, there is risk of ...


Alternatives To Open Burning And Open Detonation: The Disparity Between Hma And Commercial Best Practices, Linsey Cottrell, Kendra Dupuy Sep 2021

Alternatives To Open Burning And Open Detonation: The Disparity Between Hma And Commercial Best Practices, Linsey Cottrell, Kendra Dupuy

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

cisrExchange · 25.1-Cottrell

Munition and explosive residues have the potential to cause long-term harm when released into the environment. Common explosives, such as TNT and RDX are toxic, with both classed as possible carcinogens.1,2 The environmental fate of explosives is complex and varied. TNT absorbs onto soil, slowly leaches, and degrades to form degradation products such as DNT, which has a higher toxicity than TNT itself.3 RDX leaches from soil more readily, degrades slowly, and can persist in the environment. The residual soil and water contamination at military ranges caused by the firing, detonation, and disposal of ...


The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction, Issue 25.1, Cisr Jmu Sep 2021

The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction, Issue 25.1, Cisr Jmu

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Issue 25.1 of The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction. A special double issue celebrating our 25th anniversary