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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Female Sex Offenders: Double Standards, Sofia Enes May 2022

Female Sex Offenders: Double Standards, Sofia Enes

Kean Quest

This paper will discuss female pedophiles, rapists, and sex offenders, also known as female sex criminals, the double standards, of how they are viewed in the criminal justice system, how the medical fields view them, the psychological effects of their actions on their victims, and how the public views them. Unlike male pedophiles, rapists, and sex offenders of that gender; female pedophiles are not as readily identified as male pedophiles. Since female sex criminals do not always conform and fit the stereotypes that are more commonly found in male sex criminals, it is much more difficult for authorities to detain ...


Impact Of The Ban On Illegal Mining Activities On Raw Water Quality: A Case-Study Of Konongo Water Treatment Plant, Ashanti Region Of Ghana, Sadique Anyame Bawa, Prince Antwi-Agyei, Martin Kyereh Domfeh May 2022

Impact Of The Ban On Illegal Mining Activities On Raw Water Quality: A Case-Study Of Konongo Water Treatment Plant, Ashanti Region Of Ghana, Sadique Anyame Bawa, Prince Antwi-Agyei, Martin Kyereh Domfeh

Journal of Sustainable Mining

The Government of Ghana prohibited Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) operations from 2017 to 2018 as part of its strategy to address the socio-environmental issues caused by illegal mining activities, also referred to as “galamsey” operations. This study assessed the trend in the water quality of raw water abstracted at the Konongo Water Treatment Plant (WTP) for treatment before and after implementing the ban on “galamsey” operations. The main source of raw water for the Konongo WTP is the Anuru River. Secondary data on physicochemical water quality from 2006 to 2019 was sourced from the Konongo WTP and the Ashanti ...


Improved Methodology For Monitoring The Impact Of Mining Activities On Socio-Economic Conditions Of Local Communities, Binay Prakash Pandey, Devi Prasad Mishra May 2022

Improved Methodology For Monitoring The Impact Of Mining Activities On Socio-Economic Conditions Of Local Communities, Binay Prakash Pandey, Devi Prasad Mishra

Journal of Sustainable Mining

Mining activities can cause tangible socio-economic improvements in the surrounding regions. Such potential has not been fully realized, owing to the fact that the socio-economic impact assessment processes exercised in India merely predict the footprint of industrial activity on the surrounding population. Consequently, project proponents are mandated to implement a management plan in cases of foreseeable negative consequences. However, both, the assessment study, as well as the process of implementation of a management plan, are riddled with significant gaps and limitations. Primary data collected for this research makes it apparent that, in comparison to the revenue generated from the mining ...


A Proper Borehole Pattern Design For Coal Seam Methane Drainage In Tabas Coal Mine Using Comsol Multiphysics, Ali Bagherzadeh, Mehdi Najafi, Mohammad Fatehi Marji, Mehdi Noroozi May 2022

A Proper Borehole Pattern Design For Coal Seam Methane Drainage In Tabas Coal Mine Using Comsol Multiphysics, Ali Bagherzadeh, Mehdi Najafi, Mohammad Fatehi Marji, Mehdi Noroozi

Journal of Sustainable Mining

Optimizing the operational parameters of the borehole pattern in the coal seam includes the maximum amount of gas to be drained with the least amount of drilling, investment, and drainage time. The main purpose of this research is to properly design the drainage borehole pattern in the C1 coal seam of the Tabas coal mine. In this research, the Comsol Multiphysics software was used for numerical modeling of the boreholes. According to the method of diffusion of methane gas in a coal seam, the reduction of methane gas concentration and the amount of gas released from the coal blocks were ...


In Situ Observations Of Fish Attraction To Light-Emitting Diodes On An Undersea Observation Deck, Makoto Tomiyasu, Yoko Tanouchi, Yasuzumi Fujimori, Minato Kaji, Takuma Hayashi, Naoto Matsubara, Hiroki Yasuma, Susumu Shimizu, Seiji Katakura May 2022

In Situ Observations Of Fish Attraction To Light-Emitting Diodes On An Undersea Observation Deck, Makoto Tomiyasu, Yoko Tanouchi, Yasuzumi Fujimori, Minato Kaji, Takuma Hayashi, Naoto Matsubara, Hiroki Yasuma, Susumu Shimizu, Seiji Katakura

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Many fisheries employ fishing lights to manipulate the behaviors of target fish and to attract them toward the light; however, relatively few long-time observations of fish attraction have been performed in the field. Here, an underwater observation deck was used to examine the differences in the fish-attracting effect of light-emitting diode (LED) lights on the number of attracted fish and on their behavior in the field, using white-edged rockfish as the target species. A total of 604 ± 324, 307 ± 203 and 171 ± 106 white-edged rockfish individuals were attracted to the observation window when it was illuminated with blue, green, and ...


Inter-Annual Variability In Growth And Maturation Of The Swordtip Squid Uroteuthis Edulis In Yilan Bay Off Northeastern Taiwan, Jing-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yun Ching, Chih-Shin Chen May 2022

Inter-Annual Variability In Growth And Maturation Of The Swordtip Squid Uroteuthis Edulis In Yilan Bay Off Northeastern Taiwan, Jing-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yun Ching, Chih-Shin Chen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The swordtip squid Uroteuthis edulis, distributed in the temperate and tropical neritic waters in the Indo-Pacific region, is a crucial component of marine ecosystems and is a target species of fisheries in the Northwest Pacific. Although studies have elucidated the growth and maturation of the squid in the southern East China Sea (ECS) shelf, few have assessed the population biology of the squid in waters in the vicinity of the southern ECS. We collected samples of swordtip squid from a trawler in Yilan Bay (YLB) between January 2011 and December 2012 to examine the growth and maturation of the squid ...


Study On The Improved Radiation Boundary Conditions Based On The Quadratic B-Spline Rankine Panel Method, Ming-Chung Fang, Chun-Hsien Wu May 2022

Study On The Improved Radiation Boundary Conditions Based On The Quadratic B-Spline Rankine Panel Method, Ming-Chung Fang, Chun-Hsien Wu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

This study presents a higher-order Rankine source method that is based on a biquadratic B-spline scheme with an improved radiation boundary condition. This method solves flow problems under all conditions, where , including the undercritical condition ( < 0.25); this condition is present when a ship undergoes slow translational motion. The proposed method is thus more flexible than the many Rankine-source models in the literature that are applicable only to the overcritical condition ( > 0.25). Specifically, the improved radiation boundary condition is derived from upstream Seto radiation boundary conditions and by incorporating the Rayleigh damping distribution over a free surface; the improved condition is explicit and efficient for solving flow problems. In evaluations, the proposed method yields accurate solutions for unsteady flows, which are produced by an oscillating, translationally moving submerged singularity. The method is also compared against ...


Sensitive Analysis Of The Static Response Of Compliant Vertical Access Risers, Fuheng Li, Haiyan Guo, Xiaomin Li, Honglu Gu May 2022

Sensitive Analysis Of The Static Response Of Compliant Vertical Access Risers, Fuheng Li, Haiyan Guo, Xiaomin Li, Honglu Gu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Compliant vertical access risers (CVARs) are considered as efficient and robust alternative options to achieve cost efficiency and safety. Design uncertainties emerge owing to the limited understanding of the effects of various parameters related to the structural properties and marine loads. In this paper, a reasonable three-dimensional (3D) numerical model of CVAR with internal flow is presented based on the slender rod theory. Accordingly, the finite element method combined with a Newton-Raphson scheme is employed to discretize and solve the equations. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the influence of the structural and external load parameters on the static ...


Influence Of Boundary Conditions And Internal Fluid Types On Dynamic Characteristics Of A Deepwater Riser, Lei Guo, Zong-Ming Zhu, Zhong-Jian Pan, Zhi-Ming Guo May 2022

Influence Of Boundary Conditions And Internal Fluid Types On Dynamic Characteristics Of A Deepwater Riser, Lei Guo, Zong-Ming Zhu, Zhong-Jian Pan, Zhi-Ming Guo

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Deepwater Steel Catenary Riser (DSCR) is the key structure of oil and gas production system in the ocean. To design an optimized DSCR system, the dynamic characteristics of the DSCR are analyzed by setting some different boundary condi-tions and internal fluid types. The main vibration mode of the DSCR is found orthogonal to both mass and stiffness according to the normalization condition of the main mode, and then the regular mode function and the jth order principal stiffness Kpj are obtained. Under different initial conditions, the transverse responses of DSCR represented by regular coordinates under arbitrary excitation are obtained. Then ...


Variance Of Td-Mosaic Dual-Vortex Interactions Between In-Fa And Cempaka (2021) In The North Pacific, Tsorng-Lin Chia, Guang-Yang Pan, Ji-Chyun Liu May 2022

Variance Of Td-Mosaic Dual-Vortex Interactions Between In-Fa And Cempaka (2021) In The North Pacific, Tsorng-Lin Chia, Guang-Yang Pan, Ji-Chyun Liu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

A study of the different types of dual-vortex interactions or “Fujiwara effects” between two storms is crucial for considerably improving weather forecasts. This study combined remote sensing images, empirical formulas based on the possibility of storm interaction (Liou–Liu formula), and vector addition techniques to accurately analyze In-Fa and Cempaka typhoons and the surrounding weather patterns during the 2021 typhoon season in the North Pacific. Although the distance separating the typhoons In-Fa and Cempaka was 1,800–2,040 km, the influence of middle air flow and a tropical depression (TD) caused a "vector superposition TD-mosaic double-vortex" interaction between the ...


Optimal Deployment Of Flood Emergency Response Materials Under Stochastic Demands, Shangyao Yan, Jenn-Rong Lin, Chia-Fu Ku May 2022

Optimal Deployment Of Flood Emergency Response Materials Under Stochastic Demands, Shangyao Yan, Jenn-Rong Lin, Chia-Fu Ku

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

This study aims to develop a planning model for the deployment of flood emergency response materials under stochastic demands. For ease of modeling, a deterministic demand model is first proposed, from which the stochastic model is further extended. These models are used to determine the allocation of materials the transport truck routes and distribution of the stockpiled materials to emergency sites. The models are formulated as multiple integer network flow problems with special side constraints which are characterized as NP-hard in terms of optimization. To solve the complicated stochastic model efficiently, we also develop a solution algorithm based on a ...


Analysis Of Principles Of Development Of Key Technologies, Yungang Bao May 2022

Analysis Of Principles Of Development Of Key Technologies, Yungang Bao

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

How to development key technologies requires understanding the principles of technology evolution. This study proposes that the development process of key technologies follows the Metcalf's Law. Furthermore, this paper presents two principles of the development of key technologies from different angles. Finally, several suggestions are raised.


Promoting Infrastructure Construction In Advance To Support Sci-Tech Self-Reliance And Self-Strengthening At Higher Level, Yang Wang, Yuanchun Zhou, Yanguang Wang, Jianhui Li, Fazhi Qi, Honglin He, Fangyu Liao May 2022

Promoting Infrastructure Construction In Advance To Support Sci-Tech Self-Reliance And Self-Strengthening At Higher Level, Yang Wang, Yuanchun Zhou, Yanguang Wang, Jianhui Li, Fazhi Qi, Honglin He, Fangyu Liao

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

The research infrastructure is the basic and strategic platform of scientific and technological innovation. In the last decade, China's research infrastructure has achieved leapfrog development in the level of observation, manufacturing, management, data acquisition, data sharing and utilization, which supports China's scientific and technological innovation activities at a higher level. Looking into the future, the scientific research paradigm is transforming. The network, data, and computing platform will not only support the development of major science and technology infrastructure and field stations in larger, more accurate, and more advanced approach, but also contribute to the transformation of scientific research ...


Implementation Of A Least Squares Method To A Navier-Stokes Solver, Jada P. Lytch, Taylor Boatwright, Ja'nya Breeden May 2022

Implementation Of A Least Squares Method To A Navier-Stokes Solver, Jada P. Lytch, Taylor Boatwright, Ja'nya Breeden

Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal

The Navier-Stokes equations are used to model fluid flow. Examples include fluid structure interactions in the heart, climate and weather modeling, and flow simulations in computer gaming and entertainment. The equations date back to the 1800s, but research and development of numerical approximation algorithms continues to be an active area. To numerically solve the Navier-Stokes equations we implement a least squares finite element algorithm based on work by Roland Glowinski and colleagues. We use the deal.II academic library , the C++ language, and the Linux operating system to implement the solver. We investigate convergence rates and apply the least squares ...


A Study On Privacy Of Iot Devices Among A Sample Of Indians In The U.S- 2021, Sahana Prasad Dr, Sharanya Prasad Ms, Vijith Raghavendra, Srishma Sunku May 2022

A Study On Privacy Of Iot Devices Among A Sample Of Indians In The U.S- 2021, Sahana Prasad Dr, Sharanya Prasad Ms, Vijith Raghavendra, Srishma Sunku

International Journal of Computer Science and Informatics

The Internet of Things (IoT) has gained immense popularity over the last decade with wide-ranging applications in domains of medicine, science, military as well as domestic use. Despite its tremendous growth, privacy concerns plague IoT applications and have the potential to hamper the benefits derived from its usage. This paper carries out a statistical analysis of empirical data collected from users of IoT to assess the level of awareness among users of IoT. The mode of study was through a questionnaire sent through Google forms to a selection of Indians living across the U.S. The place was chosen as ...


On The Richardson-Lucy Algorithm With A Varying Point Spread Function Along The Iterations, Erica S. Souza, Maria Ines Silvani, Gevaldo L. Almeida, Ricardo T. Lopes May 2022

On The Richardson-Lucy Algorithm With A Varying Point Spread Function Along The Iterations, Erica S. Souza, Maria Ines Silvani, Gevaldo L. Almeida, Ricardo T. Lopes

International Journal of Image Processing and Vision Science

Abstract: This work analyses the soundness of two algorithms, Fishsint and Almexp to improve images using the Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm under a varying Point Spread Function (PSF) along the iterations. A plethora of methods based on Richardson-Lucy has been published, but no further proposal involving such an alternative has been published. Whereas the unnamed predecessor of Fishsint addressed only small size synthetic images under a blind fashion procedure, Fishsint and Almexp employs an algorithm Wdet to determine the initial PSF and all subsequent values after each iteration, respectively. Fishsint performs a loop, where the last determined PSF improves the previously ...


An Even 2-Factor In The Line Graph Of A Cubic Graph, Seungjae Eom, Kenta Ozeki May 2022

An Even 2-Factor In The Line Graph Of A Cubic Graph, Seungjae Eom, Kenta Ozeki

Theory and Applications of Graphs

An even 2-factor is one such that each cycle is of even length. A 4- regular graph G is 4-edge-colorable if and only if G has two edge-disjoint even 2- factors whose union contains all edges in G. It is known that the line graph of a cubic graph without 3-edge-coloring is not 4-edge-colorable. Hence, we are interested in whether those graphs have an even 2-factor. Bonisoli and Bonvicini proved that the line graph of a connected cubic graph G with an even number of edges has an even 2-factor, if G has a perfect matching [Even cycles and even ...


The Relationship Between Perceived Stress And Disordered Eating In Undergraduate Students During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Caroline G. Martin May 2022

The Relationship Between Perceived Stress And Disordered Eating In Undergraduate Students During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Caroline G. Martin

Gettysburg College Headquarters

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected and imposed challenges on nearly everyone, including college students. Despite their already stressful situations, previous research has demonstrated increased stress levels among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, research has also shown an increase in disordered eating for college students during the pandemic. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between both perceived stress and disordered eating during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the present study used a correlational design to investigate a potential association between perceived stress and disordered eating among undergraduate college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. By administering the EAT-26, the CSSEC ...


Gettysburg College Headquarters Spring 2022 May 2022

Gettysburg College Headquarters Spring 2022

Gettysburg College Headquarters

The Gettysburg College Headquarters is an open access, peer-reviewed, undergraduate research journal that publishes works from specific fields in the Humanities, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, and Visual Arts.


Synthesis, Characterization, And Bioactivity Of 3-Substituted Coumarins As An Undergraduate Project, Karsen King, Nicholas Campbell, Ronald Okoth, Wathsala Medawala May 2022

Synthesis, Characterization, And Bioactivity Of 3-Substituted Coumarins As An Undergraduate Project, Karsen King, Nicholas Campbell, Ronald Okoth, Wathsala Medawala

Georgia Journal of Science

Coumarins are an important class of phytochemicals, a chemical defense presumed to be secreted by plants. More recently, Coumarins have gathered popularity for their basis in anti-cancer agents. This paper dives into the organic synthesis of two 3-substituted coumarins from o-vanillin using the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. The 3-substituted coumarin were characterized using melting point analysis, 1H-NMR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. In addition, the anticancer activity of synthesized 3-substituted coumarin compounds were assayed against topoisomeraseIIα, which is the target enzyme of FDA approved anti-cancer drug etoposide since it is an active enzyme in cancer cell replication. The demonstrated procedures can be ...


To The Moon And Mars And Back To The Archives: Working With Modern Space Collections At The University Of Arizona Libraries, Molly Stothert-Maurer, Lisa E. Duncan May 2022

To The Moon And Mars And Back To The Archives: Working With Modern Space Collections At The University Of Arizona Libraries, Molly Stothert-Maurer, Lisa E. Duncan

Journal of Western Archives

With a long history at the University of Arizona with excellence in the lunar and planetary sciences, the University of Arizona Libraries Special Collections has increased its collecting of the History of Science and Technology. These large, modern space collections pose unique challenges and require specific needs to be addressed in order for the collections to be stored, processed and made available for access. It is essential for archivists working with these collections to ask their donors the right questions and learn the limitations and restrictions that often come with acquiring modern space collections. Archives around the country have started ...


Editorial Board May 2022

Editorial Board

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

No abstract provided.


Simulating Photo-Disintegration Of 137cs Radioactive Waste Using Various Energies Of Gamma Photons, Hassanain H. Alkazzaz, Asia H. Al-Mashhadani, Kamal H. Lateef May 2022

Simulating Photo-Disintegration Of 137cs Radioactive Waste Using Various Energies Of Gamma Photons, Hassanain H. Alkazzaz, Asia H. Al-Mashhadani, Kamal H. Lateef

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

In this study, the possibility of using gamma-ray in photo-disintegration method was examined so that it can be used in the remediation of 137Cs radionuclides waste materials by nuclear transmutation to convert long-lived nuclides to other isotopes nuclides, which are shorter half-life (or stable), by different photo-nuclear reaction channels (γ,n), (γ,2n), (γ,p), (γ, a), (γ,d). A simulation code has been written using MATLAB for conducting calculations of reduction and residual. The results showed that gamma-ray fluxes below 1017 [cm-2 s-1] are not adequate to perform effective incinera-tion of 137Cs, and as for gamma flux of 1018 ...


Engineering Of A Multi-Epitope Subunit Vaccine Against Sasrs-Cov-2 Through The Viroinformatic Approach, Aamir Shehzada, Christijogo Sumartono, Jusak Nugraha, Helen Susilowatid, Andi Yasmin Wijayab, Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Wiwiek Tyasningsih, Fedik Abdul Rantam May 2022

Engineering Of A Multi-Epitope Subunit Vaccine Against Sasrs-Cov-2 Through The Viroinformatic Approach, Aamir Shehzada, Christijogo Sumartono, Jusak Nugraha, Helen Susilowatid, Andi Yasmin Wijayab, Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Wiwiek Tyasningsih, Fedik Abdul Rantam

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The COVID-19 outbreak has infected millions of people worldwide, but no vaccine has been discovered to combat it efficiently. This research aims to design a multi-epitope vaccine using highly efficient B- and T-cell epitopes from the SARS-CoV-2 Surabaya isolate through a viroinformatic approach. First, the putative epitopes were linked together to develop tertiary structures and then docked with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) that demonstrated a robust interaction with a low eigenvalue of 4.816138 e-06. Furthermore, the structure's high immunogenic response was observed and successfully cloned into the expression vector pET28a (+). This implies that the designed vaccine can prove ...


On Two-Player Pebbling, Garth Isaak, Matthew Prudente, Andrea Potylycki, William Fagley, Joseph Marcinik May 2022

On Two-Player Pebbling, Garth Isaak, Matthew Prudente, Andrea Potylycki, William Fagley, Joseph Marcinik

Communications on Number Theory and Combinatorial Theory

Graph pebbling can be extended to a two-player game on a graph G, called Two-Player Graph Pebbling, with players Mover and Defender. The players each use pebbling moves, the act of removing two pebbles from one vertex and placing one of the pebbles on an adjacent vertex, to win. Mover wins if they can place a pebble on a specified vertex. Defender wins if the specified vertex is pebble-free and there are no more pebbling moves on the vertices of G. The Two-Player Pebbling Number of a graph G, η(G), is the minimum m such that for every arrangement ...


Small Business Cybersecurity: A Loophole To Consumer Data, Matthew R. Espinosa May 2022

Small Business Cybersecurity: A Loophole To Consumer Data, Matthew R. Espinosa

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Small businesses and small minority owned businesses are vital to our nation’s economy; therefore legislation, regulation, and policy has been created in order to assist them in overcoming their economic stability issues and ensure they continue to serve the communities that rely on them. However, there is not a focus on regulating nor assisting small businesses to ensure their cybersecurity standards are up to par despite them increasingly becoming a victim of cyberattacks that yield high consequences. The external oversight and assistance is necessary for small businesses due to their lack of knowledge in implementing effective cybersecurity policies, the ...


Smart Grid Control: Demand Side Management In Household Refrigerators As A Tool For Load Shifting, Anogh Utkalika Zaman, James Doyle May 2022

Smart Grid Control: Demand Side Management In Household Refrigerators As A Tool For Load Shifting, Anogh Utkalika Zaman, James Doyle

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

With improved supply of renewable sources of energy the focus has shifted away from simply producing clean energy to efficient consumption of energy. Until cheaper methods of energy storage are developed, Demand Side Management (DSM) is the best option for maximising energy efficiency. This paper proposes a method of turning regular refrigerators into smart demand response fridges. First, we develop an algorithm that accounts for small fluctuations in price and switches the device for optimal performance and lowered running cost. Then, we use longer price fluctuations to predict suitable times for pre-cooling and investigate the reduction in price as a ...


Twisting Lasers With The Faraday Effect, Harrison Werrell May 2022

Twisting Lasers With The Faraday Effect, Harrison Werrell

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Our objective with this project was to create a system and procedure to quantify the magnetization of a material with polarized light by using the Faraday Effect, where the light is rotated according to the magnetization. This type of system has seen use in technologies such as magneto-optical drives and optical isolators, and is part of the study of optical materials, along with the similar MagnetoOptical Kerr Effect. Our system, specifically, is intended to be used as part of an advanced Physics Lab in the future. It uses an electromagnet to magnetize a sample, and a laser to observe the ...


Electrical Analysis Of A Pem Electrolysis Cell, Joey Wehrley, James Doyle May 2022

Electrical Analysis Of A Pem Electrolysis Cell, Joey Wehrley, James Doyle

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a form of electrolysis that is heavily used in commercial capacities. It functions by using a membrane and an electric charge in order to perform electrolysis water, splitting it into its component parts - Hydrogen and Oxygen. These parts can then be used in a number of different applications, including reversing the electrolysis process to regenerate some energy in the form of electricity. During this experiment, multiple currents were run through a PEM cell, and voltages across the membrane were measured. It was found that a standard R/C charging model can be fit to ...


The Interaction Of Topological Defects In Anisotropically-Elastic Nematic Liquid Crystals, Carter J. Swift May 2022

The Interaction Of Topological Defects In Anisotropically-Elastic Nematic Liquid Crystals, Carter J. Swift

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Topological defects are very well understood so long as the medium in which they exist is isotropically-elastic. They lead to director fields which are easy to calculate and superpose linearly so that a system with any number of defects is analytically treatable. They also have an interaction which is simple in form and can be accurately described by the Peach-Koehler force. In an anisotropically-elastic medium, however, such defects are very poorly understood outside of the single-defect case which was solved by Dzyaloshinskii. In this project, numerical and approximate analytical techniques are applied in order to better understand the interaction between ...