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Articles 1 - 30 of 13570

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Understanding Coastal And Inland Hydrometeorological Hazards Produced By Extratropical And Tropical Cyclones Along The East Coast Of The United States, Katherine Towey Jun 2022

Understanding Coastal And Inland Hydrometeorological Hazards Produced By Extratropical And Tropical Cyclones Along The East Coast Of The United States, Katherine Towey

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As global temperatures continue to rise, the effects of anthropogenic climate change will impact the magnitude and frequency of pluvial, fluvial, and coastal flooding events. If we want to accurately predict changes in these flooding events, we need to fully understand them in the current climate. As such, this research examines the relationship between hydrometeorological hazards and the characteristics of the storm types, such as extratropical cyclones (ETCs) and tropical cyclones (TCs), that produce such hazards. Through the use of observational and reanalysis data, the work herein utilizes a cyclone-hazard association algorithm and extreme value analysis to assess the extent ...


Microplastics In Our Oceans May Inhibit Aerosols From Cooling The Atmosphere, Michael Rafla May 2022

Microplastics In Our Oceans May Inhibit Aerosols From Cooling The Atmosphere, Michael Rafla

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Sea spray aerosol (SSA) are liquid gaseous particles emitted directly from the ocean, making their way into the atmosphere. It is hypothesized that SSA enters the atmosphere from mechanical processes such as wind and ocean waves. Winds and waves promote bubble formation and these bubbles which make their way onto the ocean surface. After these wave-created bubbles rise to the ocean surface, the bubble ruptures and water evaporates which causes gaseous drops to be released into the air: this is the main source of SSA. SSA matter is known to affect Earth’s climate, by scattering light energy and solar ...


Changes In Heat Metrics Following A Major Hurricane And Implications On Heat Stress, Cade Reesman May 2022

Changes In Heat Metrics Following A Major Hurricane And Implications On Heat Stress, Cade Reesman

LSU Master's Theses

Tropical cyclones modify surface-atmosphere interactions in several ways, including the destruction of patches of tree canopy, increasing the direct and diffuse (shortwave) radiation reaching the surface. This addition of radiation at the surface impacts the sensible, latent, and substrate heat (energy) fluxes, generating heat anomalies along the hurricane’s track, which, among other effects, contributes to the higher post-hurricane surface air temperatures. This study consists of a case study on Hurricane Laura (2020) to examine hurricane defoliation impacts on heat stress metrics. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) identified the spatial extent ...


In Situ Observations Of Fish Attraction To Light-Emitting Diodes On An Undersea Observation Deck, Makoto Tomiyasu, Yoko Tanouchi, Yasuzumi Fujimori, Minato Kaji, Takuma Hayashi, Naoto Matsubara, Hiroki Yasuma, Susumu Shimizu, Seiji Katakura May 2022

In Situ Observations Of Fish Attraction To Light-Emitting Diodes On An Undersea Observation Deck, Makoto Tomiyasu, Yoko Tanouchi, Yasuzumi Fujimori, Minato Kaji, Takuma Hayashi, Naoto Matsubara, Hiroki Yasuma, Susumu Shimizu, Seiji Katakura

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Many fisheries employ fishing lights to manipulate the behaviors of target fish and to attract them toward the light; however, relatively few long-time observations of fish attraction have been performed in the field. Here, an underwater observation deck was used to examine the differences in the fish-attracting effect of light-emitting diode (LED) lights on the number of attracted fish and on their behavior in the field, using white-edged rockfish as the target species. A total of 604 ± 324, 307 ± 203 and 171 ± 106 white-edged rockfish individuals were attracted to the observation window when it was illuminated with blue, green, and ...


Inter-Annual Variability In Growth And Maturation Of The Swordtip Squid Uroteuthis Edulis In Yilan Bay Off Northeastern Taiwan, Jing-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yun Ching, Chih-Shin Chen May 2022

Inter-Annual Variability In Growth And Maturation Of The Swordtip Squid Uroteuthis Edulis In Yilan Bay Off Northeastern Taiwan, Jing-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yun Ching, Chih-Shin Chen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The swordtip squid Uroteuthis edulis, distributed in the temperate and tropical neritic waters in the Indo-Pacific region, is a crucial component of marine ecosystems and is a target species of fisheries in the Northwest Pacific. Although studies have elucidated the growth and maturation of the squid in the southern East China Sea (ECS) shelf, few have assessed the population biology of the squid in waters in the vicinity of the southern ECS. We collected samples of swordtip squid from a trawler in Yilan Bay (YLB) between January 2011 and December 2012 to examine the growth and maturation of the squid ...


Study On The Improved Radiation Boundary Conditions Based On The Quadratic B-Spline Rankine Panel Method, Ming-Chung Fang, Chun-Hsien Wu May 2022

Study On The Improved Radiation Boundary Conditions Based On The Quadratic B-Spline Rankine Panel Method, Ming-Chung Fang, Chun-Hsien Wu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

This study presents a higher-order Rankine source method that is based on a biquadratic B-spline scheme with an improved radiation boundary condition. This method solves flow problems under all conditions, where , including the undercritical condition ( < 0.25); this condition is present when a ship undergoes slow translational motion. The proposed method is thus more flexible than the many Rankine-source models in the literature that are applicable only to the overcritical condition ( > 0.25). Specifically, the improved radiation boundary condition is derived from upstream Seto radiation boundary conditions and by incorporating the Rayleigh damping distribution over a free surface; the improved condition is explicit and efficient for solving flow problems. In evaluations, the proposed method yields accurate solutions for unsteady flows, which are produced by an oscillating, translationally moving submerged singularity. The method is also compared against ...


Sensitive Analysis Of The Static Response Of Compliant Vertical Access Risers, Fuheng Li, Haiyan Guo, Xiaomin Li, Honglu Gu May 2022

Sensitive Analysis Of The Static Response Of Compliant Vertical Access Risers, Fuheng Li, Haiyan Guo, Xiaomin Li, Honglu Gu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Compliant vertical access risers (CVARs) are considered as efficient and robust alternative options to achieve cost efficiency and safety. Design uncertainties emerge owing to the limited understanding of the effects of various parameters related to the structural properties and marine loads. In this paper, a reasonable three-dimensional (3D) numerical model of CVAR with internal flow is presented based on the slender rod theory. Accordingly, the finite element method combined with a Newton-Raphson scheme is employed to discretize and solve the equations. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the influence of the structural and external load parameters on the static ...


Influence Of Boundary Conditions And Internal Fluid Types On Dynamic Characteristics Of A Deepwater Riser, Lei Guo, Zong-Ming Zhu, Zhong-Jian Pan, Zhi-Ming Guo May 2022

Influence Of Boundary Conditions And Internal Fluid Types On Dynamic Characteristics Of A Deepwater Riser, Lei Guo, Zong-Ming Zhu, Zhong-Jian Pan, Zhi-Ming Guo

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Deepwater Steel Catenary Riser (DSCR) is the key structure of oil and gas production system in the ocean. To design an optimized DSCR system, the dynamic characteristics of the DSCR are analyzed by setting some different boundary condi-tions and internal fluid types. The main vibration mode of the DSCR is found orthogonal to both mass and stiffness according to the normalization condition of the main mode, and then the regular mode function and the jth order principal stiffness Kpj are obtained. Under different initial conditions, the transverse responses of DSCR represented by regular coordinates under arbitrary excitation are obtained. Then ...


Variance Of Td-Mosaic Dual-Vortex Interactions Between In-Fa And Cempaka (2021) In The North Pacific, Tsorng-Lin Chia, Guang-Yang Pan, Ji-Chyun Liu May 2022

Variance Of Td-Mosaic Dual-Vortex Interactions Between In-Fa And Cempaka (2021) In The North Pacific, Tsorng-Lin Chia, Guang-Yang Pan, Ji-Chyun Liu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

A study of the different types of dual-vortex interactions or “Fujiwara effects” between two storms is crucial for considerably improving weather forecasts. This study combined remote sensing images, empirical formulas based on the possibility of storm interaction (Liou–Liu formula), and vector addition techniques to accurately analyze In-Fa and Cempaka typhoons and the surrounding weather patterns during the 2021 typhoon season in the North Pacific. Although the distance separating the typhoons In-Fa and Cempaka was 1,800–2,040 km, the influence of middle air flow and a tropical depression (TD) caused a "vector superposition TD-mosaic double-vortex" interaction between the ...


Optimal Deployment Of Flood Emergency Response Materials Under Stochastic Demands, Shangyao Yan, Jenn-Rong Lin, Chia-Fu Ku May 2022

Optimal Deployment Of Flood Emergency Response Materials Under Stochastic Demands, Shangyao Yan, Jenn-Rong Lin, Chia-Fu Ku

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

This study aims to develop a planning model for the deployment of flood emergency response materials under stochastic demands. For ease of modeling, a deterministic demand model is first proposed, from which the stochastic model is further extended. These models are used to determine the allocation of materials the transport truck routes and distribution of the stockpiled materials to emergency sites. The models are formulated as multiple integer network flow problems with special side constraints which are characterized as NP-hard in terms of optimization. To solve the complicated stochastic model efficiently, we also develop a solution algorithm based on a ...


Knocking Down Nox: Examining The Effects Of Transportation Electrification On Urban Ozone Production In The South Coast Air Basin, Jason Beal May 2022

Knocking Down Nox: Examining The Effects Of Transportation Electrification On Urban Ozone Production In The South Coast Air Basin, Jason Beal

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

With last year’s commitment to all in-state sales of new passenger cars and trucks being zero-emission by 2035 (California Executive Order N-79-20), California is leading the charge for transportation electrification in the United States. Despite being at the forefront of climate change management and mitigation, California has some of the worst air quality in the nation. While primarily motivated by a desire to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and reliance on fossil fuels, transportation electrification will also have a significant impact on local air quality. The goal of this study is to quantify and qualify this impact in the context ...


Generational Harmony Saves The World: How The Power Of Generation Theory, Gen Z Youth, And Activism Can Mitigate The Climate Crisis, Ryan Hill May 2022

Generational Harmony Saves The World: How The Power Of Generation Theory, Gen Z Youth, And Activism Can Mitigate The Climate Crisis, Ryan Hill

Undergraduate Scholarship and Creative Works

This paper explores generations as a concept for understanding and explaining the relationship between major sociohistorical events and societal members, posits generation succession as a way in which long-term social change occurs, compares and contrasts the perceptions of the major generations (Baby Boomers, Gen X, Millennials) created by popular media and scholarly research, illuminates characterizations of the youngest and still-emerging Gen Z, discusses what major sociohistorical events during the time of their adolescence have folded Gen Z into a distinct group with a common generational consciousness, outlines how anthropogenic climate change is a real phenomenon with harmful consequences already affecting ...


A Biological Condition Gradient For Coral Reefs In The Us Caribbean Territories: Part I. Coral Narrative Rules, Deborah Santavy, Susan K. Jackson, Benjamin Jessup, Jeroen Gerritsen, Caroline Rogers, William S. Fisher, Ernesto Weil, Alina Szmant, David Cuevas-Miranda, Brian Walker, Christopher Jeffrey, Patricia Bradley, David Ballantine, Loretta Roberson, Hector Ruiz-Torres, Brandi Todd, Tyler Smith, Randy Clark, Ernesto Diaz, Jorge Bauzá-Ortega, Christina Horstmann, Sandy Raimondo May 2022

A Biological Condition Gradient For Coral Reefs In The Us Caribbean Territories: Part I. Coral Narrative Rules, Deborah Santavy, Susan K. Jackson, Benjamin Jessup, Jeroen Gerritsen, Caroline Rogers, William S. Fisher, Ernesto Weil, Alina Szmant, David Cuevas-Miranda, Brian Walker, Christopher Jeffrey, Patricia Bradley, David Ballantine, Loretta Roberson, Hector Ruiz-Torres, Brandi Todd, Tyler Smith, Randy Clark, Ernesto Diaz, Jorge Bauzá-Ortega, Christina Horstmann, Sandy Raimondo

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

As coral reef condition and sustainability continue to decline worldwide, losses of critical habitat and their ecosystem services have generated an urgency to understand and communicate reef response to management actions, environmental contamination, and natural disasters. Increasingly, coral reef protection and restoration programs emphasize the need for robust assessment tools for protecting high-quality waters and establishing conservation goals. Of equal importance is the need to communicate assessment results to stakeholders, beneficiaries, and the public so that environmental consequences of decisions are understood. The Biological Condition (BCG) model provides a structure to evaluate the condition of a coral reef in increments ...


Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings May 2022

Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is well documented that human activity influences the chemistry of surrounding waters. As such, it is possible that there is a link between land use within a watershed and the chemical composition of the stream. The objectives of this study are to determine if varied land use does affect the concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements present in the streams of Northwest Arkansas, and if so, to determine what extent urban and agricultural development are responsible for these changes. Water samples were collected across 19 streams in the Northwest Arkansas region between January and March of 2022. Water samples ...


How Flow Regime Affects Predator-Prey Relationships Of Stream Darter And Shiner Species, Anna E. Richardson May 2022

How Flow Regime Affects Predator-Prey Relationships Of Stream Darter And Shiner Species, Anna E. Richardson

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Analysis of the interactions between abiotic and biotic factors of environments and ecosystems is a highly valued area of research. This study focuses on the interactions between the biotic component of predation and foraging of certain stream fish species and the abiotic component of the flow regime that those species reside in. Gut content analysis followed by statistical calculations in the form of t-tests and chi -quared tests were performed on two fish species who both inhabited a stream with a groundwater flashy flow regime as well as a stream with a runoff flashy flow regime. The research showed that ...


Coastal Sediment Response To The Diel Oxygen Cycle, Kara Gadeken May 2022

Coastal Sediment Response To The Diel Oxygen Cycle, Kara Gadeken

Theses and Dissertations

Shallow coastal sediments are sites of intense respiration and organic matter breakdown. Macroinfauna bioturbate and bioirrigate sediments which supplies microbes with oxygen and newly deposited organic material from surface sediments, facilitating microbial remineralization of organic matter. These processes depend heavily on the concentration of dissolved oxygen in overlying water. Shallow water oxygen patterns often follow a diel cycle as dissolved oxygen decreases at night due to respiration and then increases during the day with photosynthesis, creating recurring suboxic conditions that are potentially stressful to organisms. Sediment oxygen flux is known to depend on ambient dissolved oxygen concentration, but behavioral responses ...


Changes In Western U.S. Streamflow Extremes Under Climate Change, Rama Bedri May 2022

Changes In Western U.S. Streamflow Extremes Under Climate Change, Rama Bedri

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

We are analyzing streamflow extremes in Western U.S. rivers due to climate change. Global warming causes natural disasters to reach extreme points and affects river volumes, snowfall, and precipitation amounts. We analyze the data for 17 stations in the Colorado River Basin, whose rivers provide Southern California’s drinking water supply. Disruptions in streamflow due to climate change affect the region’s water availability and make it difficult to predict future trends. We compared historical streamflow data to eight possible climate scenarios. The different scenarios are Warm Dry, Cool Wet, Average, and Other at emission levels of RCP 4 ...


Length-Based Risk Analysis Of Management Options For The Southern Florida Usa Multispecies Coral Reef Fish Fishery, Jerald Ault, Steven G. Smith, Matthew W. Johnson, Laura Jay W. Grove, James A. Bohnsack, Gerard T. Dinardo, Caroline Mclaughlin, Nelson M. Ehrhardt, Vanessa Mcdonough, Michael P. Seki, Steven Miller, Jiangang Luo, Jeremiah Blondeau, Michael P. Crosby, Glenn Simpson, Mark E. Monaco, Clayton G. Pollock, Michael W. Feeley, Alejandro Acosta May 2022

Length-Based Risk Analysis Of Management Options For The Southern Florida Usa Multispecies Coral Reef Fish Fishery, Jerald Ault, Steven G. Smith, Matthew W. Johnson, Laura Jay W. Grove, James A. Bohnsack, Gerard T. Dinardo, Caroline Mclaughlin, Nelson M. Ehrhardt, Vanessa Mcdonough, Michael P. Seki, Steven Miller, Jiangang Luo, Jeremiah Blondeau, Michael P. Crosby, Glenn Simpson, Mark E. Monaco, Clayton G. Pollock, Michael W. Feeley, Alejandro Acosta

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Exploitation impacts and management options for 15 coral reef fish species central to the commercial and recreational fisheries of the southern Florida USA coral reef ecosystem were evaluated using a length-based risk analysis (LBRA) framework. Population abundance-at-length composition data were obtained from several regional federal-state sampling programs. These and updated life history demographic data were integrated into a length-based numerical cohort model to generate LBRA fishery sustainability metrics from a probabilistic perspective. Three of five groupers, eight of eight snappers, and two of two grunts were below the 40% spawning potential ratio (SPR) stock sustainability minimum; ten of these stocks ...


Pliocene Wood From The Gray Fossil Site, Owen Madsen May 2022

Pliocene Wood From The Gray Fossil Site, Owen Madsen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Gray Fossil Site in northeastern Tennessee preserves materials from a 5-million-year-old ecosystem, including wood from nearby trees. This study consists of three parts: conservation of wood remains, identification of taxonomic groups represented by the fossil wood, and measuring the organic content of fossil wood from the Gray Fossil Site. When excavated, wood specimens from the site are saturated due to a high local water table. After testing seven different techniques to dry wood specimens, wrapping a specimen in string and allowing it to dry slowly was the method least likely to cause warping and cracking. Microscopic examination of wood ...


Understanding The Public Perception Of Available Scientific Resources In Coastal Southern Maine, James Gallagher May 2022

Understanding The Public Perception Of Available Scientific Resources In Coastal Southern Maine, James Gallagher

Senior Honors Projects

I have focused my education as an undergrad towards the effective communication of scientific fact to non-scientific groups. This area of study has recently been dubbed Science Communication and it encompasses the effective articulation, communication, and education of scientific topics to people who haven’t dedicated their lives to scientific study. A major component of effective Scientific Communication is understanding your audience and what kind of communication strategies are best for a chosen demographic.

I grew up in Ocean Park Maine, a small town on the coast of Southern Maine which drove my interest in Marine Science. With my experience ...


A Step Toward Reconstructing Climate Variability Druing The Last Ice Age Cycle In The Northeast Pacific Region, Blaine Lynch-Gadaleta May 2022

A Step Toward Reconstructing Climate Variability Druing The Last Ice Age Cycle In The Northeast Pacific Region, Blaine Lynch-Gadaleta

Senior Honors Projects

This study is designed as a step toward reconstructing the climate variability in the Northeast Pacific during the last ice age cycle, including the glacial and deglacial transitions. Reconstruction may also contribute to the regional picture of climate change and potentially provide new insights into the pattern of variability in the Northeast Pacific. Deep-sea sediment core AT26-19 09PC was collected west of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Samples were analyzed in 1 cm intervals, representing approximately 300-year resolution. The abundance of mineral grains, planktonic foraminifera, and the polar foraminifera N.pachyderma was quantified using split ...


Acoustic Waves In The Upper Atmosphere, Geoffrey Blayne Schulthess May 2022

Acoustic Waves In The Upper Atmosphere, Geoffrey Blayne Schulthess

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Atmospheric waves can be generated by tropospheric sources such as earthquakes and explosions, causing significant disturbances in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, where radio wave communications take place. For this analysis, they will be separated into two sub-groups called acoustic waves and gravity waves. Because each of these waves have unique frequency ranges, they can be observed and measured in order to determine their source type and location. Past studies attempted to build the connections between these waves with severe storms and earthquakes, which have improved our understanding of their complexity. Because of the complex nature of these waves, simplified ...


The Effects Of Water With Anti-Inflammatory Capabilities (Wac) On Circulating Inflammatory Biomarkers At Rest And Following Resistance Exercise, Brittany Martin May 2022

The Effects Of Water With Anti-Inflammatory Capabilities (Wac) On Circulating Inflammatory Biomarkers At Rest And Following Resistance Exercise, Brittany Martin

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Purpose: To determine the effects of waters with anti-inflammatory capabilities (WAC) influence circulating inflammatory biomarkers at rest and following resistance exercise. Methods: Participants completed a heavy lifting protocol and drank water with anti-inflammatory capabilities for a total of six weeks. Blood samples were taken at different at 9 different time intervals to assess concentrations of anti-inflammatory markers and to quantify inflammatory biomarkers. Those time intervals included pre-AHREP 1 and post-AHREP 1, 24-hr post-AHREP 1, 48-hr post-AHREP 1, 3-week check-up, pre-AHREP 2, post-AHREP 2, 24-hr post-AHREP 2, and 48-hr post-AHREP 2. Background: The biomarkers that were focused on were: IL-6 and ...


An Investigation Of Water Obstructions And Related Weather Conditions For Nebraska Roadways, Logan Bundy Apr 2022

An Investigation Of Water Obstructions And Related Weather Conditions For Nebraska Roadways, Logan Bundy

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Roadway resilience across the 10,000 miles of road and 3,500 bridges in Nebraska is critical to the economic success of production and logistics. In a state where historical flooding scenarios, such as the one in March 2019 that caused $150 million in damage, could potentially be increasing, it has become essential to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of high-frequency water obstruction areas on roadways. Using Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) historical water obstruction data from June 2016 through August 2021, statistical and spatial analyses were conducted to quantify the relationship between water obstructions and their associated meteorological ...


Evaluating Alternative Ebullition Models For Predicting Peatland Methane Emission And Its Pathways Via Data–Model Fusion, Shuang Ma, Lifen Jiang, Rachel M. Wilson, Jeff P. Chanton, Scott Bridgham, Shuli Niu, Colleen M. Iversen, Avni Malhotra, Jiang Jiang, Xingjie Lu, Yuanyuan Huang, Jason Keller, Xiaofeng Xu, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Paul J. Hanson, Yiqi Luo Apr 2022

Evaluating Alternative Ebullition Models For Predicting Peatland Methane Emission And Its Pathways Via Data–Model Fusion, Shuang Ma, Lifen Jiang, Rachel M. Wilson, Jeff P. Chanton, Scott Bridgham, Shuli Niu, Colleen M. Iversen, Avni Malhotra, Jiang Jiang, Xingjie Lu, Yuanyuan Huang, Jason Keller, Xiaofeng Xu, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Paul J. Hanson, Yiqi Luo

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Understanding the dynamics of peatland methane (CH4) emissions and quantifying sources of uncertainty in estimating peatland CH4 emissions are critical for mitigating climate change. The relative contributions of CH4 emission pathways through ebullition, plant-mediated transport, and diffusion, together with their different transport rates and vulnerability to oxidation, determine the quantity of CH4 to be oxidized before leaving the soil. Notwithstanding their importance, the relative contributions of the emission pathways are highly uncertain. In particular, the ebullition process is more uncertain and can lead to large uncertainties in modeled CH4 emissions. To improve model simulations of CH4 emission and its pathways ...


Comparing Polarimetric Signatures Of Proximate Tornadic And Non-Tornadic Supercells In Similar Environments, Devon Healey Apr 2022

Comparing Polarimetric Signatures Of Proximate Tornadic And Non-Tornadic Supercells In Similar Environments, Devon Healey

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

While much research has shown that characteristics of the environment surrounding supercells can potentially indicate their likelihood to become tornadic, it is not uncommon for tornadic and non-tornadic supercells to coexist in seemingly similar environments. In these situations, it is difficult operationally to separate tornadic from non-tornadic supercells using environmental observations alone. Given that tornadic and non-tornadic supercells have been found to coexist in similar environments, something must be occurring beneath the observational and/or model gridscale that is supporting tornadogenesis in some supercells while inhibiting it in others. This study examines dual-polarimetric radar signatures of proximate tornadic and non-tornadic ...


Modeling Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Can Air Pressure Signals Inside Barometric Caves Be Predicted From Surface Pressure Measurements?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch Apr 2022

Modeling Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Can Air Pressure Signals Inside Barometric Caves Be Predicted From Surface Pressure Measurements?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch

International Journal of Speleology

Recent speleoclimatological research has shed new light on air pressure dynamics inside barometric caves by identifying pressure-modifying processes and resulting systematic differences between cave and surface air pressure. Based on these new findings, a multi- step quantitative model is developed and explored to predict air pressure inside Wind Cave and Jewel Cave – two major barometric cave systems in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA – from external surface measurements. Therefore, each identified speleoclimatological pressure process is translated into a mathematical operation. Model evaluation based on Pearson correlation and mean (absolute) deviation between model outputs and control measurements yields good to ...


Controls On Buffering And Coastal Acidification In A Temperate Estuary, Christopher W. Hunt, Joseph Salisbury, Douglas Vandemark Apr 2022

Controls On Buffering And Coastal Acidification In A Temperate Estuary, Christopher W. Hunt, Joseph Salisbury, Douglas Vandemark

Faculty Publications

Estuaries may be uniquely susceptible to the combined acidification pressures of atmospherically driven ocean acidification (OA), biologically driven CO2 inputs from the estuary itself, and terrestrially derived freshwater inputs. This study utilized continuous measurements of total alkalinity (TA) and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) from the mouth of Great Bay, a temperate northeastern U.S. estuary, to examine the potential influences of endmember mixing and biogeochemical transformation upon estuary buffering capacity (β–H). Observations were collected hourly over 28 months representing all seasons between May 2016 and December 2019. Results indicated that endmember mixing explained most of the ...


Investigating Temporal Groundwater Interactions Between A Barrier Island And High Marsh Environment, Dean Wrobel Apr 2022

Investigating Temporal Groundwater Interactions Between A Barrier Island And High Marsh Environment, Dean Wrobel

Undergraduate Research Competition

Saltmarsh hydrogeology can be characterized as exceptionally dynamic, with a diversity of pore water salinities, sediment porosities, and varied hydrologic inputs and outputs such as groundwater, precipitation, and tidal cycles. Of the studies done in these systems, much attention has been focused on the low marsh with regard to tidal pumping and the consequent horizontal pressure gradients which affect the subsurface hydraulic head. Perhaps, an equally dynamic boundary is expected at the groundwater interface of the barrier island and high marsh. Here, electrical resistivity tomograms were generated in a back-barrier, high-marsh site landward of Waties Island, South Carolina. Co-located transects ...


Microplastic Concentration Analysis Of The Atlantic Sand Fiddler Crab (Leptuca Pugilator) In Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, Caroline Conner Apr 2022

Microplastic Concentration Analysis Of The Atlantic Sand Fiddler Crab (Leptuca Pugilator) In Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, Caroline Conner

Undergraduate Research Competition

Microplastics pose a great threat to the natural environment, a threat not aided by their increasing abundance in marine waters. To assess how this is affecting our local area, I examined the microplastic concentration in fiddler crabs, a keystone species in intertidal zones, from two marsh systems in Murrells Inlet. The quantity, color, and type of microplastic found were recorded from each of the 120 crabs sampled. This information is revelant not only in monitoring the health of a species that plays a major role in nutrient recycling and prevention of anoxic conditions, but also as a caution to us ...