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Samuel Little: A Brief Summary And Analysis Of America’S Most Prolific Serial Killer, Hannah M. Stephens 2023 West Virginia University at Parkersburg

Samuel Little: A Brief Summary And Analysis Of America’S Most Prolific Serial Killer, Hannah M. Stephens

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

Serial murderers have long been a topic of fascination for both the public and law enforcement. In recent years, more analyses of serial murders have proven valuable to the development of criminal profiles used to apprehend these offenders. Though these analyses involving large samples are extremely valuable to law enforcement, it can be become easy to discount the value of case studies. Many times, case analyses can provide a practical application of developed profiles. In this essay, a case study of Samuel Little, one of the most prominent—yet surprisingly unknown—serial killers, will be discussed in brief. First, this essay will …


Welcome From The Editors, Cassandra B. Whyte Dr., Stephen Young 2023 Marshall University

Welcome From The Editors, Cassandra B. Whyte Dr., Stephen Young

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

No abstract provided.


Moving In The Shadows: The Reasons Why Men Purchase Commercial Sexual Services And The Connection To Strain Theory, Kelley Barry 2023 Marshall University

Moving In The Shadows: The Reasons Why Men Purchase Commercial Sexual Services And The Connection To Strain Theory, Kelley Barry

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

Prostitution has been a feature of human civilization since its establishment. Yet, existing research typically encompasses the perspective of the seller, leaving the context of an entire faction somewhat undiscovered. In working to better understand this population, this paper emphasizes the perspective of male buyers and their reasons for purchasing sexual services. To further examine the role that men assume in this type of exchange, their input is compared against the central tenets of Agnew’s (1992) strain theory.


Prison Visitation Policy And Procedure Guide, Meghan Mitchell 2023 University of North Dakota

Prison Visitation Policy And Procedure Guide, Meghan Mitchell

AI Assignment Library

In this assignment you will use artificial intelligence (AI)—specifically ChatGPT—to create a visitation information guide for a prison. This assignment has multiple learning objectives:

  1. learning how to draft and refine official policies and procedures;
  2. exploring the utility of AI; and
  3. validating the accuracy of AI tools as they apply to criminal justice practices.


Firearm Deaths In The Mountain West, 2020, Lana Kojoian, Annie Vong, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. 2023 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Firearm Deaths In The Mountain West, 2020, Lana Kojoian, Annie Vong, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Criminal Justice

This fact sheet examines data from the RAND Corporation report “Understanding Firearm Deaths by State—and How to Reduce Them,” which provides data on state and national rates of firearm related deaths, including suicides and homicides for 2020 This fact sheet includes firearm death data for five Mountain West states: Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah.


Contextual Determinants Of Re-Reporting For Families Receiving Alternative Response: A Survival Analysis In A Midwestern State, Jianchao Lai, Michelle Graef, Todd Franke, Toby Burnham 2023 University of California, Los Angeles

Contextual Determinants Of Re-Reporting For Families Receiving Alternative Response: A Survival Analysis In A Midwestern State, Jianchao Lai, Michelle Graef, Todd Franke, Toby Burnham

Center on Children, Families, and the Law: Faculty Publications

Differential response (DR) has been widely adopted in over 30 states to address shortcomings of the traditional approach to child maltreatment reports in complex family and case circumstances. However, despite continued evaluation efforts, evidence of the effectiveness of DR remains inconclusive. The current study aims to assess the impact of a DR program and potential predictors, including service match and number of family case workers, on maltreatment re-reports in a Midwestern state. The study utilized a randomized control trial and assigned eligible families to either the Alternative Response (AR) track or Traditional Response (TR) track. The enrollment was implemented in …


Criminal Justice Update - September 2023, Delaney Rabenold 2023 Gettysburg College

Criminal Justice Update - September 2023, Delaney Rabenold

Criminal Justice Updates

The Criminal Justice Update is a monthly newsletter created by the Adams County Bar Foundation Fellow providing updates in criminal justice policy coming from Pennsylvania's courts and legislature as well as the US Supreme Court.

Contents:

  • Updates from PA Governor's Office (no updates this month)
  • Updates from the PA Legislature (no updates this month)
  • Updates from the Courts
    • U.S. Supreme Court (no updates this month)
    • PA Supreme Court
    • PA Superior Court


Stabilizing And Empowering Women In Higher Education: Aligning, Centering, And Building, Natasha N. Johnson 2023 Georgia State University

Stabilizing And Empowering Women In Higher Education: Aligning, Centering, And Building, Natasha N. Johnson

CJC Publications

The importance of higher education in today’s world and workforce cannot be overstated. It is well-known that higher education leads to better jobs, higher salaries, and elevated social status. Unfortunately, women have been historically underrepresented in the realm of higher education. In recent years, however, numerous efforts have been made to stabilize and empower women in this arena. As such, this chapter aims to provide an in-depth analysis of these progressive efforts. Stabilizing and empowering women in higher education is essential in promoting gender equality and generational social progress. While substantial gains have been made in recent years, much remains …


Bargaining In The Shadow Of The Truth: How Client Assertion, Perception Of Guilt, And Predictive Inaccuracy Influence Plea Recommendations, Anna D. Vaynman 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Bargaining In The Shadow Of The Truth: How Client Assertion, Perception Of Guilt, And Predictive Inaccuracy Influence Plea Recommendations, Anna D. Vaynman

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Over the past few decades, the largely hidden, secretive, and widely used system of plea bargaining has caught the fervent attention of scholars. The Shadow of the Trial model has been central to much of the plea-bargaining literature, despite significant critiques about its oversimplification. The model posits that defendants and their attorneys make plea decisions based largely on the estimated probability of conviction and the severity of the sentence to which the defendant could be exposed at trial.

The model, however, assumes that all actors are rational, equally risk averse, have no competing interests, and possess high predictive accuracy. It …


Epistemic Virtue And Receptivity To Science In Policing, Braden L. Campbell 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Epistemic Virtue And Receptivity To Science In Policing, Braden L. Campbell

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation investigates the underexplored relationship between character epistemology and its potential to explain behavior, decision-making, and culture within the criminal justice system, particularly the police. Building on the existing theoretical framework of evidence-based policing (EBP) and the recognized gap in understanding police receptivity to science, this study hypothesized that intellectual character at personal and collective levels positively correlates with science receptivity.

Epistemic character was defined through the aggregation of four traits: open-mindedness, defensiveness, insouciance, and groupthink. Science receptivity was measured by openness to change, desire to learn, reliance on intuition, and mistrust of science. Data were collected through surveys …


"Who Shapes The Law? Gender And Racial Bias In Judicial Citations.", Laura P. Moyer, John J. Szmer, Susan B. Haire, Robert K. Christenson 2023 University of Louisville

"Who Shapes The Law? Gender And Racial Bias In Judicial Citations.", Laura P. Moyer, John J. Szmer, Susan B. Haire, Robert K. Christenson

Faculty Scholarship

In this letter, we assess whether the contributions of judges from underrepresented groups are undervalued or overlooked, thereby reducing these judges’ influence on legal policy. Drawing on an original dataset of discretionary citations to over 2,000 published federal appellate decisions, we find that the majority of opinions written by female judges receive less attention from other courts than those by similarly situated men and that this is largely attributable to disparities in citing Black women and Latinas. We also find that additional efforts by Black and Latinx judges to ground their opinions in precedent yield a much lower rate of …


Quality Management And Oversight Of Texas Forensic Science Service Providers, Sarah P. Chu 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Quality Management And Oversight Of Texas Forensic Science Service Providers, Sarah P. Chu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Forensic science oversight in the U.S. largely relies upon voluntary third-party forensic laboratory accreditation programs. Without a national system of regulation and given the highly fragmented local systems of control, few forensic science service providers (FSSPs) are subject to regulatory oversight beyond their third-party accreditors. Texas is unique in its establishment of a robust statewide oversight system and a strong governmental culture of transparency, permitting this study of forensic quality management. This study consisted of two parts. The first part of this dissertation characterized and analyzed quality incident reports (QIRs) published by the Texas Department of Public Safety Crime Laboratory …


Beyond Punishment: A Critical And Interpretive Phenomenology Of Accountability, Cameron Rasmussen 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Beyond Punishment: A Critical And Interpretive Phenomenology Of Accountability, Cameron Rasmussen

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

State responses to interpersonal violence in the US have long been focused on punishment and prison. While opposition to punitive responses to interpersonal violence has been marginal, there are small but growing efforts to challenge the primacy of punishment and incarceration. In its place, different non-punitive approaches to justice have been practiced and promoted including restorative justice and transformative justice, which see accountability, not punishment, as a primary goal. Accountability has been theorized and researched largely from the perspective of survivors of harm, and there is limited research on the experiences of people who have caused harm and engaged in …


The Narratives Of Local Women’S Resilience In Disaster And Climate Change: The Voices Of Indonesian Women In The Watershed Areas, Titiek Kartika Hendrastiti, Siti Kusujiarti, Rambat Nur Sasongko 2023 Universitas Bengkulu

The Narratives Of Local Women’S Resilience In Disaster And Climate Change: The Voices Of Indonesian Women In The Watershed Areas, Titiek Kartika Hendrastiti, Siti Kusujiarti, Rambat Nur Sasongko

The Indonesian Journal of Socio-Legal Studies

This study analyzes the narratives of women’s resilience in disaster from the post-colonial feminism approach. Ecological justice and gender issues have been addressed by other studies on Indonesia to amplify the voices of Indonesian women, but few of them focus on women’s narratives. As a culture relying on oral traditions, Indonesian women’s narratives and stories are instrumental in decolonizing the knowledge on ecological justice. Even though feminist perspectives play an instrumental role in addressing ecological justice in Indonesia, studies using post-colonial feminism remain very limited.

This study employs post-colonial feminist ethnography and focuses on three watershed areas in Bengkulu, Indonesia: …


Sexual Minority Students' Negative Experiences In High School, Abena Pinamang 2023 Grand Valley State University

Sexual Minority Students' Negative Experiences In High School, Abena Pinamang

Masters Theses

Schools are supposed to be a safe space for learning and development for all students regardless of race or gender however, many sexual minority students experience extreme forms of victimization in school which results in poor academic performance, suicidal ideation, illegal drug use, alcohol use and weapon carrying on school property. The current study aimed to identify the school experiences of lesbian, gay and bisexual high school students and to determine whether they have the same school experiences as their heterosexual peers. Secondary data obtained from the 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was used for analysis. The results of …


Harnessing Large Language Models To Simulate Realistic Human Responses To Social Engineering Attacks: A Case Study, Mohammad Asfour, Juan Carlos Murillo 2023 Cornell University

Harnessing Large Language Models To Simulate Realistic Human Responses To Social Engineering Attacks: A Case Study, Mohammad Asfour, Juan Carlos Murillo

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The research publication, “Generative Agents: Interactive Simulacra of Human Behavior,” by Stanford and Google in 2023 established that large language models (LLMs) such as GPT-4 can generate interactive agents with credible and emergent human-like behaviors. However, their application in simulating human responses in cybersecurity scenarios, particularly in social engineering attacks, remains unexplored. In addressing that gap, this study explores the potential of LLMs, specifically the Open AI GPT-4 model, to simulate a broad spectrum of human responses to social engineering attacks that exploit human social behaviors, framing our primary research question: How does the simulated behavior of human targets, based …


Understanding The Use Of Artificial Intelligence In Cybercrime, Katalin Parti, Thomas Dearden, Sinyong Choi 2023 Virginia Tech

Understanding The Use Of Artificial Intelligence In Cybercrime, Katalin Parti, Thomas Dearden, Sinyong Choi

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Artificial intelligence is one of the newest innovations which offenders exploit to satisfy their criminal desires. Although understanding cybercrime that is associated with this relatively new technology is essential in developing proper preventive measures, little has been done to examine this area. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the two articles featured in the special issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime, one about deepfakes in the metaverse and the other about social engineering attacks. The articles were written by the winners of the student paper competition at the 2023 International White Hat Conference.


Victimization By Deepfake In The Metaverse: Building A Practical Management Framework, Julia Stavola, Kyung-Shick Choi 2023 Boston University

Victimization By Deepfake In The Metaverse: Building A Practical Management Framework, Julia Stavola, Kyung-Shick Choi

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Deepfake is digitally altered media aimed to deceive online users for political favor, monetary gain, extortion, and more. Deepfakes are the prevalent issues of impersonation, privacy, and fake news that cause substantial damage to individuals, groups, and organizations. The metaverse is an emerging 3-dimensional virtual platform led by AI and blockchain technology where users freely interact with each other. The purpose of this study is to identify the use of illicit deep fakes which can potentially contribute to cybercrime victimization in the metaverse. The data will be derived from expert interviews (n=8) and online open sources to design a framework …


Decriminalizing Drugs: A Comparative Study Of Oregon In An International Context, Fox Millsaps 2023 Portland State University

Decriminalizing Drugs: A Comparative Study Of Oregon In An International Context, Fox Millsaps

University Honors Theses

Oregon made history in 2020 when voters joined together to approve ballot measure 110, the Drug Addiction Treatment and Recovery Act, which decriminalized personal amounts of all illicit substances. This was done in a bid to begin treating the ongoing drug crisis as a public health issue as opposed to a criminal justice issue. While Oregon may be the first in the nation to make such a move, they are not the first government to experiment with decriminalizing 'hard drugs.' Some argue that Oregon’s model was based on Portugal's decriminalization effort and point to Portugal's success as a potential outcome …


Prosecutorial Actus Reus: Appellate Review Of Prosecutorial Misconduct And The Diminishment Of Responsibility, Elizabeth Griffiths, Heather L. Scheuerman, Sandy Xie 2023 Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA

Prosecutorial Actus Reus: Appellate Review Of Prosecutorial Misconduct And The Diminishment Of Responsibility, Elizabeth Griffiths, Heather L. Scheuerman, Sandy Xie

International Journal on Responsibility

The socio-historical concept of criminal responsibility links the action (actus reus) and mental state (mens rea), or intention, of the actor (i.e., the defendant) to determine legal and moral liability for his or her behavior and to apportion punishment. When the actor responsible for immoral conduct is the prosecutor in pursuit of a conviction, the courts respond very differently. More specifically, because prosecutors are presumed to be moral and ethical system actors, assumptions about their good character likely influence the ways in which they are held to account. This study explores the content and arguments made …


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