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Full-Text Articles in Legal Studies

Silencing And Surveillance: The Struggle Of Same-Sex Desire In The Shadow Of The 20th-Century Police State, Ethan Dunn May 2024

Silencing And Surveillance: The Struggle Of Same-Sex Desire In The Shadow Of The 20th-Century Police State, Ethan Dunn

Honors Theses

This paper investigates the intersection of social perceptions of vice and gender norms in shaping the policing of sexual orientation and sexuality during the turn of the twentieth century. Employing a legal analysis rooted in the law and society movement and critical legal studies, this study examines how social anxieties surrounding vice and vice crimes prompted swift legislative measures at both federal and state levels, resulting in statutes characterized by broad language that granted extensive discretion to law enforcement officials and judges. The emergence of morals and vice police squads further intensified the targeting of individuals who deviated from prevailing …


The Effectiveness Of Canines In Law Enforcement, Shelly Stroud, Riley Kaufmann Apr 2024

The Effectiveness Of Canines In Law Enforcement, Shelly Stroud, Riley Kaufmann

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Police K-9s play a multifaceted role in policing including crime control and public relations.The advent of these police specialty units coincided with the movement to professionalize policing and have been used to aid law enforcement since the start of the 20th century.

We will demonstrate the role of a working K-9 and the many different areas that are covered in law enforcement such as: bite, detection, narcotics, firearms, explosives, and technology. We will examine the role of the K-9 handler and the impact of their relationship with their k-9 and how this bond influences the effectiveness of law enforcement tasks.


Discovering Significant Topics From Legal Decisions With Selective Inference, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh Apr 2024

Discovering Significant Topics From Legal Decisions With Selective Inference, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

We propose and evaluate an automated pipeline for discovering significant topics from legal decision texts by passing features synthesized with topic models through penalized regressions and post-selection significance tests. The method identifies case topics significantly correlated with outcomes, topic-word distributions which can be manually interpreted to gain insights about significant topics, and case-topic weights which can be used to identify representative cases for each topic. We demonstrate the method on a new dataset of domain name disputes and a canonical dataset of European Court of Human Rights violation cases. Topic models based on latent semantic analysis as well as language …


Witness To A Homicide: Experiencing Vicarious Trauma At An Execution, Sandra Joy Mar 2024

Witness To A Homicide: Experiencing Vicarious Trauma At An Execution, Sandra Joy

College of Humanities and Social Sciences Faculty Scholarship

The purpose of my study is to analyze data that I gathered during a 10-month sabbatical, when I took off in my RV and drove across the nation to interview witnesses of state and federal executions. The primary focus of my interviews was to examine the response of all parties present at an execution, in order to determine the extent and nature of vicarious trauma found among these witnesses.


Pal Evaluation El Salvador - Process And Outcome Study, Kimberly Houser, Christine Saum, Evan Sorg, Joel Capellan Mar 2024

Pal Evaluation El Salvador - Process And Outcome Study, Kimberly Houser, Christine Saum, Evan Sorg, Joel Capellan

College of Humanities and Social Sciences Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Moving Targets: An Examination Of Departmental Firearms Policies And Police Shooting At Vehicles, John Shjarback, Julie Ward Mar 2024

Moving Targets: An Examination Of Departmental Firearms Policies And Police Shooting At Vehicles, John Shjarback, Julie Ward

College of Humanities and Social Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Research question: Do restrictive deadly force policies reduce the likelihood and frequency of police shootings at moving vehicles?

Conclusions:

Departments with more restrictive firearms policies re: moving vehicles were less likely to 1) have these types of shootings and 2) had fewer of them – net of controls

-Policy language instructing officers to move out of the way of moving vehicles was not associated with this subset of police shootings.


Coomassie Brilliant Blue Dye As A Method For Analyzing Fracture Markings In Bone, Abigail Hoffmeister, David Harutunyan, Matthew Aizawa, Everett Baker, Brandon Mendoza, Chase Freeman, Siran Iskanian Mar 2024

Coomassie Brilliant Blue Dye As A Method For Analyzing Fracture Markings In Bone, Abigail Hoffmeister, David Harutunyan, Matthew Aizawa, Everett Baker, Brandon Mendoza, Chase Freeman, Siran Iskanian

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Coomassie Brilliant Blue Dye is a dye commonly used to stain proteins. Because of its ability to adhere to proteins, this research has focused on perfecting a method of dyeing a fractured flat bone in order to most accurately observe and analyze fracture markings within the trabecular layer. Stereoscopic microscopy was the chosen technique of analysis for this research because of its proven effectiveness in glass and ceramic fractography to observe varying depths. In order to most effectively apply stereoscopic microscopy to this research, the following variables were manipulated to maximize color contrast in the trabecular layer in order to …


Cyber Defense Planning In Tabletop Exercises And Consideration Of A Fractured Flaw Theory For Security Applications, Patrick K. Kilroy Ii Mar 2024

Cyber Defense Planning In Tabletop Exercises And Consideration Of A Fractured Flaw Theory For Security Applications, Patrick K. Kilroy Ii

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Cybersecurity threats endanger every part of American life. Security and emergency preparedness professionals plan and prevent cyber-attacks using tabletop exercises. The tabletop exercises establish the risks and protection strategies for multiagency threats, thus, various agencies and industrial partners must work together in these training events. The purpose of this grounded study will be to develop criteria for selecting tabletop participants and explore the risks of participation. An additional consideration is the impact of the sponsoring agencies' agenda on the value of the outcome for the participants. There is sufficient evidence to justify the investigation of these issues. Failing to include …


Examining The Characteristics That Contribute To Recidivism Among Police Officers, 2006-2018, Grace M. Wadsworth, Eric M. Cooke, Philip M. Stinson Mar 2024

Examining The Characteristics That Contribute To Recidivism Among Police Officers, 2006-2018, Grace M. Wadsworth, Eric M. Cooke, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Presentation at the annual meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences on March 22, 2024, in Chicago, IL.


Police Crime And Offense Outcomes: Examining The Effect Of Officer Rank, Sex, And Criminal Offense Type On Offense Outcomes, Kayla H. Glotzbecker, Eric M. Cooke, Philip M. Stinson Mar 2024

Police Crime And Offense Outcomes: Examining The Effect Of Officer Rank, Sex, And Criminal Offense Type On Offense Outcomes, Kayla H. Glotzbecker, Eric M. Cooke, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Presentation at the annual meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences on March 22, 2024, in Chicago, IL.


An Exploratory Analysis Of The Trends And Characteristics Of Officers Who Engage In Profit-Motivated Crimes, Aubrey L. Hill, Molly A. Whetstone, Eric M. Cooke, Philip M. Stinson Mar 2024

An Exploratory Analysis Of The Trends And Characteristics Of Officers Who Engage In Profit-Motivated Crimes, Aubrey L. Hill, Molly A. Whetstone, Eric M. Cooke, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Presentation at the annual meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences on March 22, 2024, in Chicago, IL.


Searching Govinfo.Gov/, Bert Chapman Mar 2024

Searching Govinfo.Gov/, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

This U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) database provides access to information legal, legislative, and regulatory information produced on multiple subjects by the U.S. Government. Content includes congressional bills, congressional committee hearings and prints (studies), reports on legislation, the text of laws, regulations, and executive orders and multiple U.S. Government information resources covering subjects from accounting to zoology.


Review Of The Violence Project: How To Stop A Mass Shooting Epidemic, Chris Hausmann Mar 2024

Review Of The Violence Project: How To Stop A Mass Shooting Epidemic, Chris Hausmann

The Journal of Social Encounters

No abstract provided.


Institutional Legacy As Trigger Of Armed Violence Against The Police: Manifestations And The Underlying Factors In African Countries, Usman A. Ojedokun, Muazu I. Mijinyawa Mar 2024

Institutional Legacy As Trigger Of Armed Violence Against The Police: Manifestations And The Underlying Factors In African Countries, Usman A. Ojedokun, Muazu I. Mijinyawa

The Journal of Social Encounters

Armed violence targeting police personnel and police facilities has conspicuously emerged as one of the dominant challenges confronting many police agencies in Africa. Consequently, police officers in African countries are increasingly becoming vulnerable to violent deaths and attacks in the line of duty. In view of this prevailing situation, this paper critically interrogates the nexus between institutional legacy and armed attacks targeting the police in African countries. Tom Tyler’s theory of procedural justice was employed as the conceptual framework for the discourse (Tyler,1990; 2003). The paper argues that the negative labelling that is generally associated with policing and police image …


Spotlighting The Need For More Minority Women In K-12 Education Leadership, Natasha N. Johnson Mar 2024

Spotlighting The Need For More Minority Women In K-12 Education Leadership, Natasha N. Johnson

CJC Publications

Minority women encounter a myriad of challenges and disparities in their pursuit of leadership positions in K-12 education. While the number of women leading independent schools has increased, they are more likely to achieve headship in small and K-8 schools rather than in larger schools and secondary settings. Marginalizing policies and climates still exist within schools, but women leaders are working for change through activism and efforts intended to promote gender equity. Equitable leadership and social justice are essential concepts in addressing the needs of women and minoritized people in educational leadership. As such, increasing the number of women of …


“That Is Not Behavior Consistent With A Rape Victim”: The Effects Of Officer Displays Of Doubt On Sexual Assault Case Processing And Victim Participation, Laura L. King, Lisa M. Growette Bostaph Mar 2024

“That Is Not Behavior Consistent With A Rape Victim”: The Effects Of Officer Displays Of Doubt On Sexual Assault Case Processing And Victim Participation, Laura L. King, Lisa M. Growette Bostaph

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications and Presentations

Despite the prevalence and severity of sexual violence, case attrition has been identified as a significant issue. Of the cases that are reported to police, only a small portion result in arrest, prosecution, or conviction. Research has revealed that much of this attrition occurs early in the process and that a number of theoretically supported legal (e.g., physical evidence, victim participation) and extralegal (e.g., demographics, victim credibility) factors influence how and whether a case progresses through the criminal justice system. However, few researchers have directly examined the impact of officer doubt on case processing. Whereas legal and extralegal factors represent …


Criminal Justice Update - March 2024, Delaney Rabenold Mar 2024

Criminal Justice Update - March 2024, Delaney Rabenold

Criminal Justice Updates

The Criminal Justice Update is a monthly newsletter created by the Adams County Bar Foundation Fellow providing updates in criminal justice policy coming from Pennsylvania's courts and legislature as well as the US Supreme Court.

Contents:

  • Updates from PA Governor's Office (no new updates this month)

  • Updates from the PA Legislature: Criminal Law & Procedure

  • Updates from the Courts

    • U.S. Supreme Court

    • PA Supreme Court

    • PA Superior Court


Against The Mainstreaming Of The Term Sex Work: Advocacy With India's Supreme Court, Pravin Patkar Mar 2024

Against The Mainstreaming Of The Term Sex Work: Advocacy With India's Supreme Court, Pravin Patkar

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Navigating The Digital Frontier: The Intersection Of Cybersecurity Challenges And Young Adult Life, Hannarae Lee Feb 2024

Navigating The Digital Frontier: The Intersection Of Cybersecurity Challenges And Young Adult Life, Hannarae Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Papers from this issue advocate for empowering young adults with knowledge and tools to navigate cyberspace safely, emphasizing the necessity of heightened cybersecurity measures and proactive education. As we advance into the digital abyss, this call becomes imperative, ensuring that the young adults' experience remains a journey of growth and enlightenment, unaffected by the shadows of unseen online threats.


The Need For A Cybersecurity Education Program For Internet Users With Limited English Proficiency: Results From A Pilot Study, Fawn T. Ngo, Rustu Deryol, Brian Turnbull, Jack Drobisz Feb 2024

The Need For A Cybersecurity Education Program For Internet Users With Limited English Proficiency: Results From A Pilot Study, Fawn T. Ngo, Rustu Deryol, Brian Turnbull, Jack Drobisz

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

According to security experts, cybersecurity education and awareness at the user level are key in combating cybercrime. Hence, in the U.S., cybersecurity and Internet safety workshops, classes, and resources targeting children, adolescents, adults, and senior citizens abound. However, most cybercrime prevention programs are only available in English, thus, ignoring a substantial proportion of Internet users and potential cybercrime victims—Internet users with limited English proficiency (LEP). Yet, successfully combating cybercrime requires that all computer and Internet users, regardless of their language abilities and skills, have access to pertinent cybersecurity information and resources to protect themselves online. This paper presents the results …


Cyberbullying During Covid-19 Pandemic: Relation To Perceived Social Isolation Among College And University Students, Nadya Stefani Neuhaeusler Feb 2024

Cyberbullying During Covid-19 Pandemic: Relation To Perceived Social Isolation Among College And University Students, Nadya Stefani Neuhaeusler

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

One tell-tale sign of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is the heavy reliance on electronic devices. Young adults in particular have indicated a greater presence on social media and high levels of loneliness during the pandemic. This trend has raised concerns about increased feelings of social isolation and reliance on technology, which could lead to more internet or computer crimes—including cyberbullying. Despite a growing body of literature, little is known about the association between cyberbullying victimization and social isolation among young adults— with even less known about this phenomenon in the context of the ongoing pandemic. Drawing on survey …


Book Review: Tracers In The Dark: The Global Hunt For The Crime Lords Of Cryptocurrency, Marion Jones Feb 2024

Book Review: Tracers In The Dark: The Global Hunt For The Crime Lords Of Cryptocurrency, Marion Jones

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Doubleday released Andy Greenberg’s Tracers in the Dark: The Global Hunt for the Crime Lords of Cryptocurrency in November 2022. Through vivid case studies of global criminal investigations, the book dispels myths about the anonymizing power of cryptocurrency. The book details how the ability to identify cryptocurrency users and payment methods successfully brought down several large criminal empires, while also highlighting the continuous cat-and-mouse game between law enforcement officials and criminal actors using cryptocurrency. The book is an excellent resource for law enforcement officials, academics, and general cybersecurity practitioners interested in cryptocurrency-related criminal activities and law enforcement techniques.


Opening The Juvenile Recidivism Umbrella Sold By Residential Treatment, Jack Lutz Feb 2024

Opening The Juvenile Recidivism Umbrella Sold By Residential Treatment, Jack Lutz

Master of Arts in Criminal Justice Leadership

Juveniles, especially in a residential treatment facility fall into the classification of vulnerable population. Researchers, review boards, and the facility administrator carry the burden of ensuring ethics are to the highest standard when this population is involved, so stakeholders can make accurate decisions. Cognitive-based models, which is an evidence-based practice, have been around since the 1990’s. This form of practice has gone through a process of implementation into juvenile residential facilities and has helped reduce the recidivism rate for this population. Budget proposals follow a series of steps, checks, and revisions before taking effect. Probation and Parole is an agency …


Juvenile Hate Crimes And Identity-Based Bullying: A Comprehensive Analysis, Peter Efon Elad Feb 2024

Juvenile Hate Crimes And Identity-Based Bullying: A Comprehensive Analysis, Peter Efon Elad

Master of Arts in Criminal Justice Leadership

Abstract

This paper examines juvenile hate crimes and identity-based bullying within the criminal justice system (CJS), proposing leadership strategies and an administrative action plan to address these issues. The analysis includes the impact on peers, community, and justice entities, focusing on accountability, diversity, and inclusivity to foster a positive organizational culture and ensure effective implementation. This paper examines the ethical considerations necessary to address juvenile hate crimes and identity-based bullying within the juvenile justice system and related workplaces. It explores the impact of these crimes on victims and communities, the balance between accountability and rehabilitation for offenders, and the role …


Considerations For The Implementation Of A Specialized Mental Health Probation Caseload, Ross Becker Feb 2024

Considerations For The Implementation Of A Specialized Mental Health Probation Caseload, Ross Becker

Master of Arts in Criminal Justice Leadership

The field of community corrections has undergone a transformation. While holding probationers accountable is still the expectation, agencies have begun to embrace evidence-based interventions to guide client change instead of a more punitive approach. The creation of specialized mental health probation caseloads is a natural evolution of supervision. The purpose of a specialized mental health caseload is to create a pathway for the ethical supervision of clients experiencing serious and persistent mental illness. Administrators who are committed to compassionate service will be most impactful when they consider the many potential ethical implications for both the client and the probation practitioner …


Implementing Body Worn Cameras, Eric Fairchild Feb 2024

Implementing Body Worn Cameras, Eric Fairchild

Master of Arts in Criminal Justice Leadership

Body worn cameras are small video and audio recording devices that document interactions between law enforcement officers and the community. These devices are used to help with documenting evidence, transparency, and training for law enforcement. Prior to implementing body worn cameras, law enforcement agency need to research body worn cameras, protocols, integration, and challenges that could be faced for the organization and their staff. Protocols need to set in place by administration like retrieval process, storage of data, reviewing of videos, and policy development to assist with the seamless integration of body worn cameras. Ethical considerations must be reviewed to …


Reimagining The Criminal Justice Response To Sexual Assault, Jacob Swanson Feb 2024

Reimagining The Criminal Justice Response To Sexual Assault, Jacob Swanson

Master of Arts in Criminal Justice Leadership

After a crime is reported, several different stakeholders work to take the case from a police report to a conviction. In sexual assault cases, these stakeholders may consist of police officers, medical professionals, advocates, forensic scientists, prosecutors, and others. Yet, this process cannot begin until a victim reports their crime to law enforcement. Sexual assault cases are widely underreported and for a variety of reasons. Data from the 2015-2019 National Crime Victimization Survey suggests that only about one-third of sexual assaults are reported to police, while only about 3% lead to a felony conviction (RAINN, n.d.).

The criminal justice community …


Crisis Intervention Policing: Navigating The Past And Adapting To The Future, Tou Vang Feb 2024

Crisis Intervention Policing: Navigating The Past And Adapting To The Future, Tou Vang

Master of Arts in Criminal Justice Leadership

Law enforcement personnel often find themselves responding to crisis calls involving mental health disorders or behaviors; however, standard police training sometimes lacks proper protocol or resources to manage such scenarios without resorting to the use of force. The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) program is one potential resource that offers law enforcement personnel the tools to handle mental health crises effectively, but implementing it requires a diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) strategy to build community trust and improve responses. This paper emphasizes law enforcement's need to adopt creative, compassionate, and ethical approaches in mental health crises due to past tensions and …


Bars Are Not Fluid: Gender Identity And Women's Rights In Correctional Facilities, Camilla Juliana Gonzalez Feb 2024

Bars Are Not Fluid: Gender Identity And Women's Rights In Correctional Facilities, Camilla Juliana Gonzalez

Master of Arts in Criminal Justice Leadership

The evolving demographic landscape of the American criminal justice system, with increasing numbers of transgender individuals incarcerated, challenges traditional binary classifications and necessitates revisions in correctional evaluation methods. Balancing the specific needs of transgender inmates with the protection of women's rights and their safety is critical. This research evaluates ethical frameworks within correctional institutions, proposing a compassionate approach to prevent policy manipulation.

Addressing these challenges requires a multifaceted action plan, including establishing a task force, gender assessment protocols, comprehensive policies, and educational initiatives, all supported by ethical accountability. Three key policies—gender affirmation, zero-tolerance, and religious rights—are examined for their potential …


An Evidence-Based Approach To Prison Library Provision: Aligning Policy And Practice, Jayne Finlay, Susannah Hanlon, Jessica Bates Feb 2024

An Evidence-Based Approach To Prison Library Provision: Aligning Policy And Practice, Jayne Finlay, Susannah Hanlon, Jessica Bates

Journal of Prison Education Research

The aim of this paper is to enable a better understanding of the possibilities of prison library services and offer evidence that can help to support efforts to align policy and practice in prison library provision. Alongside an examination of existing policies, guidelines and literature, the paper presents findings that emerged from interviews with six prison library experts, undertaken as part of a recent national review of prison library services in Ireland. Following a discussion of these findings, a set of ten principles for prison library provision in Ireland is presented which holds relevance for global prison library policy and …