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The Effect Of Changing Substrate On Arctic Aquatic Invertebrates Abundance, Tom Dolman 2021 University of Maine at Farmington

The Effect Of Changing Substrate On Arctic Aquatic Invertebrates Abundance, Tom Dolman

Michael D. Wilson Symposium

Climate change is directly affecting tundra ecosystems in northern regions, and warming temperatures have caused discontinuous permafrost and thawing sediments across the region. This project investigates how increasing erosion and the foraging patterns of migratory snow geese may degrade habitat for aquatic invertebrates in the upper Mast River, located in Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada. In the past two decades, many of the important species of aquatic invertebrates have shown declines. Declining invertebrate populations are predicted to affect aquatic ecosystems and decrease the resources available to shorebirds and waterfowl, which breed and migrate through this area.


Reaction Intensity Partitioning: A New Perspective Of The National Fire Danger Rating System Energy Release Component, Francis M. Fujioka, David R. Weise, Shyh-Chin Chen, Seung Hee Kim, Menas C. Kafatos 2021 Chapman University

Reaction Intensity Partitioning: A New Perspective Of The National Fire Danger Rating System Energy Release Component, Francis M. Fujioka, David R. Weise, Shyh-Chin Chen, Seung Hee Kim, Menas C. Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The Rothermel fire spread model provides the scientific basis for the US National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) and several other important fire management applications. This study proposes a new perspective of the model that partitions the reaction intensity function and Energy Release Component (ERC) equations as an alternative that simplifies calculations while providing more insight into the temporal variability of the energy release component of fire danger. We compare the theoretical maximum reaction intensities and corresponding ERCs across 1978, 1988 and 2016 NFDRS fuel models as they are currently computed and as they would be computed under the proposed ...


Drought-Induced Biomass Burning As A Source Of Black Carbon To The Central Himalaya Since 1781 Ce As Reconstructed From The Dasuopu Ice Core, Joel D. Barker, Susan Kaspari, Paulo Gabrielli, Anna Wegner, Emilie Beaudon, M. Roxana Sierra-Hernández, Lonnie Thompson 2021 The Ohio State University

Drought-Induced Biomass Burning As A Source Of Black Carbon To The Central Himalaya Since 1781 Ce As Reconstructed From The Dasuopu Ice Core, Joel D. Barker, Susan Kaspari, Paulo Gabrielli, Anna Wegner, Emilie Beaudon, M. Roxana Sierra-Hernández, Lonnie Thompson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Himalayan glaciers are melting due to atmospheric warming, with the potential to limit access to water for more than 25 % of the global population that resides in these glacier meltwater catchments. Black carbon has been implicated as a factor that is contributing to Himalayan glacier melt, but its sources and mechanisms of delivery to the Himalayas remain controversial. Here, we provide a 211-year ice core record spanning 1781–1992 CE for refractory black carbon (rBC) deposition from the Dasuopu glacier ice core that has to date provided the highest-elevation ice core record (7200 m). We report an average rBC concentration ...


Investigating Decadal Changes Of Multiple Hydrological Products And Land-Cover Changes In The Mediterranean Region For 2009–2018, Wenzhao Li, Sachi Perera, Erik Linstead, Rejoice Thomas, Hesham el-Askary, Thomas Piechota, Daniele Struppa 2021 Chapman University

Investigating Decadal Changes Of Multiple Hydrological Products And Land-Cover Changes In The Mediterranean Region For 2009–2018, Wenzhao Li, Sachi Perera, Erik Linstead, Rejoice Thomas, Hesham El-Askary, Thomas Piechota, Daniele Struppa

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Land-cover change is a critical concern due to its climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences. In this study, we used multiple variables including precipitation, vegetation index, surface soil moisture, and evapotranspiration obtained from different satellite sources to study their association with land-cover changes in the Mediterranean region. Both observational and modeling data were used for climatology and correlation analysis. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were used to extract surface soil moisture and evapotranspiration data. Intercomparing the results of FLDAS and GLDAS suggested that FLDAS data had better ...


Impact Assessment And Management Challenges Of Key Rural Human Health Infrastructure Under Sea Level Rise, Molly Mitchell, Robert Isdell, Julie Herman, Christine Tombleson 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Impact Assessment And Management Challenges Of Key Rural Human Health Infrastructure Under Sea Level Rise, Molly Mitchell, Robert Isdell, Julie Herman, Christine Tombleson

VIMS Articles

Accelerating sea level rise in Virginia, United States, will significantly increase the flooding threat to low-lying roads, residences, and critical infrastructure as well as raise the water table, allowing saltwater intrusion into well water and threatening the function of septic fields. Although most of the adaptation work in Virginia has focused on urban economic centers, the majority of the coastline is rural and faces different threats and opportunities to address them compared to urban areas due to their reduced economic assets and their reliance on private infrastructure. In this case study, we assess the potential for geospatially quantifying impact to ...


Changes In Fire Weather Climatology Under 1.5 ◦C And 2.0 ◦C Warming, Rackhun Son, Hyungjun Kim, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang, Jee-Hoon Jeong, Sung-Ho Woo, Ji-Yoon Jeong, Byung-Doo Lee, Seung Hee Kim, Matthew LaPlante, Chun-Geun Kwon, Jin-Ho Yoon 2021 Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology

Changes In Fire Weather Climatology Under 1.5 ◦C And 2.0 ◦C Warming, Rackhun Son, Hyungjun Kim, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang, Jee-Hoon Jeong, Sung-Ho Woo, Ji-Yoon Jeong, Byung-Doo Lee, Seung Hee Kim, Matthew Laplante, Chun-Geun Kwon, Jin-Ho Yoon

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The 2015 Paris Agreement led to a number of studies that assessed the impact of the 1.5 ◦C and 2.0 ◦C increases in global temperature over preindustrial levels. However, those assessments have not actively investigated the impact of these levels of warming on fire weather. In view of a recent series of high-profile wildfire events worldwide, we access fire weather sensitivity based on a set of multi-model large ensemble climate simulations for these low-emission scenarios. The results indicate that the half degree difference between these two thresholds may lead to a significantly increased hazard of wildfire in certain ...


Solutions Human Centered Approach To Conservation, Illustration Department, History, Philosophy, and the Social Sciences Department 2021 Rhode Island School of Design

Solutions Human Centered Approach To Conservation, Illustration Department, History, Philosophy, And The Social Sciences Department

Illustration Course Work & Materials

"These essays were were written and illustrated by students at the Rhode Island school of Design in February, 2021. Their perspectives are entirely personal and reflect their efforts within a 5.5-week fused studio/seminar course that was centered on the Sixth Mass Extinction and how biodiversity is changing because of humans. Discovering that science communication is more than delivering just the facts, students were invited to research a topic of personal interest that is relevant to human impacts on biodiversity. Through analysis of data and other scientific information, each sought to synthesize their research and opinions on their topic ...


Ecological Risk Assessment Of Managed Relocation As A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, Aviv Karasov-Olson, Mark W. Schwartz, Julian D. Olden, Sarah Skikne, Jessica J. Hellmann, Sarah Allen, Christy Brigham, Danielle Buttke, David J. Lawrence, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Gregor W. Schuurman, Melissa Trammell, Cat Hawkins Hoffman 2021 University of California, Davis

Ecological Risk Assessment Of Managed Relocation As A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, Aviv Karasov-Olson, Mark W. Schwartz, Julian D. Olden, Sarah Skikne, Jessica J. Hellmann, Sarah Allen, Christy Brigham, Danielle Buttke, David J. Lawrence, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Gregor W. Schuurman, Melissa Trammell, Cat Hawkins Hoffman

U.S. National Park Service Publications and Papers

Executive Summary

Changing climate and introduced species are placing an increasing number of species at risk of extinction. Increasing extinction risk is increasing calls to protect species by relocating, or translocating, them to locations with more favorable biotic or climatic conditions. Managed relocation, or assisted migration, of species entails risks to both the conservation target organisms being moved as well as the recipient ecosystems into which they are moved.

Recognizing this risk, calls have been made for practitioners interested in considering a managed relocation project to engage in a serious risk assessment prior to advancing a project. We engaged a ...


Evaluating A Commercially Available In-Duct Bipolar Ionization Device For Pollutant Removal And Potential Byproduct Formation, Yicheng Zeng, Prashik Manwatkar, Aurelie Laguerre, Marina Beke, Insung Kang, Akram S. Ali, Delphine K. Farmer, Elliott T. Gall, Mohammad Heidarinejad, Brent Stephens 2021 Illinois Institute of Technology

Evaluating A Commercially Available In-Duct Bipolar Ionization Device For Pollutant Removal And Potential Byproduct Formation, Yicheng Zeng, Prashik Manwatkar, Aurelie Laguerre, Marina Beke, Insung Kang, Akram S. Ali, Delphine K. Farmer, Elliott T. Gall, Mohammad Heidarinejad, Brent Stephens

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

We conducted a series of experiments to evaluate the gas and particle removal effectiveness and potential for byproduct formation resulting from the operation of a commercially available in-duct bipolar ionization device. Laboratory tests were conducted with the ionizer installed in a small air handler serving a large semi-furnished chamber. Chamber experiments were conducted under (i) normal operating conditions to characterize the impact of the ionizer on concentrations of particles (0.01–10 μm), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and aldehydes, and (ii) particle injection and decay conditions to characterize the impact of the ionizer operation on ...


Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams 2020, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams 2020, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Expansion of poultry house operations and use of litter as a soil amendment in Accomack County Virginia has raised concerns for water quality impacts on both seaside and bayside of the Eastern Shore of Virginia (ESVA). This ongoing investigation is examining freshwater stream water quality in Accomack Virginia to identify water quality impairments from poultry operation storm water runoff. Previous sampling data from 2019 has been integrated into this report. Sampling in 2020 followed an extended drought period (base flow) and two inch rainfall events (storm flow) in streams at road crossings in Accomack County Bayside and Seaside drainages. Dissolved ...


Investigating The Lagged Relationship Between Smap Soil Moisture And Live Fuel Moisture In California, Usa, Shenyue Jia, Seung Hee Kim, Son V. Nghiem, Keun Hang S. Yang, Menas Kafatos 2021 Chapman University

Investigating The Lagged Relationship Between Smap Soil Moisture And Live Fuel Moisture In California, Usa, Shenyue Jia, Seung Hee Kim, Son V. Nghiem, Keun Hang S. Yang, Menas Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Live fuel moisture (LFM), defined as the ratio between water in the fresh biomass out of the dry biomass, is a vital measurement of vegetation water content and flammability. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of in-situ measurement of LFM at all the active sites in California, USA and revealed the difference between evergreen forest and shrub/scrub, the two dominant land cover types in California's fire-prone regions. We found that LFM of evergreen forest responses to soil moisture increase later than shrub/scrub, due to a later occurrence of major precipitation, a lower air temperature, and the ...


From Hector Mine M7.1 To Ridgecrest M7.1 Earthquake. A Look From A 20-Year Perspective, Sergey Pulinets, Marina Tsidilina, Dimitar Ouzounov, Dmitry Davidenko 2021 Russian Academy of Sciences

From Hector Mine M7.1 To Ridgecrest M7.1 Earthquake. A Look From A 20-Year Perspective, Sergey Pulinets, Marina Tsidilina, Dimitar Ouzounov, Dmitry Davidenko

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The paper provides a comparative analysis of precursory phenomena in the ionosphere and atmosphere for two strong earthquakes of the same magnitude M7.1 that happened in the same region (North-East from Los Angeles) within a time span of 20 years, the Hector Mine and Ridgecrest earthquakes. Regardless of the similarity of their location (South-Eastern California, near 160 km one from another), there was one essential difference: the Hector Mine earthquake happened during geomagnetically disturbed conditions (essential in the sense of ionospheric precursors identification). In contrast, the quiet geomagnetic conditions characterized the period around the time of the Ridgecrest earthquake ...


An Assessment Of The Filling Process Of The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam And Its Impact On The Downstream Countries, Prakrut Kansara, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, Venkat Lakshmi, Thomas Piechota, Daniele Struppa, Mohamed Abdelaty Sayed 2021 University of Virginia

An Assessment Of The Filling Process Of The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam And Its Impact On The Downstream Countries, Prakrut Kansara, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, Venkat Lakshmi, Thomas Piechota, Daniele Struppa, Mohamed Abdelaty Sayed

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), formerly known as the Millennium Dam, has been filling at a fast rate. This project has created issues for the Nile Basin countries of Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia. The filling of GERD has an impact on the Nile Basin hydrology and specifically the water storages (lakes/reservoirs) and flow downstream. In this study, through the analysis of multi-source satellite imagery, we study the filling of the GERD reservoir. The time-series generated using Sentinel-1 SAR imagery displays the number of classified water pixels in the dam from early June 2017 to September 2020, indicating a ...


Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge - Final Report, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge - Final Report, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Previous sampling of the stream crossing Bobtown Road (Rt 178) near the intersection of Hollies Church Road (Rt. 620), had indicated high levels of nitrogen in the stream flow (Snyder and Ross, 2019a). The proximity of the retired Accomack County Landfill upstream of the site triggered a higher resolution sampling of the stream in an attempt to isolate a source of the nitrogen loading (Snyder and Ross, 2019b). Accomack County has requested repeated sampling of this stream segment to monitor nutrient attenuation trends from the site, and stations were established for that purpose. This Final Report provides a summary of ...


Carbon Fluxes And Microbial Activities From Boreal Peatlands Experiencing Permafrost Thaw, M. P. Waldrop, J. W. McFarland, K. L. Manies, M. C. Leewis, S. J. Blazewicz, M. C. Jones, R. B. Neumann, Jason K. Keller, L. Cohen, E. S. Euskirchen, C. Edgar, M. R. Turetsky, W. L. Cable 2021 U.S. Geological Survey

Carbon Fluxes And Microbial Activities From Boreal Peatlands Experiencing Permafrost Thaw, M. P. Waldrop, J. W. Mcfarland, K. L. Manies, M. C. Leewis, S. J. Blazewicz, M. C. Jones, R. B. Neumann, Jason K. Keller, L. Cohen, E. S. Euskirchen, C. Edgar, M. R. Turetsky, W. L. Cable

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Permafrost thaw in northern ecosystems may cause large quantities of carbon (C) to move from soil to atmospheric pools. Because soil microbial communities play a critical role in regulating C fluxes from soils, we examined microbial activity and greenhouse gas production soon after permafrost thaw and ground collapse (into collapse‐scar bogs), relative to the permafrost plateau or older thaw features. Using multiple field and laboratory‐based assays at a field site in interior Alaska, we show that the youngest collapse‐scar bog had the highest CH4 production potential from soil incubations, and, based upon temporal changes in porewater ...


Summary And Overview Of The Odour Regulations Worldwide, Anna Bokowa, Carlos Diaz, Jacek A. Koziel, Michael McGinley, Jennifer Barclay, Günther Schauberger, Jean-Michel Guillot, Robert Sneath, Laura Capelli, Vania Zorich, Cyntia Izquierdo, Ilse Bilsen, Anne-Claude Romain, Maria del Carmen Cabeza, Dezhao Liu, Ralf Both, Hugo Van Belois, Takaya Higuchi, Landon Wahe 2021 EOC Environmental Odour Consulting Corp.

Summary And Overview Of The Odour Regulations Worldwide, Anna Bokowa, Carlos Diaz, Jacek A. Koziel, Michael Mcginley, Jennifer Barclay, Günther Schauberger, Jean-Michel Guillot, Robert Sneath, Laura Capelli, Vania Zorich, Cyntia Izquierdo, Ilse Bilsen, Anne-Claude Romain, Maria Del Carmen Cabeza, Dezhao Liu, Ralf Both, Hugo Van Belois, Takaya Higuchi, Landon Wahe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

When it comes to air pollution complaints, odours are often the most significant contributor. Sources of odour emissions range from natural to anthropogenic. Mitigation of odour can be challenging, multifaceted, site-specific, and is often confounded by its complexity—defined by existing (or non-existing) environmental laws, public ordinances, and socio-economic considerations. The objective of this paper is to review and summarise odour legislation in selected European countries (France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium), North America (the USA and Canada), and South America (Chile and Colombia), as well as Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) and Asia (Japan ...


Air Quality Over Major Cities Of Saudi Arabia During Hajj Periods Of 2019 And 2020, Ashraf Farahat, Akshansha Chauhan, Mohammed Al Otaibi, Ramesh P. Singh 2021 King Fahd University of Petroleum, and Minerals

Air Quality Over Major Cities Of Saudi Arabia During Hajj Periods Of 2019 And 2020, Ashraf Farahat, Akshansha Chauhan, Mohammed Al Otaibi, Ramesh P. Singh

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Mecca and Madinah are two holy cities where millions of people in general, visit throughout the years, during Hajj (Muslim's pilgrimage) time number of people visit these holy cities from different parts of the world is very high. However, the Government of Saudi Arabia only allowed 1000 pilgrims during the 2020 Hajj especially when the world is suffering from COVID-19. In the present paper, a detailed analysis of air quality parameters available from ground measurements have been carried over major cities of Saudi Arabia, Mecca, Madinah, and Jeddah from June to September 2019 and 2020. At Mecca and Jeddah ...


A Systematic Review Of The Use Of Environmental Economics In The Mining Industry, Maria Menegaki, Dimitris Damigos 2021 National Technical University of Athens

A Systematic Review Of The Use Of Environmental Economics In The Mining Industry, Maria Menegaki, Dimitris Damigos

Journal of Sustainable Mining

Environmental economics is increasingly being used in project appraisals, environmental liability estimates and design of market-based instruments. Mining, an actor capable of causing adverse effects on the environment, human health and well-being, has already been affected by these developments, at a great extent. Up to date, several research studies have been carried out to monetise the externalities of mining projects. Nevertheless, a systematic review of these publications has not been carried out, yet. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature by investigating (i) the main non-market valuation techniques used; (ii) the main external costs or benefits of ...


The Greta Thunberg Effect: Familiarity With Greta Thunberg Predicts Intentions To Engage In Climate Activism In The United States, Anandita Sabherwal, Matthew T. Ballew, Sander van der Linden, Abel Gustafson, Matthew H. Goldberg, Edward W. Maibach, John E. Kotcher, Janet K. Swim, Seth A. Rosenthal, Anthony Leiserowitz 2021 University of Cambridge

The Greta Thunberg Effect: Familiarity With Greta Thunberg Predicts Intentions To Engage In Climate Activism In The United States, Anandita Sabherwal, Matthew T. Ballew, Sander Van Der Linden, Abel Gustafson, Matthew H. Goldberg, Edward W. Maibach, John E. Kotcher, Janet K. Swim, Seth A. Rosenthal, Anthony Leiserowitz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Despite Greta Thunberg's popularity, research has yet to investigate her impact on the public's willingness to take collective action on climate change. Using cross‐sectional data from a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults (N = 1,303), we investigate the “Greta Thunberg Effect, or whether exposure to Greta Thunberg predicts collective efficacy and intentions to engage in collective action. We find that those who are more familiar with Greta Thunberg have higher intentions of taking collective actions to reduce global warming and that stronger collective efficacy beliefs mediate this relationship. This association between familiarity with Greta Thunberg ...


Mitigation Of Gaseous Emissions From Stored Swine Manure With Biochar: Effect Of Dose And Reapplication On A Pilot-Scale, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Hantian Ma, Myeongseong Lee, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Daniel S. Andersen, Andrzej Białowiec, Robert C. Brown 2021 Iowa State University

Mitigation Of Gaseous Emissions From Stored Swine Manure With Biochar: Effect Of Dose And Reapplication On A Pilot-Scale, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Hantian Ma, Myeongseong Lee, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Daniel S. Andersen, Andrzej Białowiec, Robert C. Brown

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Rural communities are affected by gaseous emissions from intensive livestock production. Practical mitigation technologies are needed to minimize emissions from stored manure and improve air quality inside barns. In our previous research, the one-time surficial application of biochar to swine manure significantly reduced emissions of NH3 and phenol. We observed that the mitigation effect decreased with time during the 30-day trials. In this research, we hypothesized that bi-weekly reapplication of biochar could improve the mitigation effect on a wider range of odorous compounds using a larger scale and longer trials. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of biochar ...


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