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Arjen Y. Hoekstra 1967–2019, Davy Vanham, Mesfin Mekonnen, Ashok K. Chapagain 2020 European Commission, Joint Research Centre,

Arjen Y. Hoekstra 1967–2019, Davy Vanham, Mesfin Mekonnen, Ashok K. Chapagain

Daugherty Water for Food Global Institute: Faculty Publications

Arjen Hoekstra introduced the water footprint in 20021, building on the concept of virtual water Tony Allan to discuss the role of trade in alleviating water scarcity in the Middle East. He thereby opened a new dimension in the debate around fair and sustainable allocation of freshwater resources. He laid the foundations to show the role of indirect water (that is, water used elsewhere to produce goods we consume) in our daily life beyond our direct use for drinking, cooking or washing. The water footprint is an indicator of direct and indirect water use by a producer or consumer, showing ...


Impacts Of Beef Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations On Environmental Sustainability In The United States And Practices For Improvement, Laura Clark 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Impacts Of Beef Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations On Environmental Sustainability In The United States And Practices For Improvement, Laura Clark

VCU Phi Kappa Phi Award Winners

The geographic concentration of beef concentrated animal feeding operations [CAFOs] has changed the landscape of environmental sustainability for agriculture in the United States. As land availability has decreased, operations have struggled to maintain feasible practices to minimize environmental detriment. The United States Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] imposed rules to be followed as a means of mitigation, but the fast-paced rate of change minimizes effectiveness. The overall environmental sustainability of beef CAFOs has shifted from historical rates, leading to a need for reassessment. Part of this reassessment will include stronger environmental practices to be considered for implementation. I explored the role ...


Associations Of Traffic Related Air Pollution With Physical Activity And Cardiorespiratory Health Outcomes In At-Risk Populations From El Paso, Texas, Juan Aguilera 2020 University of Texas at El Paso

Associations Of Traffic Related Air Pollution With Physical Activity And Cardiorespiratory Health Outcomes In At-Risk Populations From El Paso, Texas, Juan Aguilera

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Exposure to air pollution from traffic-related emissions is a considerable preventable cause of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. However, the impacts on at-risk populations, such as children with asthma and low-income residents, are yet to be fully understood in the border city of El Paso, TX. This dissertation focused on the most common traffic-related pollutants which include particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3). The research described in this work provides an overview of air pollution measurements and shares insights from three different studies in our region.

People with asthma are more likely adversely affected by ...


Dual-Axis Solar Tracker, Bryan Kennedy 2020 Central Washington University

Dual-Axis Solar Tracker, Bryan Kennedy

All Undergraduate Projects

Renewable energies, and fuels that are not fossil fuel-based, are one of the prolific topics of debate in modern society. With climate change now becoming a primary focus for scientists and innovators of today, one of the areas for the largest amount of potential and growth is that of the capturing and utilization of Solar Energy. This method involves using a mechanical system to track the progression of the sun as it traverses the sky throughout the day. A dual-axis solar tracker such as the one designed and built for this project, can follow the sun both azimuthally and in ...


Why Massachusetts’ Drought Management Task Force Should Be In Statute: Drought Management Across The United States, Thomas G. Coughlin, Gabby Queenan 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Why Massachusetts’ Drought Management Task Force Should Be In Statute: Drought Management Across The United States, Thomas G. Coughlin, Gabby Queenan

Student Showcase

This report explores structures and statutory authorities of Drought Management Task Forces across the United States, and particularly how different states have approached the issue of managing their respective Task Forces. There is growing interest in drought planning in the United States and worldwide.

As Massachusetts considers how to best respond to a new climate norm of short-term extreme droughts, one aspect of drought planning that is undergoing additional review is the role of the Massachusetts Drought Management Task Force, the state entity responsible for analyzing and reporting on drought conditions to the Secretary of Massachusetts Energy and Environmental Affairs ...


Master's Project: Preparedness For Oil And Hazardous Material Spills In The Lake Champlain Basin, Jason Scott 2020 University of Vermont

Master's Project: Preparedness For Oil And Hazardous Material Spills In The Lake Champlain Basin, Jason Scott

Rubenstein School Masters Project Publications

Lake Champlain faces numerous complex environmental threats that do not have simple solutions. Oil and other types of hazardous materials spills are among those threats that continue to attract the attention of agencies and organizations trusted to protect the lake. There is significant transportation infrastructure that exists in the region that, in the event of an accident, could lead to spills and extensive damage to natural resources. This project is intended to strengthen the ability of marina owners and first responders in the Lake Champlain Basin to prepare for and respond to oil and hazardous material spills by facilitating spill ...


Food Proteins: Sustainable Sources Of Proteins Responsible For Emulsions Stability In Food Products, Gleicy Kelly Oliveira Nogueria 2020 Technological University Dublin

Food Proteins: Sustainable Sources Of Proteins Responsible For Emulsions Stability In Food Products, Gleicy Kelly Oliveira Nogueria

Theses

One of the major challenges manufactures are facing is the fact that consumer’s personal health standards are changing constantly, modern consumers are willing to know more about the ingredients used in their food. The relationship with ethics and sustainability is leading to changes in the food industry. Seen this, manufactures are opting for other sources of ingredients, such as plant-based alternatives. However, the use of these sort of products need to be developed due to of their unknown properties. The use of sustainable plant proteins provides a variety of benefits to the product, such as added nutritional value as ...


Plastics Derived From Derelict Fishing Gear In The Arctic: Looking At Sustainable Fisheries For A Strategy Of Mitigation, Remediation And Prevention In Iceland And Alaska, Natalie S. Armstrong 2020 Pitzer College

Plastics Derived From Derelict Fishing Gear In The Arctic: Looking At Sustainable Fisheries For A Strategy Of Mitigation, Remediation And Prevention In Iceland And Alaska, Natalie S. Armstrong

Pitzer Senior Theses

Marine plastics are not just a problem, they are a silent, sinister epidemic. Marine plastics are the largest economic and ecological threat to our marine ecosystems, particularly marine plastics derived from lost and or discarded fishing gear, which affects sensitive marine communities, the chemical composition of the ocean water, and the physical makeup of the seafloor. With 6.4 million tons of marine debris entering our oceans annually, a third of which is lost fishing gear, it is estimated that, by weight, in 2050 there will be an accumulation of more plastic than fish in the ocean (Heath, 2018; Wilcox ...


Ecowomanism: A Solution To Climate And Social Injustice, Alexis K. Karon 2020 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Ecowomanism: A Solution To Climate And Social Injustice, Alexis K. Karon

Religion: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

The interconnections of climate justice and social inequalities are paired together in a concept named 'Ecowomanism'. Originally inspired by Melanie L. Harris, ecowomanism uses spiritual theologies, experiences, and memories to discuss the post-modern struggles that women of African and indigenous descent face in society, which can then find solutions to such injustices in a reconnection to nature. In this paper, I argue that adopting an environmental paradigm inspired by the spiritual theology of ecowomanism in the United States, which acknowledges the connection between oppression and violence against communities of color to the violence and domination of the environment, a more ...


Ecowomanism: A Solution To Climate And Social Injustice, Alexis K. Karon 2020 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Ecowomanism: A Solution To Climate And Social Injustice, Alexis K. Karon

Theological Investigations

The interconnections of climate justice and social inequalities are paired together in a concept named 'Ecowomanism'. Originally inspired by Melanie L. Harris, ecowomanism uses spiritual theologies, experiences, and memories to discuss the post-modern struggles that women of African and indigenous descent face in society, which can then find solutions to such injustices in a reconnection to nature. In this paper, I argue that adopting an environmental paradigm inspired by the spiritual theology of ecowomanism in the United States, which acknowledges the connection between oppression and violence against communities of color to the violence and domination of the environment, a more ...


Gulf Coast Marine Laboratories Past, Present And Future, Donald F. Boesch 2020 University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science

Gulf Coast Marine Laboratories Past, Present And Future, Donald F. Boesch

Gulf and Caribbean Research

I spent my nearly 50—year career in marine science working at marine laboratories, most of that as a chief executive officer. So, it is appropriate that my reflections are about marine laboratories, rather than my own science. After relating my career course, I turn my attention to the history and development of marine laboratories along the U.S. coast of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Surprisingly, the region’s first laboratory was actually constructed in 1903 at Cameron, LA, but operated less than a decade before closing. It was not until after World War II that the university—affiliated ...


A Spatially Distributed Investigation Of Stream Water Temperature In A Contemporary Mixed-Land-Use Watershed, Jason P. Horne 2020 West Virginia University

A Spatially Distributed Investigation Of Stream Water Temperature In A Contemporary Mixed-Land-Use Watershed, Jason P. Horne

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Stream water temperature is an important physical variable that influences many biological and abiotic water quality processes. The land-use/land-cover (LULC) types and corresponding variability in stream water temperature (Tw) processes in contemporary mixed-land-use watersheds necessitate research to advance management and policy decisions. Water temperature was analyzed from 21 gauging sites using a nested-scale experimental watershed study design. Results showed that forested land use was significantly negatively correlated (α = 0.05) with mean and maximum Tw. Agricultural land use was significantly positively correlated (α = 0.05) with maximum Tw except during the spring season. Mixed development and Tw were significantly ...


Governance Of Arctic Shipping: Rethinking Risks, Human Impacts And Regulation, Aldo Chircop, Floris Goerlandt, Claudio Aporta, Ronald Pelot 2020 Dalhousie University Schulich School of Law

Governance Of Arctic Shipping: Rethinking Risks, Human Impacts And Regulation, Aldo Chircop, Floris Goerlandt, Claudio Aporta, Ronald Pelot

OER Texts

This open access book is a result of the Dalhousie-led research project Safe Navigation and Environment Protection, supported by a grant from the Ocean Frontier Institute’s the Canada First Research Excellent Fund (CFREF). The book focuses on Arctic shipping and investigates how ocean change and anthropogenic impacts affect our understanding of risk, policy, management and regulation for safe navigation, environment protection, conflict management between ocean uses, and protection of Indigenous peoples’ interests. A rapidly changing Arctic as a result of climate change and ice loss is rendering the North more accessible, providing new opportunities while producing impacts on the ...


Sealed For Your Protection, Olive Dunham Werby 2020 Bard College

Sealed For Your Protection, Olive Dunham Werby

Senior Projects Spring 2020

In this project, I ruminate on the shiny, shape shifting polymer saturated world we are continuously creating. Oil, plastic, and fossil fuels are all very convenient for turning a profit, for consuming more and more, for the structures in place today. Concurrently, it is becoming increasingly inconvenient for our future generations to avoid extinction.


Exploring The Precursors Of Disinfection Byproducts And Cdom Fluorescence Monitoring, Victoria Choy 2020 Bard College

Exploring The Precursors Of Disinfection Byproducts And Cdom Fluorescence Monitoring, Victoria Choy

Senior Projects Spring 2020

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are formed when chlorine, or any other disinfectant, is added to drinking water and reacts to a small fraction of natural organic matter (NOM) present in the water supply. DBPs may be carcinogenic when exposed to for a long term at high concentrations. However, the usage of chlorine or other disinfectants on the water supply must not be compromised. The precursors of DBPs are studied in the Saw Kill by acquiring data from 2017 to 2019 from the Saw Kill Monitoring Program. This includes colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll a, and turbidity, which are indicative of ...


Developing A Uas-Deployable Methane Sensor Using Low-Cost Modular Open-Source Components, Gavin DeMali 2020 The University of Akron

Developing A Uas-Deployable Methane Sensor Using Low-Cost Modular Open-Source Components, Gavin Demali

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This project aimed to develop a methane sensor for deployment on an unmanned aerial system (UAS), or drone, platform. This design is centered around low cost, commercially available modular hardware components and open source software libraries. Once successfully developed, this system was deployed at the Bath Nature Preserve in Bath Township, Summit County Ohio in order to detect any potential on site fugitive methane emissions in the vicinity of the oil and gas infrastructure present. The deliverables of this project (i.e. the data collected at BNP) will be given to the land managers there to better inform future management ...


Sediment Production And Delivery From Timber Harvest Roads In Humboldt County, California, Chris P. Faubion 2020 Humboldt State University

Sediment Production And Delivery From Timber Harvest Roads In Humboldt County, California, Chris P. Faubion

HSU theses and projects

Sediment delivery from unpaved actively-used and relatively un-trafficked forest roads are one of the most common sources of impairment to aquatic ecosystems. Hence the objectives of this study were to: 1) compare the variability in erosion rates from actively used and relatively un-trafficked timber harvest roads across multiple water years in Railroad Gulch; 2) identify segment scale controls on road surface erosion and road-to-stream connectivity; 3) develop storm-based and annual segment scale models to predict road sediment production and compare the accuracy of these models to WEPP: Road; and 4) estimate road-related sediment loads to streams.

Between 2014 and 2019 ...


Contaminants Of Emerging Concern: Reconsidering Our Paradigm Of Water Pollution, Jonathan Gunasti 2020 Claremont Colleges

Contaminants Of Emerging Concern: Reconsidering Our Paradigm Of Water Pollution, Jonathan Gunasti

Pomona Senior Theses

In this senior thesis, I explore contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and discuss the ways in which these novel contaminants defy traditional notions of pollution. I discuss the history and “emergence” of CECs and EDCs in scientific and public spheres and outline ongoing challenges to recognizing, prioritizing, and understanding the action of these contaminants. I position EDCs within the framework of environmental injustice and health disparities and suggest that these compounds could reinforce multigenerational health inequities. Finally, I perform a pilot analysis of the EDC bisphenol A (BPA) in Mt. Baldy Creek, the Los Angeles ...


Effects Of Surface Heterogeneity Due To Drip Irrigation On Scintillometer Estimates Of Sensible, Latent Heat Fluxes And Evapotranspiration Over Vineyards, Hatim M. E. Geli, José González-Piqueras, Christopher M. U. Neale, Claudio Balbontín, Isidro Campos, Alfonso Calera 2020 New Mexico State University

Effects Of Surface Heterogeneity Due To Drip Irrigation On Scintillometer Estimates Of Sensible, Latent Heat Fluxes And Evapotranspiration Over Vineyards, Hatim M. E. Geli, José González-Piqueras, Christopher M. U. Neale, Claudio Balbontín, Isidro Campos, Alfonso Calera

Daugherty Water for Food Global Institute: Faculty Publications

Accurate estimates of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat fluxes and actual evapotranspiration (ET) are required for monitoring vegetation growth and improved agricultural water management. A large aperture scintillometer (LAS) was used to provide these estimates with the objective of quantifying the effects of surface heterogeneity due to soil moisture and vegetation growth variability. The study was conducted over drip-irrigated vineyards located in a semi-arid region in Albacete, Spain during summer 2007. Surface heterogeneity was characterized by integrating eddy covariance (EC) observations of H, LE and ET; land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from Landsat ...


Assessment Of An Automated Calibration Of The Sebal Algorithm To Estimate Dry-Season Surface-Energy Partitioning In A Forest–Savanna Transition In Brazil, Leonardo Laipelt, Anderson Luis Ruhoff, Ayan Santos Fleischmann, Rafael Henrique Bloedow Kayser, Elisa de Mello Kich, Humberto Ribeiro da Rocha, Christopher Michael Usher Neale 2020 Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul

Assessment Of An Automated Calibration Of The Sebal Algorithm To Estimate Dry-Season Surface-Energy Partitioning In A Forest–Savanna Transition In Brazil, Leonardo Laipelt, Anderson Luis Ruhoff, Ayan Santos Fleischmann, Rafael Henrique Bloedow Kayser, Elisa De Mello Kich, Humberto Ribeiro Da Rocha, Christopher Michael Usher Neale

Daugherty Water for Food Global Institute: Faculty Publications

Evapotranspiration (ET) provides a strong connection between surface energy and hydrological cycles. Advancements in remote sensing techniques have increased our understanding of energy and terrestrial water balances as well as the interaction between surface and atmosphere over large areas. In this study, we computed surface energy fluxes using the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) algorithm and a simplified adaptation of the CIMEC (Calibration using Inverse Modeling at Extreme Conditions) process for automated endmember selection. Our main purpose was to assess and compare the accuracy of the automated calibration of the SEBAL algorithm using two different sources of meteorological ...


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