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Determinants Of Infant And Young Complementary Feeding Practices Among Children 6-23 Months Of Age In Urban Pakistan: A Multicenter Longitudinal Study, Shabina Ariff, Kamran Sadiq, Javairia Khalid, Laila Sikanderali, Batha Tariq, Fariha Shaheen, Gul Nawaz Khan, Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi 2020 Agha Khan University

Determinants Of Infant And Young Complementary Feeding Practices Among Children 6-23 Months Of Age In Urban Pakistan: A Multicenter Longitudinal Study, Shabina Ariff, Kamran Sadiq, Javairia Khalid, Laila Sikanderali, Batha Tariq, Fariha Shaheen, Gul Nawaz Khan, Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Suboptimal feeding practices have a negative impact on children's health and growth in the first 2 years of life and increase their risk of undernutrition, morbidity, and mortality. The aim of the study was to assess the factors that influence infant and young child feeding practices among urban mothers in a hospital setting at Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: A longitudinal multi-center cohort study was conducted in four countries, MULTICENTER BODY COMPOSITION REFERENCE STUDY (MBCRS) to produce normal body composition reference data in healthy infants from 3 months to 24 months of age. Repeated anthropometric (weight, length and head circumference ...


Individual- And Country-Level Correlates Of Female Permanent Contraception Use In Sub-Saharan Africa, Babayemi O. Olakunde, Jennifer R. Pharr, Lung-Chang Chien, Rebecca D. Benfield, Francisco S. Sy 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Individual- And Country-Level Correlates Of Female Permanent Contraception Use In Sub-Saharan Africa, Babayemi O. Olakunde, Jennifer R. Pharr, Lung-Chang Chien, Rebecca D. Benfield, Francisco S. Sy

Environmental & Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background: Female permanent contraception is a cost-effective contraceptive method that can help clients with the desire to limit childbearing achieve their reproductive intention. However, despite its benefits, the use of FPC remains low in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and limited studies have examined the correlates of its uptake. In this study, we assessed the individual- and country-level factors associated with the use of FPC among married or in-union women using modern contraceptive methods to limit childbearing in SSA. Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis of individual- and country-level data obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program and ...


Non-Communicable Diseases Among Adolescents: Current Status, Determinants, Interventions And Policies, N Akseer, S Mehta, J Wigle, R Chera, Z J. Brickman, S Al-Gashm, B Sorichetti, A Vandermorris, D B. Hipgrave, N Schwalbe, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta 2020 Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada

Non-Communicable Diseases Among Adolescents: Current Status, Determinants, Interventions And Policies, N Akseer, S Mehta, J Wigle, R Chera, Z J. Brickman, S Al-Gashm, B Sorichetti, A Vandermorris, D B. Hipgrave, N Schwalbe, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Woman and Child Health

Background: Addressing non-communicable disease (NCDs) is a global priority in the Sustainable Development Goals, especially for adolescents. However, existing literature on NCD burden, risk factors and determinants, and effective interventions and policies for targeting these diseases in adolescents, is limited. This study develops an evidence-based conceptual framework, and highlights pathways between risk factors and interventions to NCD development during adolescence (ages 10-19 years) and continuing into adulthood. Additionally, the epidemiologic profile of key NCD risk factors and outcomes among adolescents and preventative NCD policies/laws/legislations are examined, and a multivariable analysis is conducted to explore the determinants of NCDs ...


Perinatal Substance Use Screenings In Marin County: A Brief Overview Of Screening Protocols And Identifying Gaps In Care, Breanna Wiliams 2020 University of San Francisco

Perinatal Substance Use Screenings In Marin County: A Brief Overview Of Screening Protocols And Identifying Gaps In Care, Breanna Wiliams

Master's Projects and Capstones

Introduction

Perinatal substance use continues to be a major public health issue in women’s health. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of substance use screenings in care and assess how well the existing services in Marin County are serving the needs of pregnant and parenting women and identifying the gaps and/or weaknesses in current practice.

Methods

Data for this study was collected via semi-structured interviews with five professionals that worked at the local community clinic, hospital and a non-profit agency. Some questions were slightly modified to be configured toward the participant’s specific profession ...


Trends And Determinants Of Newborn Mortality In Kyrgyzstan: A Countdown Country Case Study, Mahdis Kamali, James E. Wright, Nadia Akseer, Hana Tasic, Kaitlin Conway, Saman Brar, Cholpon Imanalieva, Gerrit Maritz, Arjumand Rizvi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta 2020 Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada

Trends And Determinants Of Newborn Mortality In Kyrgyzstan: A Countdown Country Case Study, Mahdis Kamali, James E. Wright, Nadia Akseer, Hana Tasic, Kaitlin Conway, Saman Brar, Cholpon Imanalieva, Gerrit Maritz, Arjumand Rizvi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Woman and Child Health

Background: Kyrgyzstan has made considerable progress in reducing child mortality compared with other countries in the region, despite a comparatively low economic standing. However, maternal mortality is still high. Given the availability of an established birth registration system, we aimed to comprehensively assess the trends and determinants of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health in Kyrgyzstan.
Methods: For this Countdown to 2030 country case study, we used publicly available data repositories and the national birth registry of Kyrgyzstan to examine trends and inequalities of reproductive, maternal, and newborn health and mortality between 1990 and 2018, at a national and subnational ...


The Physiological Interaction Of Sleep Deprivation And Zoledronate On Distal Femur Trabecular Thickness Of Ovariectomized Rats, Erin Nolte, Frank Frisch, Oliver Lopez 2020 Chapman University

The Physiological Interaction Of Sleep Deprivation And Zoledronate On Distal Femur Trabecular Thickness Of Ovariectomized Rats, Erin Nolte, Frank Frisch, Oliver Lopez

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

Osteoporosis, a disease resulting in an increased risk of fracture due to compromised bone, affects 1 in 3 postmenopausal women. Discontinuities in the microarchitecture of bone, such as trabeculae, are seen in postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study aimed to evaluate how sleep deprivation affects the distal femur trabecular thickness of estrogen-deficient rats treated with Zoledronate. 29 ovariectomized Wistar female rats were separated into 4 groups. The control group (C) was housed in standard housing with a 12-hour light/dark cycle and was given an intravenous injection of 0.45 mL of 0.9% saline. The Zoledronate group (Z) were also housed ...


Essential Engagement As The First Step In Gaining Entrée Into The Laotian American Community On Cervical Cancer Screening, Catherine Pravisay-Malmstadt BS, Connie K. Y. Nguyen-Truong Dr. 2020 Washington State University Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Essential Engagement As The First Step In Gaining Entrée Into The Laotian American Community On Cervical Cancer Screening, Catherine Pravisay-Malmstadt Bs, Connie K. Y. Nguyen-Truong Dr.

Asian / Pacific Island Nursing Journal

Short Introduction:

Asian American women, including Laotian American women (LAW) have the lowest rate of being up to date with cervical cancer (CC) screenings at 75% compared to other ethnic groups. This rate is substantially lower than the national objective of 93%. Only 62.3% of LAW reported having family or friends who encouraged them to get CC screening. There is a critical need for current research surrounding CC screening among LAW in the United States’ Pacific Northwest. An essential first step of engagement includes collaboration with Laotian American cultural community leaders (CCLs) and is necessary in order to gain ...


KaʻU Community Asthma Management Program, Luzviminda Banez Miguel DNP 2020 University of Hawaii Hawaii Community College

KaʻU Community Asthma Management Program, Luzviminda Banez Miguel Dnp

Asian / Pacific Island Nursing Journal

Short Introduction

The “Kaʻu Community Asthma Management Program” (KCAMP) is a quality improvement and evidence-based practice Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) project. KCAMP’s objective was to determine whether community-based asthma education, self- management, self-efficacy, an asthma action plan, journal writing, and use of peak flow meters reduce asthma exacerbations. The literature supports these effective interventions for asthma control (Andrews, Jones, & Mullan, 2014; Chen, Sheu, Chang, Wang, & Huang, 2010; Federman et al., 2013). KCAMP was designed with community-based interventions to improve the practice of management of asthma, decrease hospital and doctors’ visits’ costs, and improve the lives of people who have asthma. Fourteen adult ...


Introduction To Special Abstract Section On Disseminating New Knowledge And Practices For Asian And Pacific Islanders, May K. Kealoha, Jillian Inouye PhD 2020 Kapiolani Community College

Introduction To Special Abstract Section On Disseminating New Knowledge And Practices For Asian And Pacific Islanders, May K. Kealoha, Jillian Inouye Phd

Asian / Pacific Island Nursing Journal

We are very pleased to publish our first special section of student and community abstracts and brief reports. Students of all disciplines and community members interested in disseminating new knowledge and practices submitted their papers. By accepting abstracts as well as short papers, a new opportunity was afforded for students, faculty, and community members to share their scholarship relative to the health of Asian/Pacific Islanders. The Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal is pleased to support and promote their scholarly endeavors particularly from those of Asian/Pacific Islander background.

Congratulations to S. Robert Spence Jr., a DNP-FNP student at Washington ...


A Systematic Review Of Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Maternal Health Outcomes Among Asians/Pacific Islanders, Janice Hata, Adam Burke 2020 Hawaii Pacific University

A Systematic Review Of Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Maternal Health Outcomes Among Asians/Pacific Islanders, Janice Hata, Adam Burke

Asian / Pacific Island Nursing Journal

Efforts to improve women’s health and to reduce maternal mortality worldwide have led to a notable reduction in the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR) over the past two decades. However, it is clear that maternal health outcomes are not equitable, especially when analyzing the scope of maternal health disparities across “developed” and “underdeveloped” nations.

This study evaluates recent MMR scholarship with a particular focus on the racial and ethnic divisions that impact on maternal health outcomes. The study contributes to MMR research by analyzing the racial and ethnic disparities that exist in the US, especially among Asian and Pacific ...


Relationship Between Abortion Rates And Ethnicity, Ronald Foon, Nur Diyanah Ayub Mansul 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Relationship Between Abortion Rates And Ethnicity, Ronald Foon, Nur Diyanah Ayub Mansul

Introduction to Research Methods RSCH 202

This research paper will serve as the first study in analysing discrepancies in birth rates among women of different ethnic groups in Singapore. The objective of this study is to root out any inequalities and effectively promote access to better healthcare for all women in Singapore. Additionally, a quantitative study in the form of a survey is proposed in this paper to collect original data. This survey will be disseminated in abortion clinics following the principles of cluster sampling. A regression analysis will be conducted to identify the statistical significance and correlation of each independent variables including age, income level ...


Reproductive Health Care In The Time Of Covid-19: Perspectives Of Poor Women And Service Providers From Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab, Iram Kamran, Tahira Parveen, Rehan M. Niazi, Irfan Masood 2020 Population Council

Reproductive Health Care In The Time Of Covid-19: Perspectives Of Poor Women And Service Providers From Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab, Iram Kamran, Tahira Parveen, Rehan M. Niazi, Irfan Masood

Reproductive Health

This study was conducted by the Population Council in Rahim Yar Khan district of Punjab, with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), to uncover urgently needed evidence about the challenges and needs of poor women and health care providers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Over 200 poor women—beneficiaries of the Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP), one of the largest social protection programs in the world—and 60 public and private sector health care providers participated in this investigation of BISP beneficiaries’ knowledge of COVID-19, the effects of the pandemic on their lives, mental health and wellbeing, and ...


Loss To Follow Up Of Pregnant Women With Hiv And Infant Hiv Outcomes In The Prevention Of Maternal To Child Transmission Of Hiv Programme In Two High-Burden Provinces In Papua New Guinea: A Retrospective Clinical Audit, Angela Kelly-Hanku, Claire Elizabeth Nightingale, Minh Duc Pham, Agnes Mek, Primrose Homiehombo, Mary Bagita, Justine Nankinga, Andrew Vallely, Lisa Vallely, Stanley Luchters 2020 The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Australia

Loss To Follow Up Of Pregnant Women With Hiv And Infant Hiv Outcomes In The Prevention Of Maternal To Child Transmission Of Hiv Programme In Two High-Burden Provinces In Papua New Guinea: A Retrospective Clinical Audit, Angela Kelly-Hanku, Claire Elizabeth Nightingale, Minh Duc Pham, Agnes Mek, Primrose Homiehombo, Mary Bagita, Justine Nankinga, Andrew Vallely, Lisa Vallely, Stanley Luchters

Population Health, East Africa

Introduction Despite early adoption of the WHO guidelines to deliver lifelong antiretroviral (ARV) regimen to pregnant women on HIV diagnosis, the HIV prevention of mother to child transmission programme in Papua New Guinea remains suboptimal. An unacceptable number of babies are infected with HIV and mothers not retained in treatment. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of this programme and to investigate the factors associated with programme performance outcomes.

Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical records of HIV-positive pregnant women at two hospitals providing prevention of mother to child transmission services. All women enrolled in the prevention ...


Early Marriage And Early Childbearing In South Asia: Trends, Inequalities, And Drivers From 2005 To 2018, Samuel Scott, Phuong Hong Nguyen, Sumanta Neupane, Priyanjana Pramanik, Priya Nanda, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Kaosar Afsana, Purnima Menon 2020 International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.

Early Marriage And Early Childbearing In South Asia: Trends, Inequalities, And Drivers From 2005 To 2018, Samuel Scott, Phuong Hong Nguyen, Sumanta Neupane, Priyanjana Pramanik, Priya Nanda, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Kaosar Afsana, Purnima Menon

Woman and Child Health

Early marriage (EM) and early childbearing (ECB) have far-reaching consequences. This study describes the prevalence, trends, inequalities, and drivers of EM and ECB in South Asia using eight rounds of Demographic and Health Survey data across 13 years. We report the percentage of ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 105,150) married before 18 years (EM) and with a live birth before 20 years (ECB). Relative trends were examined using average annual rate of reduction (AARR). Inequalities were examined by geography, marital household wealth, residence, and education. Sociodemographic drivers of changes for EM were assessed using regression decomposition analyses. We ...


Healthcare Utilization Patterns For Acute Febrile Illness In Bangladesh, Nepal, And Pakistan: Results From The Surveillance For Enteric Fever In Asia Project, Jason R. Andrews, Krista Vaidya, Shampa Saha, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Caitlin Hemlock, Ashley Longley, Kristen Aiemjoy, Alexander T. Yu, Isaac I. Bogoch, Farah Naz Qamar 2020 Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Healthcare Utilization Patterns For Acute Febrile Illness In Bangladesh, Nepal, And Pakistan: Results From The Surveillance For Enteric Fever In Asia Project, Jason R. Andrews, Krista Vaidya, Shampa Saha, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Caitlin Hemlock, Ashley Longley, Kristen Aiemjoy, Alexander T. Yu, Isaac I. Bogoch, Farah Naz Qamar

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Characterizing healthcare-seeking patterns for acute febrile illness is critical for generating population-based enteric fever incidence estimates from facility-based surveillance data.
Methods: We used a hybrid model in the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP) to assess incidence of enteric fever at 6 study hospitals in 3 countries. We recruited individuals presenting to the hospitals and obtained blood cultures to evaluate for enteric fever. For this analysis, we undertook cluster random household surveys in Dhaka, Bangladesh (2 sites); Karachi, Pakistan; Kathmandu, Nepal; and Kavrepalanchok, Nepal between January 2017 and February 2019, to ascertain care-seeking behavior for individuals with ...


Developing A Program Evaluation Plan For Medicaid Prenatal Care Management Programs, Shardae Sims 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Developing A Program Evaluation Plan For Medicaid Prenatal Care Management Programs, Shardae Sims

Capstone Experience

Prenatal care management (PNCM) is an intervention that targets women during the perinatal period to improve birth outcomes. PNCM has the potential to address social determinants of health issues and gaps or barriers to care that could lower incidences of adverse birth outcomes in Nebraska. There is currently a gap in the literature for studies that fully assess the impact of prenatal care management programs and the program’s ability to reach set goals. The purpose of this research is to develop an evaluation plan and potential implementation strategies that can be utilized by the Medicaid PNCM program in Nebraska ...


Hemoglobin Concentrations And Adverse Birth Outcomes In South Asian Pregnant Women: Findings From A Prospective Maternal And Neonatal Health Registry, Sumera Aziz Ali, Shiyam Sunder Tikmani, Sarah Saleem, Archana B. Patel, Patricia L. Hibberd, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Sangappa Dhaded, Richard J. Derman, Janet L. Moore, Elizabeth M. McClure, Robert L. Goldenberg 2020 Aga Khan University

Hemoglobin Concentrations And Adverse Birth Outcomes In South Asian Pregnant Women: Findings From A Prospective Maternal And Neonatal Health Registry, Sumera Aziz Ali, Shiyam Sunder Tikmani, Sarah Saleem, Archana B. Patel, Patricia L. Hibberd, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Sangappa Dhaded, Richard J. Derman, Janet L. Moore, Elizabeth M. Mcclure, Robert L. Goldenberg

Community Health Sciences

Background: While the relationship between hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and pregnancy outcomes has been studied often, most reports have focused on a specific Hb cutoff used to define anemia. Fewer studies have evaluated pregnancy outcomes across the entire range of Hb values. Moreover, to date, most studies of the relationship of Hb concentrations to pregnancy outcomes have been done in high-income countries. Thus, we have sought to determine the relationship between the range of maternal Hb concentrations and adverse birth outcomes among South Asian pregnant women.
Methods: For this study, we used data collected from two South Asian countries (Pakistan - Sindh ...


Stillbirth 2010-2018: A Prospective, Population-Based, Multi-Country Study From The Global Network, Elizabeth M. McClure, Sarah Saleem, Shivaprasad S. Gouda, Ana Garces, Ryan Whitworth, Fabian Esamai, Archana B. Patel, Shiyam Sunder Tikmani, Musaku Mwenechanya, Elwyn Chomba 2020 RTI International, Cornwallis Rd, Durham, USA.

Stillbirth 2010-2018: A Prospective, Population-Based, Multi-Country Study From The Global Network, Elizabeth M. Mcclure, Sarah Saleem, Shivaprasad S. Gouda, Ana Garces, Ryan Whitworth, Fabian Esamai, Archana B. Patel, Shiyam Sunder Tikmani, Musaku Mwenechanya, Elwyn Chomba

Community Health Sciences

Background: Stillbirth rates are high and represent a substantial proportion of the under-5 mortality in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). In LMIC, where nearly 98% of stillbirths worldwide occur, few population-based studies have documented cause of stillbirths or the trends in rate of stillbirth over time.
Methods: We undertook a prospective, population-based multi-country research study of all pregnant women in defined geographic areas across 7 sites in low-resource settings (Kenya, Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Pakistan, and Guatemala). Staff collected demographic and health care characteristics with outcomes obtained at delivery. Cause of stillbirth was assigned by algorithm.
Results: From ...


Looking Beyond The Numbers: Quality Assurance Procedures In The Global Network For Women's And Children's Health Research Maternal Newborn Health Registry, Ana Garces, Emily MacGuire, Holly L. Franklin, Norma Alfaro, Gustavo Arroyo, Lester Figueroa, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Sarah Saleem, Fabian Esama, Archana Patel 2020 Instituto de Nutrición de Centroamérica y Panamá, Guatemala, Guatemala

Looking Beyond The Numbers: Quality Assurance Procedures In The Global Network For Women's And Children's Health Research Maternal Newborn Health Registry, Ana Garces, Emily Macguire, Holly L. Franklin, Norma Alfaro, Gustavo Arroyo, Lester Figueroa, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Sarah Saleem, Fabian Esama, Archana Patel

Community Health Sciences

Background: Quality assurance (QA) is a process that should be an integral part of research to protect the rights and safety of study participants and to reduce the likelihood that the results are affected by bias in data collection. Most QA plans include processes related to study preparation and regulatory compliance, data collection, data analysis and publication of study results. However, little detailed information is available on the specific procedures associated with QA processes to ensure high-quality data in multi-site studies.
Methods: The Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Maternal Newborn Health Registy (MNHR) is a prospective ...


Evaluating The Effect Of Care Around Labor And Delivery Practices On Early Neonatal Mortality In The Global Network's Maternal And Newborn Health Registry, Archana B. Patel, Elizabeth M. Simmon, Sowmya R. Rao, Janet Moore, Tracy L. Nolen, Robert L. Goldenberg, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Manjunath S. Somannavar, Sarah Saleem, Farnaz Naqvi 2020 Lata Medical Research Foundation, Nagpur, India

Evaluating The Effect Of Care Around Labor And Delivery Practices On Early Neonatal Mortality In The Global Network's Maternal And Newborn Health Registry, Archana B. Patel, Elizabeth M. Simmon, Sowmya R. Rao, Janet Moore, Tracy L. Nolen, Robert L. Goldenberg, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Manjunath S. Somannavar, Sarah Saleem, Farnaz Naqvi

Community Health Sciences

Background: Neonatal deaths in first 28-days of life represent 47% of all deaths under the age of five years globally and are a focus of the United Nation's (UN's) Sustainable Development Goals. Pregnant women are delivering in facilities but that does not indicate quality of care during delivery and the postpartum period. The World Health Organization's Essential Newborn Care (ENC) package reduces neonatal mortality, but lacks a simple and valid composite index that measures its effectiveness.
Methods: Data on 5 intra-partum and 3 post-partum practices (indicators) recommended as part of ENC, routinely collected in NICHD's Global ...


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