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Loss Of Self In Dissociation In Prostitution; Recovery Of Self In Connection To Horses: A Survivor's Journey, Sandra Norak 2020 University of Rhode Island

Loss Of Self In Dissociation In Prostitution; Recovery Of Self In Connection To Horses: A Survivor's Journey, Sandra Norak

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

This narrative is about dissociation in the lives of women who have been exploited through prostitution. When we speak about prostitution, we do not speak often enough about the dissociation needed for women and girls to survive sexual exploitation. The author challenges the wisdom of governments such as Germany that legalize prostitution, treating it as a “job” and ignoring the violence and subsequent dissociation in women. The author describes her personal journey, explaining how women are traumatized even after the first commercial sex act, which is a sexual assault. They dissociate which makes their lives bearable, but they fail to ...


The Missing Moral Dimension: Perceptions Of Transgressions And The Moderating Role Of Moral Foundations On Psychological Distress, Hannah Reas 2020 Seattle Pacific University

The Missing Moral Dimension: Perceptions Of Transgressions And The Moderating Role Of Moral Foundations On Psychological Distress, Hannah Reas

Clinical Psychology Dissertations

Anxiety and depression can be represented on a dimensional spectrum of negative affect, broadly termed psychological distress. Research has identified several factors that maintain negative emotion, but have neglected the possibility that individuals’ interpretations of moral issues in the larger macro-system affects their level of distress. Thus, the current study investigated the role of perceptions of moral transgressions, or cognitive interpretations of stimuli (“transgressions”) that violate beliefs about right and wrong, as a predictor of psychological distress. Furthermore, this study tested how perceptions of moral transgressions vary as a function of individuals’ own moral intuitions, or moral foundations. Participants (N ...


Effects Of (R,S)-Ketamine And (2r,6r)-Hydroxynorketamine: A Preclinical Study, Remington Rice 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Effects Of (R,S)-Ketamine And (2r,6r)-Hydroxynorketamine: A Preclinical Study, Remington Rice

Theses and Dissertations

In 2017, 7.1% of US adults were diagnosed with depression, and 50% of patients received medication to treat their depression. Depression can cause severe interruptions in an individual's cognitive functioning and behaviors like sleeping, eating, working, and socializing. Unfortunately, approximately 40% of patients do not respond to treatment with monoaminergic medications (e.g. Prozac) and therapeutic effects may be delayed 2-8 weeks. Due to these therapeutic shortcomings, faster acting and more efficacious treatments are needed. Recent preclinical findings indicate potential for glutamatergic drugs like (R,S)-ketamine and (2R,6R) hydroxynorketamine to produce more rapid and longer-acting therapeutic ...


The Global Assessment Of School Functioning (Gasf): Criterion Validity And Interrater Reliability, Arthur C. Maerlender, Joseph Palamara, Jonathan Lichtenstein 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Global Assessment Of School Functioning (Gasf): Criterion Validity And Interrater Reliability, Arthur C. Maerlender, Joseph Palamara, Jonathan Lichtenstein

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The Global Assessment of School Functioning (GASF) provides a robust estimate of a student's overall level of functioning within the school environment. It is intended to capture a global metric reflecting academic, social and general behavioral functioning within the school. It is a modification of the Global Assessment of Functioning and reflects functioning across academics, interpersonal relationships, school behavior, and school participation. It was developed to allow school personnel a means to communicate the general level of student functioning without re- verting to specific issues or immediate concerns. This paper reports on the scale's criterion validity and interrater ...


Males With Chronic Ankle Instability Demonstrate Deficits In Neurocognitive Function Compared To Control And Copers, Adam B. Rosen, Melanie L. McGrath, Arthur C. Maerlender 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Males With Chronic Ankle Instability Demonstrate Deficits In Neurocognitive Function Compared To Control And Copers, Adam B. Rosen, Melanie L. Mcgrath, Arthur C. Maerlender

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The purpose of this study was to determine if there were neurocognitive deficits among controls, copers and those with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Participants included those without history of ankle injury (n = 14), ankle sprain copers (n = 13) and patients with self-reported CAI (n = 14). They completed a battery of valid and reliable computer-based neurocognitive tests. The differences between neurocognitive domain scores were compared across the Control, Coper and CAI groups. Patients with CAI had lower composite memory, visual memory and simple attention compared to controls. In males with CAI, large differences in memory and attention were found relative to ...


Psychometric Properties Of The Standardized Assessment Of Concussion In Youth Football: Validity, Reliability, And Demographic Factors, Arthur C. Maerlender, Eric Smith, P. Gunnar Brolinson, Jillian Urban, Steven Rowson, Amaris Ajamil, Eamon T. Campolettano, Ryan A. Gellner, Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek Jones, Alex Powers, Jonathan Beckwith, Joseph J. Crisco, Joel Stitzel, Stefan Duma, Richard M. Greenwald 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Psychometric Properties Of The Standardized Assessment Of Concussion In Youth Football: Validity, Reliability, And Demographic Factors, Arthur C. Maerlender, Eric Smith, P. Gunnar Brolinson, Jillian Urban, Steven Rowson, Amaris Ajamil, Eamon T. Campolettano, Ryan A. Gellner, Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek Jones, Alex Powers, Jonathan Beckwith, Joseph J. Crisco, Joel Stitzel, Stefan Duma, Richard M. Greenwald

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The objective of this study was to determine the psychometrics (reliability, validity) of the original Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) in a youth sample (ages 11 to 13). Demographic factors of race, level of vocabulary knowledge, mother’s level of education were also considered. Over 150 youth football athletes completed the SAC and a brief battery of NIH Toolbox cognitive tests as part of a larger study on biomechanical factors in youth sport concussion. This was a within-subjects design (pre-season, post-season assessments), and correlational analysis of convergent and discriminant validity. Between groups analysis based on demographic differences was also employed ...


Modeling Interactions Between Brain Function, Diet Adherence Behaviors, And Weight Loss Success, Amanda N. Szabo-Reed, Laura E. Martin, Jinxiang Hu, Hung-Wen Yeh, Joshua Powell, Rebecca J. Lepping, Trisha M. Patrician, Florance J. Breslin, Joseph E. Donnelly, Cary R. Savage 2020 University of Kansas Medical Center

Modeling Interactions Between Brain Function, Diet Adherence Behaviors, And Weight Loss Success, Amanda N. Szabo-Reed, Laura E. Martin, Jinxiang Hu, Hung-Wen Yeh, Joshua Powell, Rebecca J. Lepping, Trisha M. Patrician, Florance J. Breslin, Joseph E. Donnelly, Cary R. Savage

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Summary

Introduction: Obesity is linked to altered activation in reward and control brain cir-cuitry; however, the associated brain activity related to successful or unsuccessful weight loss (WL) is unclear.

Methods: Adults with obesity (N = 75) completed a baseline functional magnetic res-onance imaging (fMRI) scan before entering a WL intervention (ie,3-month diet and physical activity [PA] program). We conducted an exploratory analysis to identify the contributions of baseline brain activation, adherence behavior patterns, and the asso-ciated connections to WL at the conclusion of a 3-month WL intervention. Food cue-reactivity brain regions were functionally identified using fMRI to index brain activation ...


Neuropsychological Change After A Single Season Of Head Impact Exposure In Youth Football, Arthur C. Maerlender, Eric Smith, P. Gunnar Brolinson, Joseph J. Crisco, Jillian Urban, Amaris Ajamil, Steven Rowson, Eamon T. Campolettano, Ryan A. Gellner, Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Emily Kieffer, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek Jones, Alex Powers, Jonathan Beckwith, Joel Stitzel, Richard M. Greenwald, Stefan Duma 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Neuropsychological Change After A Single Season Of Head Impact Exposure In Youth Football, Arthur C. Maerlender, Eric Smith, P. Gunnar Brolinson, Joseph J. Crisco, Jillian Urban, Amaris Ajamil, Steven Rowson, Eamon T. Campolettano, Ryan A. Gellner, Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Emily Kieffer, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek Jones, Alex Powers, Jonathan Beckwith, Joel Stitzel, Richard M. Greenwald, Stefan Duma

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Objectives: Head impact exposure (HIE) in youth football is a public health concern. The objective of this study was to determine if one season of HIE in youth football was related to cognitive changes.

Method: Over 200 participants (ages 9–13) wore instrumented helmets for practices and games to measure the amount of HIE sustained over one season. Pre- and post-season neuropsychological tests were completed. Test score changes were calculated adjusting for practice effects and regression to the mean and used as the dependent variables. Regression models were calculated with HIE variables predicting neuropsychological test score changes.

Results: For the ...


Sleep And Stress In The Acute Phase Of Concussion In Youth, Arthur C. Maerlender, Caitlin Masterson, Jessica L. Calvi, Todd Caze, Ross Mathiasen, Dennis Molfese 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sleep And Stress In The Acute Phase Of Concussion In Youth, Arthur C. Maerlender, Caitlin Masterson, Jessica L. Calvi, Todd Caze, Ross Mathiasen, Dennis Molfese

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

This study sought to address the complex interplay between both biological and psychological perceptions of stress and sleep in the acute stages following a mild traumatic brain injury. A secondary goal was to identify potential targets for intervention. Eleven acutely injured youth (mean age 12 years) were studied at home with overnight actigraphy, salivary cortisol and melatonin assays, and subjective ratings of stress and fatigue (injured group). Nine matched control youth also were assessed (control group). Results suggested longer sleep latencies (time to fall asleep) and higher levels of fatigue in the injured group exist (p ¼ 0.025 and ...


The Effect Of In-Service Methodology On Learning Transfer For School Personnel Managing Students Following Concussion, Jennifer Parent-Nichols, Angela DeSilva Mousseau, Joshua Cleland, Jonathan D. Lichtenstein, Arthur C. Maerlender 2020 Tufts University School of Medicine

The Effect Of In-Service Methodology On Learning Transfer For School Personnel Managing Students Following Concussion, Jennifer Parent-Nichols, Angela Desilva Mousseau, Joshua Cleland, Jonathan D. Lichtenstein, Arthur C. Maerlender

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Background: It is essential to increase the knowledge base of teachers involved in facilitating return to learning in middle school students following a concussion. However, the best method to enhance the transfer of learning for teachers remains to be elucidated. Application of Adult Learning Theory (ALT) is a plausible solution to this problem. Purpose: The purpose of this randomized post-test study was to examine the effects of ALTon the transfer of learning in teachers who work with individuals with concussion. Methods: A convenience sample of 169 teachers at four middle schools were randomized to receive an in-service regarding concussion management ...


Frontal Brain Injury: Effects On Flexibility, Impulse Control, And Attention, Christopher Matthew O'Hearn 2020 WVU

Frontal Brain Injury: Effects On Flexibility, Impulse Control, And Attention, Christopher Matthew O'Hearn

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is defined as an impact to the head, penetration of the skull, or rapid deceleration of the skull, resulting in an alteration of brain function or neurological deficit. Cognitive deficits are common following TBI and often go unresolved due to a lack of effective treatments. These deficits often perseverate into the chronic post injury phase, so the development of rehabilitative strategies is imperative. Behavioral flexibility, impulse control, and attention are a few cognitive processes that are commonly affected by TBI. The current research compares these processes between rats with and without a severe frontal brain injury ...


Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal 2020 The University of Akron

Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Here I characterized the central neuroanatomy of the Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus striatus, native to French Polynesia. The neuroanatomy of E. striatus has not been studied prior to this paper. I used several histology and antibody staining techniques to accomplish this, including Crystal Violet, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Bielschowsky’s Silver Nitrate staining. This paper describes the most successful techniques used, identifies major structures in the species’ neuroanatomy, and also explains why studying E. striatus is important in the future of vertebrate research.


Signaling Mechanism Responsible For 5-Ht2a Receptor Tolerance To Psychedelic Induced Head-Twitch Behavior In Mice, Audrey R. McMurtrie 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Signaling Mechanism Responsible For 5-Ht2a Receptor Tolerance To Psychedelic Induced Head-Twitch Behavior In Mice, Audrey R. Mcmurtrie

Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in psychedelic compounds stemming from their promising use as therapeutic agents and research tools that can be used to treat and study several neuropsychiatric disorders. Psychedelics have proven useful in a broad range of these diseases - they serve as models for psychosis in schizophrenia but have also had promising results in treating major depressive disorder, anxiety, and other common disorders. Decreased stigmatization surrounding psychedelics has further increased their use in research and clinical settings. In light of these trends and the promising nature of their use, a thorough understanding of the ...


The Code Of The Street Fights Back! Significant Associations With Arrest, Delinquency, And Violence Withstand Psychological Confound, Kyle A. Burgason, Matt DeLisi, Mark H. Heirigs, Abdi Kusow, Jacob H. Erickson, Michael G. Vaughn 2020 Iowa State University

The Code Of The Street Fights Back! Significant Associations With Arrest, Delinquency, And Violence Withstand Psychological Confound, Kyle A. Burgason, Matt Delisi, Mark H. Heirigs, Abdi Kusow, Jacob H. Erickson, Michael G. Vaughn

Sociology Publications

Since Anderson’s now classic, Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City, an increasing number of researchers have found a significant association between the code of the street and antisocial behavior. Less researched, however, is the relationship between the code of the street and cognate psychological factors. Building on the hypothesis that the code of the street is simply a reflection of elements of the population who exhibit antisocial traits, our aim in this study is to empirically test whether the observed association between the code of the street and antisocial behavior can ...


Mood Effects And Individual Differences On Reappraisal And Distraction: An Erp Study Of The Sensitivity Of Emotion Regulation Strategies, Elsa Mastico 2020 Central Washington University

Mood Effects And Individual Differences On Reappraisal And Distraction: An Erp Study Of The Sensitivity Of Emotion Regulation Strategies, Elsa Mastico

All Master's Theses

The present research evaluated the effect of mood and individual differences on the regulatory process of emotions by using a regulation task with negative and neutral images to assess reappraisal and distraction ability. Specifically, this research evaluated the average amplitude of the latent positive potential (latent positivity, LPP) brainwave linked to distraction and reappraisal using an ERP analysis. In addition, the current study compared the modulation of the LPP to the self-reported mood of the participants and their individual differences in regulation ability through scores of a self-report emotion regulation questionnaire. The latent positive potentials from an emotion regulation task ...


Escalation And Reinstatement Of Fentanyl Self-Administration In Male And Female Rats, Samantha G. Malone 2020 University of Kentucky

Escalation And Reinstatement Of Fentanyl Self-Administration In Male And Female Rats, Samantha G. Malone

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Escalation of intake and craving are two DSM-5 hallmark symptoms of opioid use disorder (OUD). Objectives: This study determined if escalation measured by long access (LgA) self-administration and craving measured by reinstatement are related. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer (SA) fentanyl across 7 daily 1-h sessions, followed by 21 SA sessions of either 1- or 6-h duration. Assignment to short access (ShA) and long access (LgA) groups was randomly determined for both males and females. Following 14 1-h extinction sessions, Experiment 1 assessed reinstatement induced by either fentanyl (10 or 30 μg/kg) or yohimbine ...


Mindfulness Training's Effect On Stress, Attention, And Perfectionism And Their Relationship To Achievement Goals, Alexandra Lesniak 2020 Hollins University

Mindfulness Training's Effect On Stress, Attention, And Perfectionism And Their Relationship To Achievement Goals, Alexandra Lesniak

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In recent years, the practice of cultivating mindfulness, a nonjudgmental awareness of the present moment, has made a resurgence in areas ranging anywhere from behavioral issues to work and academic productivity (Brown & Ryan, 2003a). The current study was focused on the relationships between mindfulness, achievement styles, stress, attention, and perfectionism at a single-sex, liberal arts institution. One hundred and five undergraduate, female students participated in this study. All participants were randomly assigned to either a mindfulness audio condition or a badminton audio condition as a control. Then, they were given measures relating to achievement goals, mindfulness capability, state mindfulness, mind-wandering ...


From Aggressive To Assertive, Mary E. Maloney, Patricia Moore 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

From Aggressive To Assertive, Mary E. Maloney, Patricia Moore

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Aggressive behavior in men is seen as decisive, forceful, ambitious, and leader-like; it is often commended and even rewarded. Aggressive behavior in women is seen as hysterical, domineering, bitchy, and certainly not rewarded. Even assertive behavior in women is misunderstood to be aggressive. Both conscious and unconscious or implicit bias are at play. Although individual men are not responsible for these inequities, we all (men included) need to work to change our culture.

Let’s agree that this double standard is unfair, and our workplaces need massive cultural change. This article is about how women can navigate through this double ...


Choice Of God/Higher Power, Perceptions Of God/Higher Power, Religious Beliefs And Behaviors, And Social Support As Predictors Of Length Of Sobriety, Satisfaction With Life, And Quality Of Life Among People Recovering From Alcohol Addictions In Three Midwestern States, Carlton Martin 2020 Andrews University

Choice Of God/Higher Power, Perceptions Of God/Higher Power, Religious Beliefs And Behaviors, And Social Support As Predictors Of Length Of Sobriety, Satisfaction With Life, And Quality Of Life Among People Recovering From Alcohol Addictions In Three Midwestern States, Carlton Martin

Dissertations

Problem

An estimated 12.7% of the US population meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). The annual cost to the society, including emergency room visits, lost days at work, and accidents on the road is in the billions. The impact of this disorder on the family, the community, and the individual is immeasurable. A growing body of literature supports an association between religious and spiritual beliefs and behaviors and recovery from alcohol addiction. This project is an investigation of this association. The goal is to offer ...


What Makes An Image Memorable? Effects Of Encoding On The Mechanism Of Recognition, Asiya Gul 2020 Wilfrid Laurier University

What Makes An Image Memorable? Effects Of Encoding On The Mechanism Of Recognition, Asiya Gul

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Memory is undoubtedly one of the most important processes of human cognition. A long line of research suggests that recognition relies on the assessment of two explicit memory phenomena: familiarity and recollection. Researchers who support the Dual Process Signal Detection (DPSD) model of recognition memory link the FN400 component (a negative ERP deflection peaking around 400 ms at frontal electrodes) with familiarity; however, it is currently unclear whether the FN400 reflects familiarity or implicit memory. Three event-related potentials (ERP) studies were conducted to determine whether implicit memory plays a role in setting up encoding strategies, and how these encoding strategies ...


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