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Impact Of Sickle Cell Disease On Executive Functioning In An Adult Population, Christina Wade 2020 Pepperdine University

Impact Of Sickle Cell Disease On Executive Functioning In An Adult Population, Christina Wade

Theses and Dissertations

Children diagnosed with sickle cell disease (SCD) struggle with executive functions (EF); however, there is a paucity of research on neuropsychological outcomes in adults with SCD. This study aimed to examine differences in EF between adults with SCD and healthy controls. Thirty- one patients with SCD and 34 healthy controls (ages 18-45) participating in an IRB-approved Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) study of cerebral blood flow underwent neuropsychological evaluation using the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Trail Making and Color Word Interference Tests and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Digit Span subtest to assess various ...


Genetic Taster Status As A Mediator Of Neural Activity And Swallowing Mechanics In Healthy Adults, Angela M. Dietsch, Ross M. Westemeyer, William G. Pearson Jr., Douglas H. Schultz 2019 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Genetic Taster Status As A Mediator Of Neural Activity And Swallowing Mechanics In Healthy Adults, Angela M. Dietsch, Ross M. Westemeyer, William G. Pearson Jr., Douglas H. Schultz

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

As part of a larger study examining relationships between taste properties and swallowing, we assessed the influence of genetic taster status (GTS) on measures of brain activity and swallowing physiology during taste stimulation in healthy men and women. Twenty-one participants underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during trials of high-intensity taste stimuli. The precisely formulated mixtures included sour, sweet-sour, lemon, and orange taste profiles and unflavored controls. Swallowing physiology was characterized via computational analysis of swallowing mechanics plus other kinematic and temporal measures, all extracted from VFSS recordings. Whole-brain analysis of fMRI data assessed blood ...


Human Adaptability For Deep Space Missions: An Exploratory Study, Paul T. Bartone, Robert R. Roland, Jocelyn V. Bartone, Gerald P. Krueger, Albert A. Sciarretta, Bjorn Helge Johnsen 2019 National Defense University

Human Adaptability For Deep Space Missions: An Exploratory Study, Paul T. Bartone, Robert R. Roland, Jocelyn V. Bartone, Gerald P. Krueger, Albert A. Sciarretta, Bjorn Helge Johnsen

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

The present qualitative study conducts in-depth interviews with astronauts and other subject matter experts in order to shed light on human adaptability in extreme environments. Deep space travel will entail a range of highly stressful conditions to which astronauts must adapt. Feelings of isolation will be increased, as the space traveler is farther from Earth for longer periods of time. Daily life will take place in small and confined areas, for durations extending into years. The dangers of the extreme environment of space are ever-present, and failure of critical equipment or components can lead to death. Astronauts will need to ...


The Role Of Gamma Oscillations And Cortical Inhibition In The Development Of Working Memory In Adolescence, Christopher P. Walker 2019 The University of Texas MD ANderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

The Role Of Gamma Oscillations And Cortical Inhibition In The Development Of Working Memory In Adolescence, Christopher P. Walker

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Adolescence is a dynamic period of social, cognitive, and biological changes. In particular, working memory, the ability to actively encode and maintain information over a short period of time, develops early in childhood and gradually increases in capacity and stability during adolescence. The precise neurophysiological mechanism by which working memory capacity increases during adolescence is unclear. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the role of cortical gamma-band (> 30 Hz) oscillations—which are associated with working memory in adults—for the development of working memory capacity in adolescents, and to identify the extent to which the temporal profile of ...


Social Anxiety Reduction In The Context Of Social Modeling Utilizing A Placebo Alcohol Beverage, Kyle K. Jackson 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Social Anxiety Reduction In The Context Of Social Modeling Utilizing A Placebo Alcohol Beverage, Kyle K. Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol misuse and elevated social anxiety are found to be highly comorbid, and being exposed to social models consuming alcohol can increase one’s consumption. Yet no research has thus far examined whether the internal experience of alcohol consumption (e.g., social anxiety reduction) can also be transmitted via social modeling. This bar-lab study examined the impact of social modeling behavioral cues of social anxiety on emerging adult drinkers. It was hypothesized that those exposed to a social model experiencing an apparent social anxiety reduction from drinking would themselves report lessened state social anxiety following a placebo drink, and that ...


Coping With Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms: The Role Of Illness Beliefs And Behaviors, Nicole Sullivan, L. Alison Phillips, Wilfred R. Pigeon, Karen S. Quigley, Fiona Graff, David R. Litke, Drew A. Helmer, Joseph F. Rath, Lisa M. McAndrew 2019 Veterans Affairs New Jersey Health Care System

Coping With Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms: The Role Of Illness Beliefs And Behaviors, Nicole Sullivan, L. Alison Phillips, Wilfred R. Pigeon, Karen S. Quigley, Fiona Graff, David R. Litke, Drew A. Helmer, Joseph F. Rath, Lisa M. Mcandrew

Psychology Publications

Background: Medically unexplained syndromes (MUS) are both prevalent and disabling. While illness beliefs and behaviors are thought to maintain MUS-related disability, little is known about which specific behavioral responses to MUS are related to disability or the way in which beliefs and behaviors interact to impact functioning. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between illness beliefs and disability among patients with MUS, and assess the extent to which behaviors mediate this relationship.

Methods: The study examined data from the baseline assessment of a multi-site randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants were 248 veterans with MUS. Illness ...


Using Education To Increase Compliance With Heart Failure Medications, Kara Stout DO, Isaac Navarro DMD 2019 HCA Healthcare

Using Education To Increase Compliance With Heart Failure Medications, Kara Stout Do, Isaac Navarro Dmd

Internal Medicine

  • Approximately 5.7 million adults in the United States have heart failure.
  • 25% of individuals die within one year of diagnosis and more than 80% die within 8 years.
  • Full adherence to medications may be as low as 30% in heart failure patients.
  • Non-compliant patients are two times more likely to be readmitted to the hospital and have a three times higher mortality rate.


Nurse-Driven Mhealth Implementation Using The Technology Inpatient Program For Smokers (Tips): Mixed Methods Study, Amanda C. Blok, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Timothy P. Hogan, Angela Patterson, Nicole Day, Thomas K. Houston 2019 United States Department of Veterans Affairs

Nurse-Driven Mhealth Implementation Using The Technology Inpatient Program For Smokers (Tips): Mixed Methods Study, Amanda C. Blok, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Timothy P. Hogan, Angela Patterson, Nicole Day, Thomas K. Houston

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death and disease, yet implementation of smoking cessation in inpatient settings is inconsistent. The Technology Inpatient Program for Smokers (TIPS) is an implementation program designed to reach smokers with a mobile health (mHealth) intervention using stakeholder-supported strategies.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the TIPS implementation strategies on smoker-level engagement of the mHealth intervention during care transition.

METHODS: We examined varying intensities (passive motivational posters only and posters + active nurse-led facilitation) of TIPS strategies on four hospital units located in two sites. Unit-level and smoker-level adoption ...


Somatic Symptom And Related Disorders: A Case Of Illness Anxiety Disorder In A Young Relatively Treatment Naive African American Male, Linda Zhang, Richard P. Leggett, Harrison Ross Galicki, William B. DeHart 2019 HCA Healthcare

Somatic Symptom And Related Disorders: A Case Of Illness Anxiety Disorder In A Young Relatively Treatment Naive African American Male, Linda Zhang, Richard P. Leggett, Harrison Ross Galicki, William B. Dehart

Psychiatry

Somatic symptom and related disorders (including illness anxiety disorder and somatic symptom disorder) is a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) replacing somatoform and related disorders in the DSM-4 Text Revision. This classification eliminated the requirement that somatic symptoms must be nonorganic in nature, in an effort to reliably detect more cases of significant health anxiety than previously with DSM-4 criteria. Illness anxiety disorder is a primary anxiety disorder characterized by persistent preoccupation or excessive concern about having or developing an undiagnosed disease despite medical evaluation and reassurance. It is considered a ...


Implementing Screening To Assess Readiness To Change In Overweight And Obese Patients At A Patient-Centered Medical Home, Jarrod Gant 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

Implementing Screening To Assess Readiness To Change In Overweight And Obese Patients At A Patient-Centered Medical Home, Jarrod Gant

Doctoral Projects

Obesity is at epidemic levels within the United States (U.S.), but the Southern U.S. has some of the most obese states. Mississippi (MS) is the most obese state in the country (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2018). Factors such as diet, sedentary lifestyle, cultural influences, and socioeconomic status contribute to the state’s citizens being overweight and obese.

Contributing to the state’s obesity is the fact that MS has more people living in poverty than any other state (Center for American Progress [CAP], 2018). Lacking the ability to afford healthy foods and the ability to afford quality healthcare ...


The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank 2019 University of Pennsylvania

The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

In the last two decades, formalized social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in schools have proliferated in response to a staggering increase in mental, social, and emotional challenges for youth. SEL programs differ in their theoretical foundations, though there are commonalities among them. Self-regulation (SR) surfaces as an important pillar. Researchers have relied mostly on self-reporting and teacher questionnaires to measure the effectiveness of these programs to improve SR and other aspects of youth well-being, without explicitly considering the physiological effects of these interventions on the biomarkers of youth. By addressing this gap, program researchers, developers, and educators can reach their stated ...


Texas, The Death Penalty, And Intellectual Disability, Megan Green 2019 St. Mary's University School of Law

Texas, The Death Penalty, And Intellectual Disability, Megan Green

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming


A Comparison Of Opioid Abuse Screening Tools Of Detection Of High Risk Patients In The Inpatient Setting, Grace Gu MD, Albert Cheng MD, Darren Rahaman MD, Shyh-Jeun Wang MD, Maureen Strohm MD, Napatkamon Ayutyanont 2019 HCA Healthcare

A Comparison Of Opioid Abuse Screening Tools Of Detection Of High Risk Patients In The Inpatient Setting, Grace Gu Md, Albert Cheng Md, Darren Rahaman Md, Shyh-Jeun Wang Md, Maureen Strohm Md, Napatkamon Ayutyanont

Family Medicine

  • The United States is currently experiencing an opioid epidemic, which claims 115 lives daily by overdose.
  • Tools for identifying patients at increased risk for abuse include: Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP-R) and Opioid Risk Tool (ORT).
  • However, data is lacking for the comparison of the two most commonly used opioid screen tools (SOAPP-R and ORT).
  • We are comparing the effectiveness of these screening tools for patients being discharged from the hospital who have no "red flags" for abuse.


Emotion Processing Deficits In Psychopathy: Does Cueing To Relevant Facial Features Increase Cognitive And Emotional Empathy?, Shawn E. Fagan 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Emotion Processing Deficits In Psychopathy: Does Cueing To Relevant Facial Features Increase Cognitive And Emotional Empathy?, Shawn E. Fagan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Psychopathy is a multifaceted disorder characterized by a lack of cognitive and emotional empathy. The traditional model of psychopathy divides the disorder into two factors: Factor 1 consists of the interpersonal and affective traits of psychopathy while Factor 2 measures antisocial behaviors and lifestyle choices. The attention-to-the-eyes hypothesis argues that psychopathic individuals have impaired emotion recognition (specifically for fear) due to deficits in orienting attention to salient facial features like the eyes. Psychopathic individuals also display blunted autonomic responding to emotional stimuli, though whether this is due to attention-orienting deficits remains to be clarified. The present project investigated whether empathy-related ...


Motivation Of Use Of Electronic Cigarettes Among Youth Aged 13-18, Leah Severson 2019 DePaul University

Motivation Of Use Of Electronic Cigarettes Among Youth Aged 13-18, Leah Severson

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Abstract

Background: For individuals aged 13-18, electronic cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product. These devices are highly addictive and negatively affect health. To reduce early nicotine use, it is important to understand the reasoning behind why youth choose to use electronic cigarettes.

Purpose of Study: The purpose of this integrative literature review was to review existing studies on why youth aged 13-18 use electronic cigarettes. In evaluating multiple up to date research studies the goal was to find trending results.

Method: An integrative literature review was utilized to evaluate peer-reviewed articles published from 2013-2018. Search terms included: Electronic ...


Using Meditation To Improve Measures Of Attention In Older Adults, Sabrina Ford 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Using Meditation To Improve Measures Of Attention In Older Adults, Sabrina Ford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Age-related cognitive decline greatly impacts quality of life for older adults. Previous research has indicated that meditation may act as a neuroprotective factor to prevent age-related cognitive decline. This thesis sought to replicate previous findings and investigate if a four-week meditation intervention would improve sustained attention. Participants 60 years and older (n=27, 17 female) were recruited and assigned to a focused-attention (FA) meditation or relaxation group which met for four weeks, three times a week. Resting-state EEG was used to collect individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF) and frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA). The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) was ...


Staying Out: Reentry Protective Factors Among Rural Women Offenders, Michele Staton, Megan F. Dickson, Martha Tillson, J. Matthew Webster, Carl G. Leukefeld 2019 University of Kentucky

Staying Out: Reentry Protective Factors Among Rural Women Offenders, Michele Staton, Megan F. Dickson, Martha Tillson, J. Matthew Webster, Carl G. Leukefeld

Behavioral Science Faculty Publications

The current study examines protective factors for women who transition from county jails to rural Appalachian communities, areas with limited health and behavioral health services. The study included drug-using women recruited from three jails in rural Appalachia and followed-up at 12-months post-release. Analyses focused on differences between women who remained in the community and those who returned to custody, as well as a multivariate model to determine protective factors for reentry success. At the bivariate level, staying out of jail was associated with being older, having a job, not using drugs, stable housing, receiving health treatment, and having prosocial peers ...


Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh 2019 Library Assistant, Central Library, Central University of South Bihar (CUSB), Gaya (Bihar)

Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Cyberpsychology refers to the study of the mind and behavior in the context of interactions with technology. It is an emerging branch, which has focused on the psychological aspects connected to the increasing presence and usages of technology in modern lives. This paper traces recent advancement and trends of Cyberpsychology is an emerging domain of knowledge and goes on the give a literature review of the same. An analysis of the recent research and literature covering 300 most relevant research papers from the period of 2012 to 15, August 2019 was conducted to determine and shape the research pattern based ...


How Does Alcohol Intoxication Impair Risk Detection Of Sexual Assault? Testing An Integration Of Alcohol Myopia And Social Information Processing Theories, Alexander James Melkonian 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

How Does Alcohol Intoxication Impair Risk Detection Of Sexual Assault? Testing An Integration Of Alcohol Myopia And Social Information Processing Theories, Alexander James Melkonian

Theses and Dissertations

Sexual assault among young adults is a highly prevalent public health concern. Alcohol is often implicated as a risk factor for sexual assault through its impairing effects on an individual’s ability to process and respond to social cues in the environment. The effect of alcohol myopia can result in greater focus of attention on salient environmental cues. The relationship between alcohol intoxication and resulting behavior may depend on what type of information is most salient. The current study examined the effects of alcohol on social information processing as it relates to sexual assault risk detection. Method: Participants were 48 ...


Individual Eeg Asymmetry As A Predictor Of Hydration Status During Exercise In The Heat, Ayano Katayama 2019 Stephen F Austin State University

Individual Eeg Asymmetry As A Predictor Of Hydration Status During Exercise In The Heat, Ayano Katayama

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hydration behavior varies among individuals; continuous and correct fluid consumption behavior prevents decreased physical performance and severe dehydration, especially during extended exercise and hot environments. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine individual frontal alpha electroencephalographic asymmetry index (FAI) score in eu-hydrated, hypo-hydrated, and exercise in well-trained men and assess if there is a correlation between FAI score and individual ad libitum fluid consumption behavior. Subjects were kinesiology major college students ranging from 21 to 29 years of age. Subjects were categorized either approach group (n = 8) with resting FAI score more than 0 or avoidance group ...


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