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Learning Without Contingencies Induces Higher Order Asynchrony In Brain Networks In Schizophrenia, Elizabeth L. Martin, Asadur Chowdury, Vaibhav Diwadkar, Sazid Hasan, Munajj Ul-Huq, Shahira Baajour, Dalal Khatib, Usha Rajan, Jeffrey Stanley 2021 Wayne State University

Learning Without Contingencies Induces Higher Order Asynchrony In Brain Networks In Schizophrenia, Elizabeth L. Martin, Asadur Chowdury, Vaibhav Diwadkar, Sazid Hasan, Munajj Ul-Huq, Shahira Baajour, Dalal Khatib, Usha Rajan, Jeffrey Stanley

Medical Student Research Symposium

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is characterized by both cognitive and reward impairments. A recent study suggests that SCZ is associated with a loss of synchrony between learning and reward circuits (Robison et al., 2019) and higher levels of dis-organization of functional brain networks may underpin failures in learning that characterize SCZ (Hütt et al., 2014). Therefore, here we examined inter-group (HC ≠ SCZ) 4th order differences in statistical regularity across a connectome of cognition and reward brain circuits. The analyses were conducted on fMRI time series data from a previous learning paradigm (Stanley et al., 2017) with periods of Encoding and Retrieval ...


Memory-Related Frontal Brainwaves Predict Transition To Mild Cognitive Impairment In Healthy Older Individuals Five Years Before Diagnosis, Yang Jiang, Juan Li, Frederick A. Schmitt, Gregory A. Jicha, Nancy B. Munro, Xiaopeng Zhao, Charles D. Smith, Richard J. Kryscio, Erin L. Abner 2021 University of Kentucky

Memory-Related Frontal Brainwaves Predict Transition To Mild Cognitive Impairment In Healthy Older Individuals Five Years Before Diagnosis, Yang Jiang, Juan Li, Frederick A. Schmitt, Gregory A. Jicha, Nancy B. Munro, Xiaopeng Zhao, Charles D. Smith, Richard J. Kryscio, Erin L. Abner

Behavioral Science Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Early prognosis of high-risk older adults for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), using noninvasive and sensitive neuromarkers, is key for early prevention of Alzheimer's disease. We have developed individualized measures in electrophysiological brain signals during working memory that distinguish patients with aMCI from age-matched cognitively intact older individuals.

OBJECTIVE: Here we test longitudinally the prognosis of the baseline neuromarkers for aMCI risk. We hypothesized that the older individuals diagnosed with incident aMCI already have aMCI-like brain signatures years before diagnosis.

METHODS: Electroencephalogram (EEG) and memory performance were recorded during a working memory task at baseline. The individualized baseline ...


Sex Differences And Psychological Stress: Responses To The Covid-19 Pandemic In China, Shiyan Yan, Rui Xu, Terry D. Stratton, Voyko Kavcic, Dan Luo, Fengsu Hou, Fengying Bi, Rong Jiao, Kangxing Song, Yang Jiang 2021 Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, China

Sex Differences And Psychological Stress: Responses To The Covid-19 Pandemic In China, Shiyan Yan, Rui Xu, Terry D. Stratton, Voyko Kavcic, Dan Luo, Fengsu Hou, Fengying Bi, Rong Jiao, Kangxing Song, Yang Jiang

Behavioral Science Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: About 83,000 COVID-19 patients were confirmed in China up to May 2020. Amid the well-documented threats to physical health, the effects of this public health crisis - and the varied efforts to contain its spread - have altered individuals' "normal" daily functioning. These impacts on social, psychological, and emotional well-being remain relatively unexplored - in particular, the ways in which Chinese men and women experience and respond to potential behavioral stressors. Our study investigated sex differences in psychological stress, emotional reactions, and behavioral responses to COVID-19 and related threats among Chinese residents.

METHODS: In late February (2020), an anonymous online questionnaire ...


Identification Of Infant Feeding Practices In Eastern Kentucky And Southern West Virginia That Correlate With High Weight-For-Length, Havilah R. Adkins 2021 University of Kentucky

Identification Of Infant Feeding Practices In Eastern Kentucky And Southern West Virginia That Correlate With High Weight-For-Length, Havilah R. Adkins

DNP Projects

Background: Approximately 20% of children in the United States are obese. West Virginia and Kentucky rank in the top 10 for obesity rates in children as young as 2-4 years old. Obesity increases the risk for numerous short-term health problems and impacts long-term health, development, quality of life, and life expectancy. Research indicates that obesogenic behaviors can be addressed prior to the development of obesity or significant health problems to prevent, rather than treat. Interventions targeting caregivers of infants younger than 2-years can promote early development of healthy feeding habits that persist through the developmental stages of nutrition. Before a ...


Parenting Stress And Child Disruptive Behaviors: The Mediating Role Of Parental Negative Talk, David Roehm 2021 Western Kentucky University

Parenting Stress And Child Disruptive Behaviors: The Mediating Role Of Parental Negative Talk, David Roehm

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

High parental stress and child disruptive behaviors tend to coexist. Furthermore, parental negative talk towards children cam impair child functioning later in life. In the present study, we sought to determine whether parental negative talk was a mediating variable between parenting stress and child disruptive behaviors. Fifty-two parent-child dyads from Eastern Kentucky participated in an analog Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) behavioral observation and parents were given self-report measures for parenting stress and child disruptive behaviors.

Bivariate and multiple regression analyses were used to predict variance in child disruptive behaviors based on parenting stress with parental negative talk as a mediating ...


In Patients With Mild To Moderate Alzheimer’S, Does Music Therapy Help To Decrease Mood Disturbances When Compared To Those Not Participating In Music Therapy?, Lauren Bauer 2021 Arcadia University

In Patients With Mild To Moderate Alzheimer’S, Does Music Therapy Help To Decrease Mood Disturbances When Compared To Those Not Participating In Music Therapy?, Lauren Bauer

Capstone Showcase

Abstract:

Introduction: Affecting both memory and cognitive abilities, Alzheimer’s disease is a growing problem as the baby boomer population ages. Clinical trials for new medications fail or are slow going, researchers have sought alternatives to alleviate symptoms for patients of this disease. This paper will address the effect of music therapy on mood disturbance in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

Method: A literature search was completed in November of 2019 using PubMed, EBSCO Search, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. Six articles were chosen based on relevance to the research question, study design, outcome, and results.

Results: Based on review, music ...


The Effects Of Psychological Intervention On Pregnant Women With Elevated Cortisol Levels And Adverse Birth Events, Megan Mellon 2021 Arcadia University

The Effects Of Psychological Intervention On Pregnant Women With Elevated Cortisol Levels And Adverse Birth Events, Megan Mellon

Capstone Showcase

Elevated levels of stress, anxiety, and depression during pregnancy are thought to influence cortisol levels. Dysregulations in cortisol, as a byproduct of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, have been associated with preterm birth and adverse birth outcomes. Studies have demonstrated poorer long-term effects of antenatal stress on child neurodevelopment, temperament, and cognition. Psychological interventions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness, and gratitude have shown to have a positive effect on psychological wellbeing across various populations. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze a collection of randomized-controlled trials to conclude if psychological interventions during pregnancy for women with elevated levels of ...


From Prose To Poetry: Retelling The Experiences Of Children With Autism Navigating Around A School To Promote Empathy And Understanding, Julie E. Irish 2021 Iowa State University

From Prose To Poetry: Retelling The Experiences Of Children With Autism Navigating Around A School To Promote Empathy And Understanding, Julie E. Irish

Interior Design publications and other works

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to describe the experiences of four children with autism spectrum disorder navigating around the corridors of an unfamiliar school and translate the findings into poetic format. Poetry could provide a more accessible format to a nonacademic audience and promote empathy and understanding about this population.

Design/methodology/approach

Each participant was shown a route from the start point to the destination by the researcher then asked to lead the way there. Post-study, participants were interviewed for their perceptions and feelings about navigating.

Findings

Participants' responses and behaviors differed, e.g. some were stimulated ...


The Use Of Life-Like Robotic Animals In The Acute Care Setting To Assist In The Care Of Patients With Dementia, Abby Denby 2020 James Madison University

The Use Of Life-Like Robotic Animals In The Acute Care Setting To Assist In The Care Of Patients With Dementia, Abby Denby

Doctors of Nursing Practice (DNP) Final Projects, 2020-current

The purpose of this pilot project was to describe the effect of life-like robotic animals on the nurses’ ability to provide care, patients’ level of agitation, use of antipsychotic medications, restraint and sitter use for patients with dementia in an acute care setting. Nurses report challenges and feelings of helplessness while caring for patients with dementia. Dementia may cause depression, agitation, aggression (physical or verbal) and a decrease quality of life. Animal Assisted Therapy (ATT) is a growing therapy in many healthcare settings but there is a lack of literature specifically related to the use of AAT in the acute ...


Exploring Accessibility And Social Inclusion For Children With Hearing Impairments In Residential Camps Through The Occupational Therapy Lens, Tiffany Coles 2020 University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences

Exploring Accessibility And Social Inclusion For Children With Hearing Impairments In Residential Camps Through The Occupational Therapy Lens, Tiffany Coles

Student Capstone Projects

Children are encouraged to engage in various play, leisure, and social participation activities to enhance the development of life skills, independence, and social skills. A common leisure and social participation activity for children aged 6 to 18-years-old is to attend residential camp. Residential camps provide children a structured opportunity to engage in leisure activities while learning to become independent and self-confident when socializing and making new friends. Attending camp can be a fun and engaging environment to help accelerate growth in key developmental outcomes, such as positive identity, social skills, physical skills, positive values, and spirituality.

Within the residential camp ...


Experimental Manipulations To Test Theory-Driven Mechanisms Of Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Matthew W. Southward, Shannon Sauer-Zavala 2020 University of Kentucky

Experimental Manipulations To Test Theory-Driven Mechanisms Of Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Matthew W. Southward, Shannon Sauer-Zavala

Psychology Faculty Publications

Despite decades of randomized-controlled trials demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), the mechanisms by which CBT achieves its effects remain unclear. Here, we describe how one adaptive intervention, the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART), can be used to randomize patients at multiple decision points in treatment to draw stronger causal claims about mechanisms unfolding in the course of CBT. We illustrate this design using preliminary data and case examples from an ongoing SMART in which we are testing the role of aversive reactions to negative emotions as a hypothesized mechanism of change in the Unified Protocol. Finally, we ...


Pediatric Asthma And Psychological Resilience: Examining Whether Family Functioning And Social Support Relate To Asthma Symptoms And Lung Function, Dalia Jaafar, Natasha H. Hikita, Pornchai Tirakitsoontorn, Azucena Talamantes, Anchalee Yuengsrigul, Eric Sternlicht, Brooke N. Jenkins 2020 Chapman University

Pediatric Asthma And Psychological Resilience: Examining Whether Family Functioning And Social Support Relate To Asthma Symptoms And Lung Function, Dalia Jaafar, Natasha H. Hikita, Pornchai Tirakitsoontorn, Azucena Talamantes, Anchalee Yuengsrigul, Eric Sternlicht, Brooke N. Jenkins

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Upwards of 6 million children in the United States are afflicted with pediatric asthma. While previous research has linked asthma to multiple contributing biological and environmental factors, recent research suggests that psychological and social factors may have an impact on physiological outcomes of asthma like lung function and lung inflammation. Therefore, we suggest the need to study the impact of positive psychological factors such as a well-functioning family environment and beneficial social support on symptoms and lung function of children diagnosed with asthma. In the present pilot study, we recruited a total of 15 children with a confirmed asthma diagnosis ...


Smart Homes For Smart Health: Developing An Interactive System To Reduce In-Home Secondhand Smoke, Christie Kika, Janice Han, Vincent Berardi 2020 Chapman University

Smart Homes For Smart Health: Developing An Interactive System To Reduce In-Home Secondhand Smoke, Christie Kika, Janice Han, Vincent Berardi

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Smoke from any source is potentially harmful because it contains fine particulate matter that is associated with acute and chronic conditions. Second-hand smoke (SHS) is particularly unsafe for children due to biological characteristics (higher breathing rates, immature lungs and underdeveloped immune systems) that make it difficult to filter toxins.To address this concern, we recently completed Project Fresh Air (PFA), an NIH-funded R01 intervention that installed air particle sensors in the households of tobacco smokers who lived with children. The purpose of our research is to investigate and develop efficient smart home devices that monitor SHS in various living spaces ...


Perturbing The Sense Of Agency, Maiia Tolia-Shah, Brenda Gutierrez, Sook Mun (Alice) Wong, Uri Maoz 2020 Chapman University

Perturbing The Sense Of Agency, Maiia Tolia-Shah, Brenda Gutierrez, Sook Mun (Alice) Wong, Uri Maoz

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The goal of this experiment is to test a model of the sense of agency, intention, volition, and causality in order to examine the time course of the sense of agency associated with voluntary and involuntary movements. We examine the roles of context, expectation, and sensory feedback in the feeling of agency as well as examining the aspects of volition in different kinds of decisions. This experiment is thought to be very novel as it stimulates an internal signal for movement from an external source which is why the participant can find it hard to decipher if they are fully ...


Informing Strategy To Ensure Detection: Perceptions Of Coronavirus Testing In A Southeastern U.S. Urban Homeless Population, Colleen Bell, Theodore Bosi, Barbara L. Gracious 2020 Orange Park Medical Center

Informing Strategy To Ensure Detection: Perceptions Of Coronavirus Testing In A Southeastern U.S. Urban Homeless Population, Colleen Bell, Theodore Bosi, Barbara L. Gracious

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction: Attitudes of those in the homeless population toward testing, particularly during a pandemic, are critical to understand, so that they and their communities may be safely triaged and protected. Homeless persons are more likely to be exposed during viral epidemics, and have greater vulnerability for more severe viral illness, due to greater medical comorbidities. The literature reflects a dearth of published papers describing the perceptions, interest, and motivations of homeless people to seek or receive viral testing, despite their status as a high-risk population.

Methods: A quality improvement project consisting of a cross-sectional survey took place at 8 SARS-CoV-2 ...


Historical Trauma Response Scores As A Function Of Unresolved Grief And Substance Use Disorder In American Indian Populations, Andrew R. Saunders 2020 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Historical Trauma Response Scores As A Function Of Unresolved Grief And Substance Use Disorder In American Indian Populations, Andrew R. Saunders

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Abstract

Researchers are interested in the outcomes of interventions, specifically, measuring historical trauma (HT) among American Indian/Alaska Native communities and the long-term distress and substance abuse as a result of historical trauma response (HTR). Previous literature has implicated limitations in the clinical conceptualization of the relationship between intergenerational transfer of HTR and substance abuse. The aim of the current study is to examine treatment efficacy of 50 homosexual, American Indian males randomized to a culturally-adapted juxtaposition of (1) Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), (2) Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), and (3) Historical Trauma and Unresolved Grief Intervention (HTUG), or (4) waitlisted ...


Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin Receptor-Expressing Neurons In The Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus Regulates Maternal Behavior, Kaustubh Sharma 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin Receptor-Expressing Neurons In The Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus Regulates Maternal Behavior, Kaustubh Sharma

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin is involved in the regulation of social behaviors, including social recognition, pair bonding, and sex-specific parental behaviors in a variety of species. Oxytocin triggers these social behaviors by binding to oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in various parts of the brain. Oxytocin-induced sex-typical behavior, therefore, suggests a sexual dimorphic distribution of OXTR in the brain. In recent years, the oxytocin system in the brain received tremendous attention as a potential pharmacological target for treatment of many psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, autism spectrum disorders, and even sex-specific psychiatric disorder like postpartum depression (PPD). An important problem and a ...


The Benefits Of Motivational Enhancement Therapy For Substance Abuse Users, Katie Cathey 2020 Murray State University

The Benefits Of Motivational Enhancement Therapy For Substance Abuse Users, Katie Cathey

Scholars Week

The Benefits of Motivational Enhancement Therapy for Substance Abuse Users

ABSTRACT

Background:

Substance abuse and addiction kills thousands of Americans every year and impacts millions of lives Addiction is an illness, that compels people to repeatedly use substances or engage in behaviors even thought they have harmful effects. Motivational enhancement therapy(MET) is a directive, person centered approach to therapy that focuses on improving an individual’s motivation to change. MET needs to be incorporated into more therapy regimens to decrease relapse rates and cut down addiction/overdose rates.

Methods:

Several studies were conducted to support this research topic. The ...


Determining The Effectiveness Of A Peer Support Person In Individuals With Depression Symptoms, Donna K. Reeves 2020 Abilene Christian University

Determining The Effectiveness Of A Peer Support Person In Individuals With Depression Symptoms, Donna K. Reeves

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

This study’s aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of an existing peer support program as an adjunct treatment for patients with depression. This retrospective evaluation analyzed the total scores of 110 patients with depression on the PHQ-9 questionnaire at the initial assessment (Time 1), at 6-weeks (Time 2), and then at 12-weeks (Time 3). The participants were divided into two groups, those who enrolled in a peer support program (n = 55) and those without peer support (n = 55). PHQ-9 total scores for each time interval were compared for the two groups utilizing independent sample t-tests. At initial assessment ...


The Impact Of Levodopa Administration On Learning From Short-Term And Long-Term Action Consequences: A Paradigm Validation., Masood Rezaei 2020 The University of Western Ontario

The Impact Of Levodopa Administration On Learning From Short-Term And Long-Term Action Consequences: A Paradigm Validation., Masood Rezaei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have identified two valuation systems in the human brain for controlling behavior known as model-free (MF) and model-based (MB). MF is based on immediate evaluation and MB is based on long-term evaluation of the outcome of our decisions. Previous studies suggest that dopamine baseline activity may play an important role in the balance between the two systems and determine how they compete or interact in controlling our actions. The overarching aims of this study is to investigate the impact of levodopa administration on learning from immediate and long-term action consequences, and to dissociate the role of ...


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