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A Controlled Examination Of Motivational Strategies: Reviewing Positive Consequences For Goal Achievement, Negative Consequences For Undesired Behavior, And A Relaxation Exercise, Yulia Gavrilova 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Controlled Examination Of Motivational Strategies: Reviewing Positive Consequences For Goal Achievement, Negative Consequences For Undesired Behavior, And A Relaxation Exercise, Yulia Gavrilova

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction: Motivation is an integral part of human life and one of the most fundamental aspects of behavior change. Of interest to the present study are two motivational approaches, Negative Consequences Review (NCR) and Positive Consequences Review (PCR). NCR is an intervention component originally designed as part of Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) to motivate individuals with their goals through a discussion of negative consequences associated with undesired behaviors. PCR was developed as an auxiliary component of FBT to inspire individuals’ motivation to achieve their goals through a discussion about positive consequences of reaching goals. Purpose: The purpose of this study ...


The Effects Of Hand Holding On Cancer Patients Level Of Anxiety: A Single-Case Study, West Loveland 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Hand Holding On Cancer Patients Level Of Anxiety: A Single-Case Study, West Loveland

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore how the anxiety levels of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients receiving chemotherapy are affected while holding hands with a secure attachment. This study utilized three experimental single-case designs: participant one measured under a B-design, participant two measured under a B-A design, and participant three measured under an A-B design. Each participant’s anxiety was assessed during six chemotherapy treatments and one meeting with their primary oncologist to discuss the prognosis of their cancerous disease. Results visually indicate a greater effect on anxiety reduction during treatment when the intervention is utilized compared to only ...


Tattoo Narratives And Counseling, Danny Lane McCarty 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Tattoo Narratives And Counseling, Danny Lane Mccarty

Theses and Dissertations

Much research has been done on tattoos and on those who acquire them, but most of the research has focused on negative correlations that might exist with people who have tattoos. This current research, however, showed that people’s tattoo narratives can relate to how they view self, others, and the world, and to how they approach life. A narrative approach to qualitative research was used, and ten people participated in the study. Participants’ views of self, others, and the world were discussed as these views emerged from the narratives. Their possible approaches to life were also addressed. Themes that ...


Reducing Sugary Drink Intake Through Youth Empowerment: Results From A Pilot-Site Randomized Study, Monica L. Wang, Marisa Otis, Milagros C. Rosal, Christina F. Griecci, Stephenie C. Lemon 2019 Boston University

Reducing Sugary Drink Intake Through Youth Empowerment: Results From A Pilot-Site Randomized Study, Monica L. Wang, Marisa Otis, Milagros C. Rosal, Christina F. Griecci, Stephenie C. Lemon

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: Efficacious strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among youth are needed. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a community-based youth empowerment intervention to reduce SSB consumption and obesity risk among a low-income, ethnically diverse sample of youth.

METHODS: The H2GO! intervention was pilot-tested in an afterschool setting (Boys and Girls Clubs (BGC)) in Massachusetts, USA. One site was randomized to receive the intervention; the other site received standard programming. Youth ages 9-12 years and their parents/caregivers were eligible to participate. A total of N = 110 parent-child pairs (N = 55 parent-child pairs per site ...


Dissemination And Effectiveness Of The Peer Marketing And Messaging Of A Web-Assisted Tobacco Intervention: Protocol For A Hybrid Effectiveness Trial, Jamie Faro, Elizabeth Aaker Orvek, Amanda C. Blok, Catherine S. Nagawa, Annalise J. McDonald, Gregory Seward, Thomas K. Houston, Ariana Kamberi, Jeroan J. Allison, Sharina D. Person, Tina Grosowsky, Rajani S. Sadasivam 2019 University of Massachusetts Boston

Dissemination And Effectiveness Of The Peer Marketing And Messaging Of A Web-Assisted Tobacco Intervention: Protocol For A Hybrid Effectiveness Trial, Jamie Faro, Elizabeth Aaker Orvek, Amanda C. Blok, Catherine S. Nagawa, Annalise J. Mcdonald, Gregory Seward, Thomas K. Houston, Ariana Kamberi, Jeroan J. Allison, Sharina D. Person, Tina Grosowsky, Rajani S. Sadasivam

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: Smoking continues to be the leading preventable cause of death. Digital Interventions for Smoking Cessation (DISCs) are health communication programs accessible via the internet and smartphones and allow for greater reach and effectiveness of tobacco cessation programs. DISCs have led to increased 6-month cessation rates while also reaching vulnerable populations. Despite this, the impact of DISCs has been limited and new ways to increase access and effectiveness are needed.

OBJECTIVE: We are conducting a hybrid effectiveness-dissemination study. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a machine learning-based approach (recommender system) for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) over a standard CTHC ...


“I Don’T Want To Look Sick Skinny”: Perceptions Of Body Image And Weight Loss In Hispanics Living With Hiv In South Texas, Jordan W. Abel, Omar Allen, Delia Bullock, Erin Finley, Elizabeth Walter, Phillip Schnarrs, Barbara S. Taylor 2019 University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio

“I Don’T Want To Look Sick Skinny”: Perceptions Of Body Image And Weight Loss In Hispanics Living With Hiv In South Texas, Jordan W. Abel, Omar Allen, Delia Bullock, Erin Finley, Elizabeth Walter, Phillip Schnarrs, Barbara S. Taylor

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Objective: Obesity is rising in people with HIV (PLWH) and Hispanics. Both HIV and obesity are associated with cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Our goal is to understand perceptions of body image and lifestyle in Hispanics with HIV to adapt interventions appropriately.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 Hispanic PLWH and 6 providers. Purposive sampling selected patient participants across weights and genders. Interviews were coded and analyzed using grounded theory, comparing perspectives between patients with and without obesity, and patients and providers.

Results: Participants felt obesity and diabetes were “normal” in the community. Patients exhibited understanding of healthy diet ...


Understanding Maternity Care Coordination For Women Veterans Using An Integrated Care Model Approach, Kristin M. Mattocks, Aimee Kroll-Desrosiers, Rebecca L. Kinney, Sara Singer 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Understanding Maternity Care Coordination For Women Veterans Using An Integrated Care Model Approach, Kristin M. Mattocks, Aimee Kroll-Desrosiers, Rebecca L. Kinney, Sara Singer

Kristin M. Mattocks

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of women veterans are using VA maternity benefits for their pregnancies. However, because the VA does not offer obstetrical care, women must seek maternity care from non-VA providers. The growing number of women using non-VA care has increased the importance of understanding how this care is integrated with ongoing VA medical and mental health services and how perceptions of care integration impact healthcare utilization. Therefore, we sought to understand these relationships among a sample of postpartum veterans utilizing VA maternity benefits.

METHODS: We fielded a modified version of the Patient Perceptions of Integrated Care survey among ...


The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And White Matter Microstructure In Pre-Reading Children: A Longitudinal Investigation, Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S. Norton, Yingying Wang, Sara D. Beach, Jennifer Zuk, Maryanne Wolf, John D.E. Gabrieli, Nadine Gaab 2019 Massachusetts Institute of Technology & Boston Children’s Hospital

The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And White Matter Microstructure In Pre-Reading Children: A Longitudinal Investigation, Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S. Norton, Yingying Wang, Sara D. Beach, Jennifer Zuk, Maryanne Wolf, John D.E. Gabrieli, Nadine Gaab

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Reading is a learned skill crucial for educational attainment. Children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have poorer reading performance and this gap widens across years of schooling. Reading relies on the orchestration of multiple neural systems integrated via specific white-matter pathways, but there is limited understanding about whether these pathways relate differentially to reading performance depending on SES background. Kindergarten white-matter FA and second-grade reading outcomes were investigated in an SES-diverse sample of 125 children. The three left-hemisphere white-matter tracts most associated with reading, and their right-hemisphere homologs, were examined: arcuate fasciculus (AF), superior longitudinal fasciculus ...


Getting Change-Space: A Grounded Theory Study Of Automated Ehealth Therapy, Marianne T. S. Holter, Ottar Ness, Ayna Johansen, Håvar Brendryen 2019 The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research, University of Oslo

Getting Change-Space: A Grounded Theory Study Of Automated Ehealth Therapy, Marianne T. S. Holter, Ottar Ness, Ayna Johansen, Håvar Brendryen

The Qualitative Report

A promising tool for bettering people’s health is eHealth (or “mHealth”) programs: fully automated, web-based health interventions. However, we know surprisingly little about eHealth’s working mechanisms. One possible working mechanism is that program users benefit from a collaborative “relationship”—a “working alliance”—with the program. Although evidence support the existence of a person-to-program alliance it is unclear if and how it influences change. Therefore, we conducted a grounded theory study of how relating to an eHealth program for quitting smoking influenced the participants’ change processes. The ensuing model focuses on how participants got change-space—feeling free from social ...


Intersectional Effects Of Racial And Gender Discrimination On Cardiovascular Health Vary Among Black And White Women And Men In The Cardia Study, Ganga S. Bey, William M. Jesdale, Sarah N. Forrester, Sharina D. Person, Catarina I. Kiefe 2019 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Intersectional Effects Of Racial And Gender Discrimination On Cardiovascular Health Vary Among Black And White Women And Men In The Cardia Study, Ganga S. Bey, William M. Jesdale, Sarah N. Forrester, Sharina D. Person, Catarina I. Kiefe

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Testing hypotheses from the emerging Identity Pathology (IP) framework, we assessed race-gender differences in the effects of reporting experiences of racial and gender discrimination simultaneously compared with racial or gender discrimination alone, or no discrimination, on future cardiovascular health (CVH). Data were from a sample of 3758 black or white adults in CARDIA, a community-based cohort recruited in Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN, and Oakland, CA in 1985-6 (year 0). Racial and gender discrimination were assessed using the Experiences of Discrimination scale. CVH was evaluated using a 12-point composite outcome modified from the Life's Simple 7, with higher ...


Patterns Of Polysubstance Use Among Those With Tranquilizer Or Sedative Misuse: Predictors And Functional Consequences, Victoria R. Votaw 2019 University of New Mexico

Patterns Of Polysubstance Use Among Those With Tranquilizer Or Sedative Misuse: Predictors And Functional Consequences, Victoria R. Votaw

Psychology ETDs

The misuse of tranquilizer and sedative medications (i.e., use without a prescription or at higher doses/longer periods of time than prescribed) is associated with myriad negative sequalae, such as suicidal behaviors and increased risk of overdose. Yet, prescription tranquilizer and sedative misuse has been largely overlooked by the scientific community, clinicians, and policymakers. We addressed this gap in the literature by characterizing subgroups of individuals with tranquilizer or sedative misuse, based on their patterns of polysubstance use. The present study analyzed data from two samples of individuals with past-month tranquilizer or sedative misuse: respondents of a nationally-representative household ...


Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of Putative Antipsychotic Drugs, Alex Lekander 2019 Northern Michigan University

Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of Putative Antipsychotic Drugs, Alex Lekander

All NMU Master's Theses

This study attempted to further explore the discriminative stimulus properties of antipsychotic drugs, by establishing the typical antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine, and the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine as discriminative stimulus in two different groups of rats. The rats trained to discriminate chlorpromazine from vehicle failed to do so reliably, however nine of ten rats trained to discriminate 1.25 mg/kg clozapine from vehicle were able to acquire the discrimination in 19.1 sessions. The clozapine cue partially generalized (63.13% drug lever responding [SEM = ± 18.91]) to the antimalarial drug methylene blue at the 7.5 mg/kg dose, but ...


A Coordinated School Health Approach To Obesity Prevention Among Appalachian Youth: Middle School Student Outcomes From The Winning With Wellness Project, William T. Dalton III, Karen Schetzina, Elizabeth Conway-Williams 2019 Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, East Tennessee State University

A Coordinated School Health Approach To Obesity Prevention Among Appalachian Youth: Middle School Student Outcomes From The Winning With Wellness Project, William T. Dalton Iii, Karen Schetzina, Elizabeth Conway-Williams

Karen E. Schetzina

The Winning With Wellness (WWW) project was a school-based obesity prevention program that was developed to promote healthy eating and physical activity in youth residing in rural Appalachia. The project was based on the Coordinated School Health model (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2013a) and used a community-based participatory research approach with an emphasis on feasibility and sustainability. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported health outcomes for middle school students across the course of the intervention. Sixth grade middle school students (N = 149; 52% girls) from four schools in Northeast Tennessee completed a survey assessing ...


Mouse Performance On A Novel Touchscreen Continuous Performance Task Is Dependent On Signaling In The Prelimbic Cortex, Tyler D. Dexter, Daniel Palmer, Amy C. Reichelt, Anita Taksokhan, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey 2019 Western University

Mouse Performance On A Novel Touchscreen Continuous Performance Task Is Dependent On Signaling In The Prelimbic Cortex, Tyler D. Dexter, Daniel Palmer, Amy C. Reichelt, Anita Taksokhan, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey

Western Research Forum

Attention is the cognitive processing that facilitates the ability to target and attend to relevant environmental stimuli, while filtering out irrelevant or distracting stimuli. Control over selective attention is theorized to be dependent on organized neural communication that stems from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To evaluate selective and sustained attention, mice were trained on the novel touchscreen rodent continuous performance task (rCPT), a task designed to emulate the human CPT. In the rodent version, images are continuously presented on a touchscreen, where mice have been trained to selectively respond to one image type while suppressing responses to all others ...


Pparg Signaling In The Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Mesolimbic Dopamine Activity, Tony Jung, Roger Hudson, Hanna Szkudlarek, Walter Rushlow, Steve Laviolette 2019 Western University

Pparg Signaling In The Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Mesolimbic Dopamine Activity, Tony Jung, Roger Hudson, Hanna Szkudlarek, Walter Rushlow, Steve Laviolette

Western Research Forum

Background: The mesolimbic dopamine system consists of dopamine neuron projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The NAc regulates VTA dopamine release through inhibitory GABA projections to the VTA. Hyperactive mesolimbic dopamine signaling is implicated in anxiety. Cannabidiol, a compound found in cannabis, demonstrates promising therapeutic potential for anxiety through the regulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Previous studies have revealed that cannabidiol infusions into the NAc decreases mesolimbic dopamine activity - potentially through the inhibitory GABA signaling to the VTA. However, the receptor mechanism in the NAc through which CBD produces its effects is unknown ...


An Integration-To-Bound Model Of Decision-Making That Accounts For The Spectral Properties Of Neural Data, Ramón Guevara Erra, Marco Arbotto, Aaron Schurger 2019 Université Paris Descartes

An Integration-To-Bound Model Of Decision-Making That Accounts For The Spectral Properties Of Neural Data, Ramón Guevara Erra, Marco Arbotto, Aaron Schurger

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Integration-to-bound models are among the most widely used models of perceptual decision-making due to their simplicity and power in accounting for behavioral and neurophysiological data. They involve temporal integration over an input signal (“evidence”) plus Gaussian white noise. However, brain data shows that noise in the brain is long-term correlated, with a spectral density of the form 1/fα (with typically 1 < α < 2), also known as pink noise or ‘1/f’ noise. Surprisingly, the adequacy of the spectral properties of drift-diffusion models to electrophysiological data has received little attention in the literature. Here we propose a model of accumulation of evidence for decision-making that takes into consideration the spectral properties of brain signals. We develop a generalization of the leaky stochastic accumulator model using a Langevin equation whose non-linear noise term allows for varying levels of autocorrelation in the time course of the decision variable. We derive this equation directly from magnetoencephalographic data recorded while subjects performed a spontaneous movement initiation task. We then propose a nonlinear model of accumulation of evidence that accounts for the ‘1/f’ spectral properties of brain signals, and the observed variability in the power spectral properties of brain signals. Furthermore, our model outperforms the standard drift-diffusion model at approximating the empirical waiting time distribution.


Alterations In Cortical Activation Among Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability During Single-Limb Postural Control, Adam B. Rosen, Jennifer M. Yentes, Melanie L. McGrath, Arthur C. Maerlender, Sara A. Myers, Mukul Mukherjee 2019 University of Nebraska, Omaha

Alterations In Cortical Activation Among Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability During Single-Limb Postural Control, Adam B. Rosen, Jennifer M. Yentes, Melanie L. Mcgrath, Arthur C. Maerlender, Sara A. Myers, Mukul Mukherjee

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Context: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is characterized by repetitive ankle sprains and perceived instability. Whereas the underlying cause of CAI is disputed, alterations in cortical motor functioning may contribute to the perceived dysfunction.

Objective: To assess differences in cortical activity during single-limb stance among control, coper, and CAI groups.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Biomechanics laboratory.

Patients or Other Participants: A total of 31 individuals (10 men, 21 women; age = 22.3 ± 2.4 years, height = 169.6 ± 9.7 cm, mass = 70.6 ± 11.6 kg), who were classified into control (n = 13), coper (n = 7), and CAI (n = 11 ...


Optimism May Moderate Screening Mammogram Frequency In Medicare: A Longitudinal Study, Ana M. Progovac, Mary Pettinger, Julie M. Donohue, Chung-Chou H. Joyce Chang, Karen A. Matthews, Elizabeth B. Habermann, Lewis H. Kuller, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Lorena Garcia, Hilary A. Tindle 2019 Harvard Medical School

Optimism May Moderate Screening Mammogram Frequency In Medicare: A Longitudinal Study, Ana M. Progovac, Mary Pettinger, Julie M. Donohue, Chung-Chou H. Joyce Chang, Karen A. Matthews, Elizabeth B. Habermann, Lewis H. Kuller, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Lorena Garcia, Hilary A. Tindle

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Higher trait optimism and/or lower cynical hostility are associated with healthier behaviors and lower risk of morbidity and mortality, yet their association with health care utilization has been understudied. Whether these psychological attitudes are associated with breast cancer screening behavior is unknown. To assess the association of optimism and cynical hostility with screening mammography in older women and whether sociodemographic factors acted as mediators of these relationships, we used Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort survey data linked to Medicare claims. The sample includes WHI participants without history of breast cancer who were enrolled in Medicare Parts A ...


Dance/Movement Therapy As A Tool To Improve Social Skills In Children And Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review, Holly Berlandy 2019 Lesley University

Dance/Movement Therapy As A Tool To Improve Social Skills In Children And Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review, Holly Berlandy

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by the presence of social communication and interaction deficits present in their day to day. The deficits present in this disorder appear within the first three years of life and lead to problems with connecting and interacting with other individuals including their own family members. As a result, children and adolescents with Autism spectrum disorder often experience negative self-image and lack the proper skills to interact with others. Autism spectrum disorder is becoming more commonly diagnosed and yet there remains a gap in interventions and treatment due to the individualized appearance ...


Assessment Of Motor Function, Motor Learning, & Olivary Climbing Fiber Distribution Within Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Elizabeth Diane Holland 2019 Missouri State University

Assessment Of Motor Function, Motor Learning, & Olivary Climbing Fiber Distribution Within Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Elizabeth Diane Holland

MSU Graduate Theses

While Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined by deficits in social communication, compromised motor function and motor learning have been increasingly reported. Motor deficits could compound social impairment through delayed language acquisition, reduced opportunity for social interaction, and affected nonverbal communication. One area of interest in the investigation of motor dysfunction is the cerebellum, where altered cerebellar structure and connectivity have been reported in those diagnosed with ASD. Morphological and functional changes in cerebellar circuitry could disrupt motor skill development and may be associated with developmental alterations of the serotonergic system. Elevated blood serotonin in perinatal development, developmental hyperserotonemia (DHS ...


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