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The Structure Of Semantic Memory In School-Age Children: An Erp Study, Hailey Verdick 2020 University of Iowa

The Structure Of Semantic Memory In School-Age Children: An Erp Study, Hailey Verdick

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

The current study uses event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine how school-age children (5-8- years-old) organize lexical-semantic information in long-term memory. N400 amplitudes were examined as participants saw a picture and heard a word that either matched the picture (match), shared a majority of features with the picture (near violation), shared fewer features with the picture (far violation), or shared no features with the picture (between-category violation). Featural similarity modulated the amplitude of the N400 response, such that words sharing more features with the picture elicited smaller N400 amplitudes and words sharing fewer features with the picture elicited larger N400 amplitudes ...


Effects Of Speaker-Identity Cueing On Listening Effort During Speech-In-Noise, Meghan Wickham, Jason Geller, Inyong Choi 2020 University of Iowa

Effects Of Speaker-Identity Cueing On Listening Effort During Speech-In-Noise, Meghan Wickham, Jason Geller, Inyong Choi

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

The brain is an organ that performs a variety of intricate functions. Specifically, the brain has an amazing ability to recover the complexities of a speech signal within a mixture of sounds. The process of extracting the speech signal from background noise, however, is not necessarily straightforward or easy. Previous studies have developed the concept of “listening effort” as an umbrella term to include all cognitive demand listeners confront to understand speech. From a clinical standpoint, this term suggests that accuracy measurements alone are not sufficient, and a supplementary assessment of how hard a client must try in order to ...


The Role Of Socio-Economic Status On The Language Output Of 3-6 Year Old's During A Naturalistic Museum Study, Serena K. Mueller 2020 University of New Hampshire - Main Campus

The Role Of Socio-Economic Status On The Language Output Of 3-6 Year Old's During A Naturalistic Museum Study, Serena K. Mueller

Honors Theses and Capstones

Over the past 50 years, the lexical nature of young children’s multi-word utterances has been disputed. We ask how socioeconomic status (SES) impacts content and function word usage, and how function word use impacts MLU. Findings show that SES positively correlates with content word production and MLU, which contributes to our knowledge on how SES shapes language and highlights the need for its consideration across settings.


Preliminary Investigation Of An Aphasia-Friendly Version Of The Patient Health Questionnaire – 8 (Phq-8) Compared To Other Patient And Proxy Reported Outcome Measures Of Depression, Kaylee Marie Walter 2020 University of Montana

Preliminary Investigation Of An Aphasia-Friendly Version Of The Patient Health Questionnaire – 8 (Phq-8) Compared To Other Patient And Proxy Reported Outcome Measures Of Depression, Kaylee Marie Walter

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Persons with aphasia (PWA) experience post-stroke depression more frequently than stroke survivors who do not have aphasia. Currently, no patient reported outcome measures that screen for depression have been created specifically for PWA or modified to be aphasia friendly for PWA. The purpose of this preliminary study is to modify the Patient Health Questionnaire- 8 (PHQ-8) to an aphasia friendly format and to assess the feasibility of administering the modified assessment compared to other patient-reported and proxy-reported outcome measures used to screen depression. This retrospective analysis examined pre- and post-treatment outcome measures of depression for seven stroke-survivors with aphasia. The ...


Therapeutic Relationships In Aphasia Rehabilitation: Using Sociological Theories To Promote Critical Reflexivity, Felicity Bright, Stacie Attrill, Deborah Hersh 2020 Edith Cowan University

Therapeutic Relationships In Aphasia Rehabilitation: Using Sociological Theories To Promote Critical Reflexivity, Felicity Bright, Stacie Attrill, Deborah Hersh

ECU Publications Post 2013

© 2020 The Authors. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists Background: Therapeutic relationships are fundamental in aphasia rehabilitation, influencing patient experience and outcomes. While we have good understandings of the components of therapeutic relationships, there has been little exploration of how and why therapists construct and enact relationships as they do. Sociological theories may help develop nuanced understanding of the values, assumptions and structures that influence practice, and may facilitate critical reflexivity on practice. Aims: To explore the potential for theoretical approaches from outside speech ...


Programmatic Desensitization Of The Cough Reflex In Patients With Refractory Chronic Cough, Emma Bozarth Dailey 2020 University of Montana

Programmatic Desensitization Of The Cough Reflex In Patients With Refractory Chronic Cough, Emma Bozarth Dailey

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Aim: The purpose of this blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial was to determine the potential of treating refractory chronic cough (RCC) using a progressive desensitization model paired with behavioral cough suppression.

Methods: Twelve adults with chronic cough who had failed behavioral cough treatment enrolled in and completed the study. Participants were randomly assigned to a treatment (n=8) or placebo group (n=4). The study consisted of three phases. During Phase I, participants completed baseline testing, including cough sensitivity testing with capsaicin, the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ), urge-to-cough-testing, and 24-hour cough frequency testing. During Phase II, participants practiced behavioral ...


Vocal Health Preservation For Teachers Of Music: A Literature Review, Lyndsay Byers, Lisa Vinney PhD CCC-SLP, Kimberly Adelman MS CCC-SLP 2019 Illinois State University

Vocal Health Preservation For Teachers Of Music: A Literature Review, Lyndsay Byers, Lisa Vinney Phd Ccc-Slp, Kimberly Adelman Ms Ccc-Slp

Graduate Independent Studies - Communication Sciences and Disorders

This literature review explores research findings regarding risk factors of voice disorders for teachers of music. It summarizes current research regarding personal, environmental, and occupational practices teachers of music can implement to help preserve their voices. This document also reviews literature findings regarding when, where, and how music teachers can seek assistance for voice symptoms.


Long-Term Effects Of A Short-Term Study Abroad On Mindset, Madasyn Hofstedt, Heidi Harbers, Amy Yacucci 2019 Illinois State University

Long-Term Effects Of A Short-Term Study Abroad On Mindset, Madasyn Hofstedt, Heidi Harbers, Amy Yacucci

Graduate Independent Studies - Communication Sciences and Disorders

This literature review will examine 10 studies. The first section will discuss one study regarding common personality traits that practicing SLPs and SLP graduate students possess. The next section will review four studies about studying abroad. The final section will summarize four studies about the impact of mindset on life experiences and one study on how a growth mindset may potentially affect a study abroad experience.


Exploring The Temporal Variability Of Speech Intensity, Speech Intelligibility, And Communicative Participation In Individuals With Hypophonia And Parkinson’S Disease, Cynthia Mancinelli 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Exploring The Temporal Variability Of Speech Intensity, Speech Intelligibility, And Communicative Participation In Individuals With Hypophonia And Parkinson’S Disease, Cynthia Mancinelli

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hypophonia, or reduced speech intensity, is frequently observed in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). This speech deficit can impact speech intelligibility and communicative participation. However, there is little empirical evidence exploring the day-to-day variability of speech and communicative participation in individuals with PD. The purpose of this study is to investigate the temporal variability of acoustic and perceptual speech measures and psychosocial measures in individuals with hypophonia and PD. Additionally, this study seeks to examine the relationships among measures of speech intensity, speech intelligibility, self- and proxy-rated communicative participation, demographic factors, and non-speech factors. Twenty-three participants with PD, 23 ...


Average Speech Directivity, Samuel D. Bellows, Claire M. Pincock, Jennifer K. Whiting, Timothy W. Leishman 2019 Brigham Young University

Average Speech Directivity, Samuel D. Bellows, Claire M. Pincock, Jennifer K. Whiting, Timothy W. Leishman

Directivity

Speech directivity describes the angular dependence of acoustic radiation from a talker’s mouth and nostrils and diffraction about his or her body and chair (if seated). It is an essential physical aspect of communication affecting sounds and signals in acoustical environments, audio, and telecommunication systems. Because high-resolution, spherically comprehensive measurements of live, phonetically balanced speech have been unavailable in the past, the authors have undertaken research to produce and share such data for simulations of acoustical environments, optimizations of microphone placements, speech studies, and other applications. The measurements included three male and three female talkers who repeated phonetically balanced ...


Components Of Auditory Closure, Steven Glen Madix 2019 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Components Of Auditory Closure, Steven Glen Madix

Steven Madix

Auditory closure (AC) is an aspect of auditory processing that is crucial for understanding speech in background noise. It is a set of abilities that allows listeners to understand speech in the absence of important information, both spectral and temporal. AC is evaluated using monaural low-redundancy speech tasks: low-pass filtered words (LPFW), time-compressed words (TCW), and words-in-noise (WiN). Although not previously used, phonemic restoration with words (PhRW) is also a speech task that has been proposed as a measure of AC. In the present study, four tasks of AC, that are listed above, were used to evaluate AC skills in ...


Consensus Practice Parameter: Audiological Assessment And Management Of Unilateral Hearing Loss In Children, Marlene Bagatto, Janet DesGeorges, Alison King, Padraig Kitterick, Diana Laurnagaray, Dawna Lewis, Patricia Roush, Douglas P. Sladen, Anne Marie Tharpe 2019 Western University,

Consensus Practice Parameter: Audiological Assessment And Management Of Unilateral Hearing Loss In Children, Marlene Bagatto, Janet Desgeorges, Alison King, Padraig Kitterick, Diana Laurnagaray, Dawna Lewis, Patricia Roush, Douglas P. Sladen, Anne Marie Tharpe

Communication Sciences and Disorders

Objective: Provide recommendations to audiologists for the management of children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and for needed research that can lend further insight into important unanswered questions.

Design: An international panel of experts on children with UHL was convened following a day and a half of presentations on the same. The evidence reviewed for this parameter was gathered through web-based literature searches specifically designed for academic and health care resources, recent systematic reviews of literature, and new research presented at the conference that underwent peer review for publication by the time of this writing.

Study sample: Expert opinions and ...


Outcomes In Children With Additional Disabilities Following Cochlear Implantation: A Systematic Review, Rebecca M. Tuchman 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Outcomes In Children With Additional Disabilities Following Cochlear Implantation: A Systematic Review, Rebecca M. Tuchman

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Thirty percent of children with hearing loss have an additional disability. These children may be difficult to test according to standard audiologic behavioral test protocols. Additionally, progress within this population may present differently than in children with no additional disability. Currently, no evidence-based protocol exists for assessing cochlear implant benefit and outcomes in this population.

Objective: The purpose of this investigation is to perform a systematic review on the outcomes of cochlear implantation in children with additional disabilities. Specifically, this study focused on areas of function assessed, outcome measures used, and evidence of benefit observed.

Methods: A comprehensive search ...


Carer Information Needs Following A Family Member's Right Hemisphere Stroke, Christyn Davidson 2019 Duquesne University

Carer Information Needs Following A Family Member's Right Hemisphere Stroke, Christyn Davidson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Previous studies have explored information needs for carers of persons with aphasia; however, there is minimal research on information needs of carers with right hemisphere disorder (RHD). RHD describes cognitive and communication impairments a person experiences following a right hemisphere stroke or brain injury. Carers have an important role in rehabilitation and the long-term quality of life of a person with RHD. This study explores the information needs for carers following a family member’s right hemisphere stroke throughout different periods of recovery.

Methods/Procedures: Participants completed online surveys and a semi-structured phone interview. Analysis of the interviews revealed ...


Taste Manipulation And Swallowing Mechanics In Trauma-Related Sensory-Based Dysphagia, Angela M. Dietsch, H. Duncan Dorris, William Pearson, Katie E. Dietrich-Burns, Nancy Pearl Solomon 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Taste Manipulation And Swallowing Mechanics In Trauma-Related Sensory-Based Dysphagia, Angela M. Dietsch, H. Duncan Dorris, William Pearson, Katie E. Dietrich-Burns, Nancy Pearl Solomon

Special Education and Communication Disorders Faculty Publications

Purpose: This study explored the effects of highconcentration taste manipulation trials on swallow function in persons with sensory-based dysphagia.

Method: Dysphagia researchers partnered with clinical providers to prospectively identify traumatically injured U.S. military service members (N = 18) with sensorybased dysphagia as evidenced by delayed initiation and/or decreased awareness of residue/penetration/ aspiration. Under videofluoroscopy, participants swallowed trials of 3 custom-mixed taste stimuli: unflavored (40% weight/volume [wt/vol] barium sulfate in distilled water), sour (2.7%wt/vol citric acid in 40% wt/vol barium suspension), and sweet–sour (1.11% wt/vol citric acid plus 8% wt ...


The Role Of Stigma-Identity Constructs In Psychological Health Outcomes Among Adults Who Stutter, Hope Gerlach 2019 University of Iowa

The Role Of Stigma-Identity Constructs In Psychological Health Outcomes Among Adults Who Stutter, Hope Gerlach

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: As a group, adults who stutter (AWS) are vulnerable to experiencing distress and other negative psychological health outcomes. However, not all AWS experience elevated levels of distress, and little is known about why some people are resilient while others struggle to cope. In the current study, stuttering was conceptualized as a type of concealable stigmatized identity (CSI). The purpose of this study was to determine if stigma-identity constructs that contribute to variability in distress among groups of people with other types of CSIs also contribute to psychological health outcomes among AWS. The specific stigma-identity constructs that were examined include ...


Cognitive Bias And Stuttering In Adolescence, Naomi Hertsberg Rodgers 2019 University of Iowa

Cognitive Bias And Stuttering In Adolescence, Naomi Hertsberg Rodgers

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The tendency to prioritize negative or threatening social information, a cognitive process known as cognitive bias, has been linked to the development of social anxiety. Given the increased risk for social anxiety among adolescents who stutter (aWS), this project extended the research on cognitive bias to aWS to inform our understanding of the psychosocial factors associated with stuttering in adolescence – the period of development when social anxiety typically emerges. The purpose of this two-part study was to examine group and individual differences in two forms of cognitive bias among aWS and typically fluent controls (TFC) – attentional and interpretation biases ...


Changes In Speech Intelligibility And Acoustic Distinctiveness Along A Speech Rate Continuum In Parkinson’S Disease, Thea Knowles 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Changes In Speech Intelligibility And Acoustic Distinctiveness Along A Speech Rate Continuum In Parkinson’S Disease, Thea Knowles

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Asking a person to speak slowly is a common technique in speech therapy for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Slowed speaking rates are thought to bring about changes in speech production that make it easier for people with speech impairments associated with PD to be understood, but this is not always the case. Furthermore, research suggests that using faster speech does not necessarily lead to decreases in speech intelligibility for some people with PD. Most studies of rate modification in PD have only included one or two rate adjustments to investigate the relationship between speech rate, intelligibility, and acoustic ...


Motor-Induced Suppression Of The N100 Event-Related Potential During Motor Imagery Control Of A Speech Synthesizer Brain–Computer Interface, Jonathan S. Brumberg, Kevin M. Pitt 2019 University of Kansas

Motor-Induced Suppression Of The N100 Event-Related Potential During Motor Imagery Control Of A Speech Synthesizer Brain–Computer Interface, Jonathan S. Brumberg, Kevin M. Pitt

Special Education and Communication Disorders Faculty Publications

Purpose: Speech motor control relies on neural processes for generating sensory expectations using an efference copy mechanism to maintain accurate productions. The N100 auditory event-related potential (ERP) has been identified as a possible neural marker of the efference copy with a reduced amplitude during active listening while speaking when compared to passive listening. This study investigates N100 suppression while controlling a motor imagery speech synthesizer brain–computer interface (BCI) with instantaneous auditory feedback to determine whether similar mechanisms are used for monitoring BCI-based speech output that may both support BCI learning through existing speech motor networks and be used as ...


Supporting Persons With Dementia In Communicating Their Care Preferences, Vanessa L. Burshnic 2019 University of South Florida

Supporting Persons With Dementia In Communicating Their Care Preferences, Vanessa L. Burshnic

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Person-centered care is important to the quality of life of nursing home residents with dementia. Preference assessments enable person-centered care by documenting residents’ preferred activities. Residents with severe dementia are less likely to have a role in preference assessment due to communication challenges associated with the disease. External supports (visual and text cues) are effective in improving the communication of residents with dementia, but these cues are often not used in practice. Standard assessment (verbal questioning) places greater demands on short-term memory and attention, which are known deficits in dementia.

Applying a within-subjects design, this study evaluated two conditions (standard ...


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