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Assessing Undergraduate Student And Faculty Views On Animal Research: What Do They Know, Whom Do They Trust, And How Much Do They Care?, Eric P. Sandgren, Robert Streiffer, Jennifer Dykema, Nadia Assad, Jackson Moberg 2019 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Assessing Undergraduate Student And Faculty Views On Animal Research: What Do They Know, Whom Do They Trust, And How Much Do They Care?, Eric P. Sandgren, Robert Streiffer, Jennifer Dykema, Nadia Assad, Jackson Moberg

Attitudes Toward Animal Research Collection

Research using animals is controversial. To develop sound public outreach and policy about this issue, we need information about both the underlying science and people’s attitudes and knowledge. To identify attitudes toward this subject at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, we developed and administered a survey to undergraduate students and faculty. The survey asked respondents about the importance of, their confidence in their knowledge about, and who they trusted to provide information on animal research. Findings indicated attitudes varied by academic discipline, especially among faculty. Faculty in the biological sciences, particularly those who had participated in an animal research project ...


Convergent And Alternative Designs For Vertebrate Suspension Feeding, S. Laurie Sanderson 2019 William and Mary

Convergent And Alternative Designs For Vertebrate Suspension Feeding, S. Laurie Sanderson

S. Laurie Sanderson

In this authoritative three-volume reference work, leading researchers bring together current work to provide a comprehensive analysis of the comparative morphology, development, evolution, and functional biology of the skull.


Tracing Nutrient Sources To Lipid Production In Birds And Insects Using Stable Isotope (Δ13c, Δ2h) Tracers: Implications For Nutritional Physiology Of Migratory Species, Libesha Anparasan 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Tracing Nutrient Sources To Lipid Production In Birds And Insects Using Stable Isotope (Δ13c, Δ2h) Tracers: Implications For Nutritional Physiology Of Migratory Species, Libesha Anparasan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Using stable isotope measurements of inert tissues to determine origins and migratory patterns is well established. However, isotopically determining nutritional origins of lipids, the primary fuel of migration, has not been attempted. I explored isotopic links between diet and stored lipids in captive White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and true armyworm moths (Mythimna unipuncta) using δ13C and δ2H measurements. Isotopic discrimination between body lipids and diet was established as linear calibration functions. Isotopic uptake following a diet switch in moths was used to trace lipid accumulation over time. Isotopic correlations between breath metabolic by-products of fed and ...


Phenotypically Plastic Responses To Predation Risk Are Temperature Dependent, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John DeLong 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Phenotypically Plastic Responses To Predation Risk Are Temperature Dependent, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John Delong

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Predicting how organisms respond to climate change requires that we understand the temperature dependence of fitness in relevant ecological contexts (e.g., with or without predation risk). Predation risk often induces changes to life history traits that are themselves temperature dependent. We explore how perceived predation risk and temperature interact to determine fitness (indicated by the intrinsic rate of increase, r) through changes to its underlying components (net reproductive rate, generation time, and survival) in Daphnia magna. We exposed Daphnia to predation cues from dragonfly naiads early, late, or throughout their ontogeny. Predation risk increased r differentially across temperatures and ...


Genetic Rescue Of Fragile X Syndrome Links Fmrp Deficiency To Codon Optimality-Dependent Rna Destabilization [Preprint], Huan Shu, Elisa Donnard, Botao Liu, Joel D. Richter 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Genetic Rescue Of Fragile X Syndrome Links Fmrp Deficiency To Codon Optimality-Dependent Rna Destabilization [Preprint], Huan Shu, Elisa Donnard, Botao Liu, Joel D. Richter

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by inactivation of FMR1 gene and loss of its encoded product the RNA binding protein FMRP, which generally represses translation of its target transcripts in the brain. In mouse models of FXS (i.e., Fmr1 knockout animals; Fmr1 KO), deletion of Cpeb1, which encodes a translational activator, mitigates nearly all pathophysiologies associated with the disorder. Here we reveal unexpected wide-spread dys-regulation of RNA abundance in Fmr1 KO brain cortex and its rescue to normal levels in Fmr1/Cpeb1 double KO mice. Alteration and restoration of RNA levels are the dominant molecular events that drive ...


Evidence-Based Toxicology For The 21st Century: Opportunities And Challenges, Martin L. Stephens, Melvin E. Andersen, Richard A. Becker, Kellyn Betts, Kim Boekelheide, Ed Carney, Robert Chapin, Dennis Devlin, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle III, Patricia Harlow, Thomas Hartung, Sebastian Hoffman, Michael P. Holsapple, Abigail Jacobs, Richard Judson, Olga Naidenko, Tim Pastoor, Grace Patlewicz, Andrew Rowan, Roberta Scherer, Rashid Shaikh, Ted Simon, Douglas Wolf, Joanne Zurlo 2019 Johns Hopkins University

Evidence-Based Toxicology For The 21st Century: Opportunities And Challenges, Martin L. Stephens, Melvin E. Andersen, Richard A. Becker, Kellyn Betts, Kim Boekelheide, Ed Carney, Robert Chapin, Dennis Devlin, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle Iii, Patricia Harlow, Thomas Hartung, Sebastian Hoffman, Michael P. Holsapple, Abigail Jacobs, Richard Judson, Olga Naidenko, Tim Pastoor, Grace Patlewicz, Andrew Rowan, Roberta Scherer, Rashid Shaikh, Ted Simon, Douglas Wolf, Joanne Zurlo

Martin Stephens, PhD

The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration (EBTC) was established recently to translate evidence-based approaches from medicine and health care to toxicology in an organized and sustained effort. The EBTC held a workshop on “Evidence-based Toxicology for the 21st Century: Opportunities and Challenges” in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA on January 24-25, 2012. The presentations largely reflected two EBTC priorities: to apply evidence-based methods to assessing the performance of emerging pathwaybased testing methods consistent with the 2007 National Research Council report on “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century” as well as to adopt a governance structure and work processes to move that ...


Adaptation Of The Systematic Review Framework To The Assessment Of Toxicological Test Methods: Challenges And Lessons Learned With The Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test, Martin L. Stephens, Sevcan Gül Akgün-Ölmez, Sebastian Hoffman, Rob de Vries, Burkhard Flick, Thomas Hartung, Manoj Lalu, Alexandra Maertens, Hilda Witters, Robert Wright, Katya Tsaioun 2019 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Adaptation Of The Systematic Review Framework To The Assessment Of Toxicological Test Methods: Challenges And Lessons Learned With The Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test, Martin L. Stephens, Sevcan Gül Akgün-Ölmez, Sebastian Hoffman, Rob De Vries, Burkhard Flick, Thomas Hartung, Manoj Lalu, Alexandra Maertens, Hilda Witters, Robert Wright, Katya Tsaioun

Martin Stephens, PhD

Systematic review methodology is a means of addressing specific questions through structured, consistent, and transparent examinations of the relevant scientific evidence. This methodology has been used to advantage in clinical medicine, and is being adapted for use in other disciplines. Although some applications to toxicology have been explored, especially for hazard identification, the present preparatory study is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to adapt it to the assessment of toxicological test methods. As our test case, we chose the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for developmental toxicity and its mammalian counterpart, the standard mammalian prenatal development toxicity study, focusing the ...


Welfare Challenges Influence The Complexity Of Movement: Fractal Analysis Of Behaviour In Zebrafish, Anthony G. Deakin, Joseph W. Spencer, Andrew R. Cossins, Iain S. Young, Lynne U. Sneddon 2019 University of Liverpool

Welfare Challenges Influence The Complexity Of Movement: Fractal Analysis Of Behaviour In Zebrafish, Anthony G. Deakin, Joseph W. Spencer, Andrew R. Cossins, Iain S. Young, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The ability to assess welfare is an important refinement that will ensure the good condition of animals used in experimentation. The present study investigated the impact of invasive procedures on the patterns of movement of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Recordings were made before and after fin clipping, PIT tagging and a standard pain test and these were compared with control and sham handled zebrafish. The fractal dimension (FD) from the 3D trajectories was calculated to determine the effect of these treatments on the complexity of movement patterns. While the FD of zebrafish trajectories did not differ over time in either the ...


Does Environmental Enrichment Promote Recovery From Stress In Rainbow Trout?, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Jonathan Buckley, Lynne U. Sneddon 2019 University of Liverpool

Does Environmental Enrichment Promote Recovery From Stress In Rainbow Trout?, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Jonathan Buckley, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The EU Directive on animal experimentation suggests that all protected animals should have enrichment to improve welfare yet relatively little research has been conducted on the impact of enrichment in fish. Studies employing enrichment in zebrafish have been contradictory and all fish species should be provided with species-specific enrichments relevant to their ecology. Salmonids are important experimental models in studies within aquaculture, toxicology and natural ecosystems. This study therefore sought to establish whether an enriched environment in an experimental aquarium may promote improved welfare in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by enhancing their recovery from invasive procedures. Trout were held individually ...


Automated Monitoring Of Behaviour In Zebrafish After Invasive Procedures, Anthony G. Deakin, Jonathan Buckley, Hamzah S. AlZu'bi, Andrew R. Cossins, Joseph W. Spencer, Waleed Al'Nuaimy, Iain S. Young, Jack S. Thomson, Lynne U. Sneddon 2019 University of Liverpool

Automated Monitoring Of Behaviour In Zebrafish After Invasive Procedures, Anthony G. Deakin, Jonathan Buckley, Hamzah S. Alzu'bi, Andrew R. Cossins, Joseph W. Spencer, Waleed Al'nuaimy, Iain S. Young, Jack S. Thomson, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Fish are used in a variety of experimental contexts often in high numbers. To maintain their welfare and ensure valid results during invasive procedures it is vital that we can detect subtle changes in behaviour that may allow us to intervene to provide pain-relief. Therefore, an automated method, the Fish Behaviour Index (FBI), was devised and used for testing the impact of laboratory procedures and efficacy of analgesic drugs in the model species, the zebrafish. Cameras with tracking software were used to visually track and quantify female zebrafish behaviour in real time after a number of laboratory procedures including fin ...


Nutraceutical And Pharmaceutical Cocktails Did Not Improve Muscle Function Or Reduce Histological Damage In D2-Mdx Mice, Hannah R. Spaulding, Tiffany Quindry, Kayleen Hammer, John C. Quindry, Joshua T. Selsby 2019 Iowa State University

Nutraceutical And Pharmaceutical Cocktails Did Not Improve Muscle Function Or Reduce Histological Damage In D2-Mdx Mice, Hannah R. Spaulding, Tiffany Quindry, Kayleen Hammer, John C. Quindry, Joshua T. Selsby

Animal Science Publications

Progressive muscle injury and weakness are hallmarks of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We showed previously that quercetin (Q) partially protected dystrophic limb muscles from disease-related injury. As quercetin activates PGC-1α through Sirtuin-1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, the depleted NAD+ in dystrophic skeletal muscle may limit quercetin efficacy, hence, supplementation with the NAD+ donor, nicotinamide riboside (NR), may facilitate quercetin efficacy. Lisinopril (Lis) protects skeletal muscle and improves cardiac function in dystrophin-deficient mice, therefore it was included in this study to evaluate the effects of lisinopril used with quercetin and NR. Our purpose was to determine the extent to which Q, NR ...


Xylanase, And The Role Of Digestibility And Hindgut Fermentation In Pigs On Energetic Differences Among High And Low Energy Corn Samples, Amy L. Petry, Helen V. Masey O’Neill, John F. Patience 2019 Iowa State University

Xylanase, And The Role Of Digestibility And Hindgut Fermentation In Pigs On Energetic Differences Among High And Low Energy Corn Samples, Amy L. Petry, Helen V. Masey O’Neill, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The experimental objective was to evaluate the digestibility and fermentation differences between high and low energy corn samples and their response to xylanase supplementation. Four corn samples, 2 with higher DE content (HE-1 and HE-2; 3.74 and 3.75 Mcal DE/kg DM, respectively) and 2 with a lower DE content (LE-1 and LE-2; 3.63 and 3.56 Mcal DE/kg DM, respectively) were selected based upon a previous digestibility trial. Sixteen individually housed barrows (PIC 359 × C29; initial BW = 34.8 ± 0.23kg) were surgically fitted with an ileal T-cannula and randomly allotted to treatments in an ...


An Animal-Assisted Intervention Study In The Nursing Home: Lessons Learned, Lonneke G. J. A. Schuurmans, Inge Noback, Jos M. G. A. Schols, Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers 2019 Open University, The Netherlands

An Animal-Assisted Intervention Study In The Nursing Home: Lessons Learned, Lonneke G. J. A. Schuurmans, Inge Noback, Jos M. G. A. Schols, Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

AAI studies in the nursing home pose a specific set of challenges. In this article the practical and ethical issues encountered during a Dutch psychogeriatric nursing home AAI study are addressed with the aim of sharing our experiences for future researchers as well as AAI practitioners in general.

In our study we compared three groups of clients with dementia who participated in group sessions of either visiting dog teams, visiting FurReal Friend robot animals, or visiting students (control group) and monitored the effect on social interaction and neuropsychiatric symptoms through video analysis and questionnaires. We encountered the following four categories ...


Animal Research, Accountability, Openness And Public Engagement: Report From An International Expert Forum, Elisabeth H. Ormandy, Daniel M. Weary, Katarina Cvek, Mark Fisher, Kathrin Herrmann, Pru Hobson-West, MIchael McDonald, William Milsom, Margaret Rose, Andrew Rowan, Joanne Zurlo, Marina A.G. von Keyserlingk 2019 University of British Columbia

Animal Research, Accountability, Openness And Public Engagement: Report From An International Expert Forum, Elisabeth H. Ormandy, Daniel M. Weary, Katarina Cvek, Mark Fisher, Kathrin Herrmann, Pru Hobson-West, Michael Mcdonald, William Milsom, Margaret Rose, Andrew Rowan, Joanne Zurlo, Marina A.G. Von Keyserlingk

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

In November 2013, a group of international experts in animal research policy (n = 11) gathered in Vancouver, Canada, to discuss openness and accountability in animal research. The primary objective was to bring together participants from various jurisdictions (United States, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Canada and the United Kingdom) to share practices regarding the governance of animals used in research, testing and education, with emphasis on the governance process followed, the methods of community engagement, and the balance of openness versus confidentiality. During the forum, participants came to a broad consensus on the need for: (a) evidence-based metrics to allow ...


Evaluation Of The Effect Of Β-Mannanase Supplementation And Mannans On Nursery Pig Growth Performance And Serum Acute-Phase Protein Concentrations, Nichole F. Huntley, Stacie A. Gould, John F. Patience 2019 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of The Effect Of Β-Mannanase Supplementation And Mannans On Nursery Pig Growth Performance And Serum Acute-Phase Protein Concentrations, Nichole F. Huntley, Stacie A. Gould, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary mannan and β-mannanase supplementation on growth performance and serum acute phase proteins in nursery pigs. Pigs (n = 480) were blocked by initial BW (6.6 ± 0.4 kg) and 12 pens per treatment were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement for 28 d. Two levels of dietary mannan (0.4% vs 2.8%) were offered with and without 0.05% endo-1,4-β-mannanase. Serum was collected (1 pig/pen) for haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) analysis on d 0 and d 28. There were ...


Practical Considerations In Regenerative Medicine Research: Iacucs, Ethics, And The Use Of Animals In Stem Cell Studies, Susan VandeWoude, Bernard E. Rollin 2019 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Practical Considerations In Regenerative Medicine Research: Iacucs, Ethics, And The Use Of Animals In Stem Cell Studies, Susan Vandewoude, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

The intent of US federal laws mandating IACUC review of animal-related activities was to satisfy contemporary socioethical concerns by introducing deliberations about ethics and animal welfare into the research process when animals are used. These laws and the system they chartered have worked well for the most part in providing opportunities for consideration of animal welfare as a vital part of animal research. As a result, investigators today are far less naïve about the ethical issues raised by research on animals and typically more sympathetic about the need for such consideration. As evidence of this growing awareness, the literature on ...


Beyond Pain—Controlling Suffering In Laboratory Animals, Bernard E. Rollin 2019 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Beyond Pain—Controlling Suffering In Laboratory Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

No abstract provided.


The Animal Research Controversy: Protest, Process & Public Policy, Andrew N. Rowan, Franklin M. Loew, Joan C. Weer 2019 Tufts University

The Animal Research Controversy: Protest, Process & Public Policy, Andrew N. Rowan, Franklin M. Loew, Joan C. Weer

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

The controversy today regarding the use of animals in research appears on the surface to be a strongly polarized struggle between the scientific community and the animal protection movement. However, there is a wide range of opinions and philosophies on both sides. Mistrust between the factions has blossomed while communication has withered. Through the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, the animal movement grew in numbers and financial resources, and developed much greater public recognition and political clout. The research community paid relatively little attention to the animal movement for much of this period but, alarmed by several public relations coups ...


“Everyday” Knowledge And A New Paradigm Of Animal Research, David Fraser, Jeffrey M. Spooner, Catherine A. Schuppli 2019 University of British Columbia

“Everyday” Knowledge And A New Paradigm Of Animal Research, David Fraser, Jeffrey M. Spooner, Catherine A. Schuppli

David Fraser, PhD

Commentary on Marino and Allen (2017) The Psychology of Cows


Adaptation Of The Systematic Review Framework To The Assessment Of Toxicological Test Methods: Challenges And Lessons Learned With The Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test, Martin L. Stephens, Sevcan Gül Akgün-Ölmez, Sebastian Hoffman, Rob de Vries, Burkhard Flick, Thomas Hartung, Manoj Lalu, Alexandra Maertens, Hilda Witters, Robert Wright, Katya Tsaioun 2019 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Adaptation Of The Systematic Review Framework To The Assessment Of Toxicological Test Methods: Challenges And Lessons Learned With The Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test, Martin L. Stephens, Sevcan Gül Akgün-Ölmez, Sebastian Hoffman, Rob De Vries, Burkhard Flick, Thomas Hartung, Manoj Lalu, Alexandra Maertens, Hilda Witters, Robert Wright, Katya Tsaioun

Toxicology and Animal Models in Research Collection

Systematic review methodology is a means of addressing specific questions through structured, consistent, and transparent examinations of the relevant scientific evidence. This methodology has been used to advantage in clinical medicine, and is being adapted for use in other disciplines. Although some applications to toxicology have been explored, especially for hazard identification, the present preparatory study is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to adapt it to the assessment of toxicological test methods. As our test case, we chose the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for developmental toxicity and its mammalian counterpart, the standard mammalian prenatal development toxicity study, focusing the ...


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