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Act On The Registration And Evaluation Of Chemicals (K-Reach) And Replacement, Reduction Or Refinement Best Practices, Soojin Ha, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim 2019 Ewha Womans University

Act On The Registration And Evaluation Of Chemicals (K-Reach) And Replacement, Reduction Or Refinement Best Practices, Soojin Ha, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim

Troy Seidle, PhD

Objectives - Korea’s Act on the Registration and Evaluation of Chemicals (K-REACH) was enacted for the protection of human health and the environment in 2015. Considering that about 2000 new substances are introduced annually across the globe, the extent of animal testing requirement could be overwhelming unless regulators and companies work proactively to institute and enforce global best practices to replace, reduce or refine animal use. In this review, the way to reduce the animal use for K-REACH is discussed. Methods - Background of the enforcement of the K-REACH and its details was reviewed along with the papers and regulatory documents ...


Mental Stress From Animal Experiments: A Survey With Korean Researchers, Minji Kang, AhRam Han, Da-eun Kim, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim, SeungJin Bae 2019 Ewha Womans University

Mental Stress From Animal Experiments: A Survey With Korean Researchers, Minji Kang, Ahram Han, Da-Eun Kim, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim, Seungjin Bae

Troy Seidle, PhD

Animal experiments have been widely conducted in the life sciences for more than a century, and have long been a subject of ethical and societal controversy due to the deliberate infliction of harm upon sentient animals. However, the harmful use of animals may also negatively impact the mental health of researchers themselves. We sought to evaluate the anxiety level of researchers engaged in animal use to analyse the mental stress from animal testing. The State Anxiety Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to evaluate how researchers feel when they conduct animal, as opposed to non-animal, based experiments ...


Non-Invasive Methods Of Identifying And Tracking Wild Squid, Ruth A. Byrne, James B. Wood, Roland C. Anderson, Ulrike Griebel, Jennifer A. Mather 2019 Medical University of Vienna

Non-Invasive Methods Of Identifying And Tracking Wild Squid, Ruth A. Byrne, James B. Wood, Roland C. Anderson, Ulrike Griebel, Jennifer A. Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

The ability to identify individual free-living animals in the field is an important method for studying their behavior. Apart from invasive external or internal tags, which may cause injury or abnormal behavior, most cephalopods cannot be tagged, as their skin is too soft and delicate for tag retention. Additionally, cephalopods remove many types of tags. However, body markings have been successfully used as a non invasive method to identify individuals of many different species of animals, including whale sharks, grey whales, seals, and zebras. We developed methods to sex and individually identify Caribbean reef squid, Sepiotheuthis sepioidea. Males showed distinct ...


Animal Organs In Humans: Uncalculated Risks And Unanswered Questions, Gillian R. Langley, Joyce D'Silva 2019 British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection

Animal Organs In Humans: Uncalculated Risks And Unanswered Questions, Gillian R. Langley, Joyce D'Silva

Gill Langley, PhD

This report, produced jointly by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection and Compassion in World Farming, fills a number of significant gaps in the current debate about xenotransplantation.

In this report we also summarise the ethical and welfare issues concerning experiments on animals for xenotransplant research and their possible use as source animals for organs. Both these aspects are responsible for much pain and distress caused to many animals. We prefer the term “source animals” to “donor animals”, because animals do not choose to donate their organs for xenotransplantation.


Animal Research, Accountability, Openness And Public Engagement: Report From An International Expert Forum, Elisabeth H. Ormandy, Daniel M. Weary, Katarina Cvek, Mark Fisher, Kathrin Herrmann, Pru Hobson-West, MIchael McDonald, William Milsom, Margaret Rose, Andrew Rowan, Joanne Zurlo, Marina A.G. von Keyserlingk 2019 University of British Columbia

Animal Research, Accountability, Openness And Public Engagement: Report From An International Expert Forum, Elisabeth H. Ormandy, Daniel M. Weary, Katarina Cvek, Mark Fisher, Kathrin Herrmann, Pru Hobson-West, Michael Mcdonald, William Milsom, Margaret Rose, Andrew Rowan, Joanne Zurlo, Marina A.G. Von Keyserlingk

Oversight of Animal Experimentation Collection

In November 2013, a group of international experts in animal research policy (n = 11) gathered in Vancouver, Canada, to discuss openness and accountability in animal research. The primary objective was to bring together participants from various jurisdictions (United States, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Canada and the United Kingdom) to share practices regarding the governance of animals used in research, testing and education, with emphasis on the governance process followed, the methods of community engagement, and the balance of openness versus confidentiality. During the forum, participants came to a broad consensus on the need for: (a) evidence-based metrics to allow ...


Intravital Imaging In A Zebrafish Model Elucidates Interactions Between Mucosal Immunity And Pathogenic Fungi, Linda S. Archambault 2019 University of Maine

Intravital Imaging In A Zebrafish Model Elucidates Interactions Between Mucosal Immunity And Pathogenic Fungi, Linda S. Archambault

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Candida yeasts are common commensals that can cause mucosal disease and life-threatening systemic infections. While many of the components required for defense against Candida albicans infection are well established, questions remain about how various host cells at mucosal sites assess threats and coordinate defenses to prevent normally commensal organisms from becoming pathogenic. Using two Candida species, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, which differ in their abilities to damage epithelial tissues, we used traditional methods (pathogen CFU, host survival, and host cytokine expression) combined with high-resolution intravital imaging of transparent zebrafish larvae to illuminate host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level in ...


Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Coordinates The Ovarian Dna Repair And Atresia-Initiating Response To Phosphoramide Mustard, Kendra L. Clark, Aileen F. Keating 2019 Iowa State University

Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Coordinates The Ovarian Dna Repair And Atresia-Initiating Response To Phosphoramide Mustard, Kendra L. Clark, Aileen F. Keating

Animal Science Publications

Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein recognizes and repairs DNA double strand breaks (DSB) through activation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair proteins. Atm gene mutations increase female reproductive cancer risk. Phosphoramide mustard (PM) induces ovarian DNA damage and destroys primordial follicles, and pharmacological ATM inhibition prevents PM-induced follicular depletion. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 or Atm+/− mice were dosed once intraperitoneally with sesame oil (95%) or PM (25 mg/kg) in the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle and ovaries harvested 3 days thereafter. Atm+/− mice spent ~ 25% more time in diestrus phase than WT. LC-MS/MS on ovarian protein ...


Super-Dosing Phytase May Go Beyond Improving Phosphorus Digestibility, Leigh Ruckman, John Patience 2019 Iowa State University

Super-Dosing Phytase May Go Beyond Improving Phosphorus Digestibility, Leigh Ruckman, John Patience

Animal Science Publications

Phosphorus is an essential mineral in pig diets that is required for body maintenance and growth, as well as crucial physiological processes. This mineral is naturally abundant in most grains that are fed to pigs. However, the dominant storage form of phosphorus in plants is phytate which cannot be digested by pigs.


Heat Stress During The Luteal Phase Decreases Luteal Size But Does Not Impact Circulating Progesterone In Gilts, Katie L. Bidne, Matthew R. Romoser, Jason W. Ross, Lance H. Baumgard, Aileen F. Keating 2019 Iowa State University

Heat Stress During The Luteal Phase Decreases Luteal Size But Does Not Impact Circulating Progesterone In Gilts, Katie L. Bidne, Matthew R. Romoser, Jason W. Ross, Lance H. Baumgard, Aileen F. Keating

Animal Science Publications

Heat stress (HS) occurs when heat dissipation mechanisms are insufficient to maintain euthermia and it is associated with seasonal infertility (SI); which manifests as smaller litters, longer wean-to-estrus interval, increased abortions, and reduced conception rates. To understand HS-induced mechanisms underlying SI, crossbred post-pubertal gilts (167 ± 10 kg; n = 14) experienced either thermal neutral (TN, 20 ± 1°C, n = 7) or cyclical HS (35 ± 1°C for 12 h and 31.6°C for 12 h, n = 7) conditions from 2-12 days post estrus (dpe). Estrous cycles were synchronized via altrenogest administration for 14 d, phenotypic manifestation of estrus was observed ...


Microbiota Of Newborn Calves And Their Mothers Reveals Possible Transfer Routes For Newborn Calves’ Gastrointestinal Microbiota, Daniela Klein-Jöbstl, Narciso M. Quijada, Monika Dzieciol, Benjamin Feldbacher, Matrin Wagner, Marc Drillich, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Evelyne Mann 2019 University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna

Microbiota Of Newborn Calves And Their Mothers Reveals Possible Transfer Routes For Newborn Calves’ Gastrointestinal Microbiota, Daniela Klein-Jöbstl, Narciso M. Quijada, Monika Dzieciol, Benjamin Feldbacher, Matrin Wagner, Marc Drillich, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Evelyne Mann

Animal Science Publications

The intestinal microbiota of newborns plays an important role in the development of immunity and metabolism. In livestock animals, knowledge of the intestinal microbiota is essential not only to prevent diseases but also to optimize weight gain and performance. The aim of our study was to examine faecal samples repeatedly within the first two days of life using 16S rRNA gene High Throughput Sequencing. Additionally, samples from the mouths of the calves and the vaginas, colostrum, and faeces of the dams were included to evaluate possible sources of the calf faecal microbiota. The calf faecal microbiota was highly variable during ...


Insoluble Dietary Fiber Does Not Affect The Ability Of Phytase To Release Phosphorus From Phytate In The Diet Of Nursery Pigs, Jesus A. Acosta, John F. Patience 2019 Iowa State University

Insoluble Dietary Fiber Does Not Affect The Ability Of Phytase To Release Phosphorus From Phytate In The Diet Of Nursery Pigs, Jesus A. Acosta, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

Phytase is added to swine diets to improve the utilization of phytate-bound P. This provides financial and environmental benefits to the pig industry. It is unclear if phytase works equally well under all dietary circumstances. The objective was to determine if insoluble fiber impacts the efficacy of the phytase enzyme in nursery pigs when fed diets limiting in P content. A total of 480 pigs (initial BW 5.48 ± 0.14 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to treatment within block. A common nutrient-adequate diet was fed from d -14 to -5, and 2 basal P deficient diets ...


Development Of Helical, Fish-Inspired Cross-Step Filter For Collecting Harmful Algae, Adam Schroeder, Lauren Marshall, Brian Trease, Anna Becker, S. Laurie Sanderson 2019 William and Mary

Development Of Helical, Fish-Inspired Cross-Step Filter For Collecting Harmful Algae, Adam Schroeder, Lauren Marshall, Brian Trease, Anna Becker, S. Laurie Sanderson

Arts & Sciences Articles

A new filter was developed to collect harmful algae colonies by adapting the cross-step filtration structures and mechanisms discovered recently in filter-feeding fish. Extending beyond previously published models that closely emulated the basic morphology of the fish, the new cross-step filter's major innovations are helical slots, radial symmetry, and rotation as an active anti-clogging mechanism. These innovations enable the transport of concentrated particles to the downstream end of the filter. This advance was made possible by recognizing that biologically imposed constraints such as bilateral symmetry do not apply to human-made filters. The use of helical slots was developed in ...


Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas 2019 University of Alberta

Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Recent evidence supports involvement of amylin and the amylin receptor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have previously shown that amylin receptor antagonist, AC253, improves spatial memory in AD mouse models. Herein, we generated and screened a peptide library and identified two short sequence amylin peptides (12–14 aa) that are proteolytically stable, brain penetrant when administered intraperitoneally, neuroprotective against Aβ toxicity and restore diminished levels of hippocampal long term potentiation in AD mice. Systemic administration of the peptides for five weeks in aged 5XFAD mice improved spatial memory, reduced amyloid plaque burden, and neuroinflammation. The common ...


Application Of Fraser’S “Practical” Ethic In Veterinary Practice, And Its Compatibility With A “One Welfare” Framework, Anne Fawcett, Siobhan Mullan, Paul McGreevy 2019 University of Sydney

Application Of Fraser’S “Practical” Ethic In Veterinary Practice, And Its Compatibility With A “One Welfare” Framework, Anne Fawcett, Siobhan Mullan, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Ethically challenging situations are common in veterinary practice, and they may be a source of moral stress, which may in turn impact the welfare of veterinarians. Despite recognition of the importance of ethical reasoning, some veterinary students may struggle to apply theoretical ethical frameworks. Fraser developed a “practical” ethic consisting of four principles that can be applied to ethically challenging situations. We apply Fraser’s “practical” ethic to three cases that veterinarians may encounter: animal hoarding, animal neglect, and treatment of wildlife. We argue that Fraser’s “practical” ethic is consistent with a One Welfare framework, and may have increasing ...


The Impact Of Dietary Supplementation Of Arginine During Gestation In A Commercial Swine Herd: I. Gilt Reproductive Performance, Elizabeth A. Hines, Matthew R. Romoser, Zoë E. Kiefer, Aileen F. Keating, Lance H. Baumgard, Jarad Niemi, Nicholas K. Gabler, John F. Patience, Benjamin Haberl, Noel H. Williams, Brian J. Kerr, Kevin J. Touchette, Jason W. Ross 2019 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Dietary Supplementation Of Arginine During Gestation In A Commercial Swine Herd: I. Gilt Reproductive Performance, Elizabeth A. Hines, Matthew R. Romoser, Zoë E. Kiefer, Aileen F. Keating, Lance H. Baumgard, Jarad Niemi, Nicholas K. Gabler, John F. Patience, Benjamin Haberl, Noel H. Williams, Brian J. Kerr, Kevin J. Touchette, Jason W. Ross

Animal Science Publications

Supplemental Arg during gestation purportedly benefits fetal development. However, the benefits of a gestational Arg dietary strategy in commercial production are unclear. Therefore, objectives of this study examined Arg supplementation during different gestational stages and the effects on gilt reproductive performance. Pubertal gilts (n = 548) were allocated into four treatment groups: Control (n = 143; 0% supplemental Arg) or one of three supplemental Arg (1% as fed) treatments: from 15 to 45 d of gestation (n = 138; Early-Arg); from 15 d of gestation until farrowing (n = 139; Full-Arg); or from 85 d of gestation until farrowing (n = 128; Late-Arg). At farrowing ...


Ethical And Scientific Pitfalls Concerning Laboratory Research With Non-Human Primates, And Possible Solutions, Constança Carvalho, Augusta Gaspar, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente 2019 University of Lisbon, Portugal

Ethical And Scientific Pitfalls Concerning Laboratory Research With Non-Human Primates, And Possible Solutions, Constança Carvalho, Augusta Gaspar, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente

Andrew Knight, PhD

Basic and applied laboratory research, whenever intrusive or invasive, presents substantial ethical challenges for ethical committees, be it with human beings or with non-human animals. In this paper we discuss the use of non-human primates (NHPs), mostly as animal models, in laboratory based research. We examine the two ethical frameworks that support current legislation and guidelines: deontology and utilitarianism. While human based research is regulated under deontological principles, guidelines for laboratory animal research rely on utilitarianism. We argue that the utilitarian framework is inadequate for this purpose: on the one hand, it is almost impossible to accurately predict the benefits ...


Is Animal-Based Biomedical Research Being Used In Its Original Context?, Constança Carvalho, Daniel Alves, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente 2019 University of Lisbon, Portugal

Is Animal-Based Biomedical Research Being Used In Its Original Context?, Constança Carvalho, Daniel Alves, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente

Andrew Knight, PhD

No abstract provided.


Critically Evaluating Animal Research, Andrew Knight 2019 University of Winchester

Critically Evaluating Animal Research, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, PhD

No abstract provided.


Contribution Of Animal Models To Contemporary Understanding Of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Constança Carvalho, Mariana Vieira Crespo, Luísa Ferreira Bastos, Andrew Knight, Luís Vincente 2019 University of Lisbon, Portugal

Contribution Of Animal Models To Contemporary Understanding Of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Constança Carvalho, Mariana Vieira Crespo, Luísa Ferreira Bastos, Andrew Knight, Luís Vincente

Andrew Knight, PhD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a poorly understood neurodevelopmental disorder of multifactorial origin. Animal-based research has been used to investigate ADHD etiology, pathogenesis and treatment, but the efficacy of this research for patients has not yet been systematically evaluated. Such evaluation is important given the resource consumption and ethical concerns incurred by animal use.

We used the citation tracking facility within Web of Science to locate citations of original research papers on animal models related to ADHD published prior to 2010 identified in PubMed by relevant search terms. Human medical papers citing those animal studies were carefully analyzed by ...


Contribution Of Animal Models To Contemporary Understanding Of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Constança Carvalho, Mariana Vieira Crespo, Luísa Ferreira Bastos, Andrew Knight, Luís Vincente 2019 University of Lisbon, Portugal

Contribution Of Animal Models To Contemporary Understanding Of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Constança Carvalho, Mariana Vieira Crespo, Luísa Ferreira Bastos, Andrew Knight, Luís Vincente

Biomedicine and Animal Models in Research Collection

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a poorly understood neurodevelopmental disorder of multifactorial origin. Animal-based research has been used to investigate ADHD etiology, pathogenesis and treatment, but the efficacy of this research for patients has not yet been systematically evaluated. Such evaluation is important given the resource consumption and ethical concerns incurred by animal use.

We used the citation tracking facility within Web of Science to locate citations of original research papers on animal models related to ADHD published prior to 2010 identified in PubMed by relevant search terms. Human medical papers citing those animal studies were carefully analyzed by ...


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