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Innovations, Challenges, And Minimal Information For Standardization Of Humanized Mice, Renata Stripecke, Michael A. Brehm 2020 Hannover Medical School

Innovations, Challenges, And Minimal Information For Standardization Of Humanized Mice, Renata Stripecke, Michael A. Brehm

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Mice xenotransplanted with human cells and/or expressing human gene products (also known as "humanized mice") recapitulate the human evolutionary specialization and diversity of genotypic and phenotypic traits. These models can provide a relevant in vivo context for understanding of human-specific physiology and pathologies. Humanized mice have advanced toward mainstream preclinical models and are now at the forefront of biomedical research. Here, we considered innovations and challenges regarding the reconstitution of human immunity and human tissues, modeling of human infections and cancer, and the use of humanized mice for testing drugs or regenerative therapy products. As the number of publications ...


Respiratory Chain Activity And Protein Expression In Skeletal Muscles From High And Low Feed Efficient Swine Within The Same Genetic Line, Earsie L. Alcorn de Feliz 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Respiratory Chain Activity And Protein Expression In Skeletal Muscles From High And Low Feed Efficient Swine Within The Same Genetic Line, Earsie L. Alcorn De Feliz

Theses and Dissertations

Current as well as past studies have provided evidence for a connection between macroeconomic/agricultural and cellular/biochemical basis of feed efficiency (FE; gain:feed) in farm animal production. Our investigation of respiratory chain activity, mitochondrial protein oxidation and protein expression was an expansion to the subcellular/molecular level. In this study we investigated the entire complex (Cx) of the electron transport chain (ETC) for differences in Cx activities in mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle in high (HFE) and low (LFE) feed efficient swine within the same genetic line. Review of literature provided information for the connection between feed efficiency ...


The Effects Of Excess Dietary Sulfur Using Supplemental Sodium Sulfate On Beef Steer, Heifer, And Progeny Productive And Physiological Responses, Jamie Hawley 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Excess Dietary Sulfur Using Supplemental Sodium Sulfate On Beef Steer, Heifer, And Progeny Productive And Physiological Responses, Jamie Hawley

Theses and Dissertations

For studies 1 through 3, 20 steers of predominantly Angus breeding, were stratified by body weight (279 ± 13.2 kg), assigned randomly to 6 paddocks, and fed a low S ground corn and soybean meal supplement that did not contain any byproduct feeds (0.31% total dietary S; LS) or LS supplement with an additional 0.25% S provided from sodium sulfate (Na2SO4; 0.58% total dietary S; HS) for a 114-d growing phase. Steers were moved to feedlot (373 ± 0.2 kg), remained on prior dietary S treatments, and fed corn and soybean meal diets (0.19 and 0 ...


Effects Of Supplementing Crystalline L-Valine And L-Isoleucine And A Novel Threonine Biomass In Reduced Crude Protein Diets Fed To Broilers, Derrell Trevor Lee 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Supplementing Crystalline L-Valine And L-Isoleucine And A Novel Threonine Biomass In Reduced Crude Protein Diets Fed To Broilers, Derrell Trevor Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry nutritionists continue to identify methods to lower feed price without compromising broiler growth performance, processing yields, or animal well-being. A common approach is to reduce dietary crude protein (CP), the second most expensive component in a broiler diet. Subsequently, reducing CP will reduce the inclusion levels of intact protein sources (e.g., soybean meal [SBM]), which can be accomplished by supplementing individual amino acids (AA). This methodology not only reduces diet cost, pending if feed-grade AA are more economical, but can contribute to improving broiler health and environmental sustainability. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate individual feed-grade AA ...


The Impact Of Porcine Spray-Dried Plasma Protein And Dried Egg Protein Harvested From Hyper-Immunized Hens, Provided In The Presence Or Absence Of Subtherapeutic Levels Of Antibiotics In The Feed, On Growth And Indicators Of Intestinal Function And Physiology Of Nursery Pigs, Leigh A. Ruckman, Amy L. Petry, Stacie A. Gould, John F. Patience 2020 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Porcine Spray-Dried Plasma Protein And Dried Egg Protein Harvested From Hyper-Immunized Hens, Provided In The Presence Or Absence Of Subtherapeutic Levels Of Antibiotics In The Feed, On Growth And Indicators Of Intestinal Function And Physiology Of Nursery Pigs, Leigh A. Ruckman, Amy L. Petry, Stacie A. Gould, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) and dried egg protein (DEP), without (AB−) or with (AB+) in-feed antibiotics, on growth performance and markers of intestinal health in nursery pigs raised in commercial conditions. This 42-d experiment utilized 1,230 pigs (4.93 ± 0.04 kg body weight; approximately 15–18 d of age). Pigs were randomly assigned to one of six dietary treatments that were arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial of in-feed antibiotics (AB− vs. AB+) and a specialty protein additive (none [CON], porcine SDPP, or DEP). Diets were fed ...


Xylanase Increased The Energetic Contribution Of Fiber And Improved The Oxidative Status, Gut Barrier Integrity, And Growth Performance Of Growing Pigs Fed Insoluble Corn-Based Fiber, Amy L. Petry, Nichole F. Huntley, Michael R. Bedford, John F. Patience 2020 Iowa State University

Xylanase Increased The Energetic Contribution Of Fiber And Improved The Oxidative Status, Gut Barrier Integrity, And Growth Performance Of Growing Pigs Fed Insoluble Corn-Based Fiber, Amy L. Petry, Nichole F. Huntley, Michael R. Bedford, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The experimental objective was to investigate the impact of xylanase on the bioavailability of energy, oxidative status, and gut function of growing pigs fed a diet high in insoluble fiber and given a longer adaptation time than typically reported. Three replicates of 20 gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 25.43 ± 0.88 kg were blocked by BW, individually housed, and randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments: a low-fiber control (LF) with 7.5% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), a 30% corn bran without solubles high-fiber control (HF; 21.9% NDF), HF + 100 mg/kg xylanase (HF ...


The Effects Of Enzymatically Treated Soybean Meal On Growth Performance And Intestinal Structure, Barrier Integrity, Inflammation, Oxidative Status, And Volatile Fatty Acid Production Of Nursery Pigs, Leigh A. Ruckman, Amy L. Petry, Stacie A. Gould, Brian J. Kerr, John F. Patience 2020 Iowa State University

The Effects Of Enzymatically Treated Soybean Meal On Growth Performance And Intestinal Structure, Barrier Integrity, Inflammation, Oxidative Status, And Volatile Fatty Acid Production Of Nursery Pigs, Leigh A. Ruckman, Amy L. Petry, Stacie A. Gould, Brian J. Kerr, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this experiment was to determine the impact of diets containing increasing amounts of enzymatically treated soybean meal (ESBM) but decreasing amounts of soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance, intestinal structure, and barrier integrity, inflammation, and oxidative status in weaned pigs. A total of 480 pigs [6.3 ±" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: normal; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline; display: inline; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; position: relative;">±± 1.2 kg body weight (BW)] were ...


Can The Digestibility Of Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles Fed To Pigs At Two Stages Of Growth Be Enhanced Through Management Of Particle Size Using A Hammermill Or A Roller Mill?, Jesus A. Acosta, Amy L. Petry, Stacie A. Gould, Cassandra K. Jones, Charles R. Stark, Adam C. Fahrenholz, John F. Patience 2020 Iowa State University

Can The Digestibility Of Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles Fed To Pigs At Two Stages Of Growth Be Enhanced Through Management Of Particle Size Using A Hammermill Or A Roller Mill?, Jesus A. Acosta, Amy L. Petry, Stacie A. Gould, Cassandra K. Jones, Charles R. Stark, Adam C. Fahrenholz, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of reducing the mean particle size (PS) of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with a hammermill (HM) or with a roller mill (RM) on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), N, acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE), and fiber components in growing and finishing pigs. Twenty-four growing barrows were housed in individual pens and were randomly assigned to a 3 × 2 factorial design (n = 8): three grinding methods [either corn DDGS ground with an HM to a PS of 450 μm; corn ...


Postpartum Meloxicam Administration Alters Plasma Haptoglobin, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, And Oxylipid Concentrations In Postpartum Ewes, Katie E. Olagaray, Barry J. Bradford, Lorraine M. Sordillo, Jeffery C. Gandy, Laman K. Mamedova, Turner H. Swartz, Trey D. Jackson, Emma K. Persoon, Caitlin S. Shugart, Curtis R. Youngs 2020 Kansas State University

Postpartum Meloxicam Administration Alters Plasma Haptoglobin, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, And Oxylipid Concentrations In Postpartum Ewes, Katie E. Olagaray, Barry J. Bradford, Lorraine M. Sordillo, Jeffery C. Gandy, Laman K. Mamedova, Turner H. Swartz, Trey D. Jackson, Emma K. Persoon, Caitlin S. Shugart, Curtis R. Youngs

Animal Science Publications

Background: Postpartum inflammation is a natural and necessary response; however, a dysfunctional inflammatory response can be detrimental to animal productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (meloxicam) on ewe postpartum inflammatory response, ewe plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid and oxylipid concentrations, and lamb growth.

Results: After lambing, 36 Hampshire and Hampshire × Suffolk ewes were sequentially assigned within type of birth to control (n = 17) or meloxicam orally administered on d 1 and 4 of lactation (MEL; 90 mg, n = 19). Milk and blood samples were collected on d 1 (prior to treatment ...


Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles: Determination Of Metabolizable Energy Values Using Regression-Based Assays And Their Correlation With Chemical Composition, Kenia Mitre 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles: Determination Of Metabolizable Energy Values Using Regression-Based Assays And Their Correlation With Chemical Composition, Kenia Mitre

Theses and Dissertations

The inherent variability and lack of standardization of in vivo assays to determine the metabolizable energy (ME) of DDGS has led to inconsistent values and limited its potential to use in broiler diets. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to characterize the content of nitrogen-corrected ME (MEn) in 11 DDGS sources obtained from various ethanol plants using a regression-based broiler assay and to attempt to develop equations to predict MEn based on its chemical composition. In experiment 1, the objectives were to determine the influence of inclusion level and feed intake on the resulting ME and MEn values of a single ...


Proteomic Identification Reveals The Role Of Ciliary Extracellular‐Like Vesicle In Cardiovascular Function, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Madhawi Alanazi, Ashwaq Alanazi, Kiumars Shamloo, Amir Ahsan, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates III, Surya M. Nauli 2020 Chapman University

Proteomic Identification Reveals The Role Of Ciliary Extracellular‐Like Vesicle In Cardiovascular Function, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Madhawi Alanazi, Ashwaq Alanazi, Kiumars Shamloo, Amir Ahsan, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are shown to have membrane swelling, also known as ciliary bulbs. However, the role of these structures and their physiological relevance remains unknown. Here, it is reported that a ciliary bulb has extracellular vesicle (EV)‐like characteristics. The ciliary extracellular‐like vesicle (cELV) has a unique dynamic movement and can be released by mechanical fluid force. To better identify the cELV, differential multidimensional proteomic analyses are performed on the cELV. A database of 172 cELV proteins is generated, and all that examined are confirmed to be in the cELV. Repressing the expression of these proteins in vitro and ...


Impact Of Increasing The Levels Of Insoluble Fiber And On The Method Of Diet Formulation Measures Of Energy And Nutrient Digestibility In Growing Pigs, Jesus A. Acosta, Hans S. Stein, John F. Patience 2020 Iowa State University

Impact Of Increasing The Levels Of Insoluble Fiber And On The Method Of Diet Formulation Measures Of Energy And Nutrient Digestibility In Growing Pigs, Jesus A. Acosta, Hans S. Stein, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to determine the differences in response to distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) level under constant nutrient or floating nutrient concentrations. A total of 21 ileal-cannulated gilts (33.1 ± 0.4 kg body weight) were randomly allotted to one of seven dietary treatments in a 3-period incomplete Latin square design (n = 9). Treatments consisted of a 0% DDGS basal diet, plus diets containing 15%, 30%, or 45% DDGS. Diets were formulated using one of two different formulation methods: 1) constant nutrient (CNU) where nutrients were held equal to the basal diet or 2) constant ...


Recombinant Human Proteoglycan-4 Mediates Interleukin-6 Response In Both Human And Mouse Endothelial Cells Induced Into A Sepsis Phenotype, Holly A. Richendrfer, Mitchell M. Levy, Khaled A. Elsaid, Tannin A. Schmidt, Ling Zhang, Ralph Cabezas, Gregory D. Jay 2020 Brown University

Recombinant Human Proteoglycan-4 Mediates Interleukin-6 Response In Both Human And Mouse Endothelial Cells Induced Into A Sepsis Phenotype, Holly A. Richendrfer, Mitchell M. Levy, Khaled A. Elsaid, Tannin A. Schmidt, Ling Zhang, Ralph Cabezas, Gregory D. Jay

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objectives:

Sepsis is a leading cause of death in the United States. Putative targets to prevent systemic inflammatory response syndrome include antagonism of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 and CD44 receptors in vascular endothelial cells. Proteoglycan-4 is a mucinous glycoprotein that interacts with CD44 and toll-like receptor 4 resulting in a blockade of the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3 pathway. We hypothesized that endothelial cells induced into a sepsis phenotype would have less interleukin-6 expression after recombinant human proteoglycan 4 treatment in vitro.

Design:

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction to measure interleukin-6 protein and gene expression.

Setting ...


From Tank To Treatment: Modeling Melanoma In Zebrafish, William Tyler Frantz, Craig J. Ceol 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

From Tank To Treatment: Modeling Melanoma In Zebrafish, William Tyler Frantz, Craig J. Ceol

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and one of few cancers with a growing incidence. A thorough understanding of its pathogenesis is fundamental to developing new strategies to combat mortality and morbidity. Zebrafish-due in large part to their tractable genetics, conserved pathways, and optical properties-have emerged as an excellent system to model melanoma. Zebrafish have been used to study melanoma from a single tumor initiating cell, through metastasis, remission, and finally into relapse. In this review, we examine seminal zebrafish studies that have advanced our understanding of melanoma.


Nutritional Approaches To Reduce Growth Rates And Feed Intake, Nicholas Gabler, John Patience, Laura Greiner, Jason Ross 2020 Iowa State University

Nutritional Approaches To Reduce Growth Rates And Feed Intake, Nicholas Gabler, John Patience, Laura Greiner, Jason Ross

Animal Science Publications

In recent weeks, the COVID-19 pandemic has created massive direct and indirect fall-out for U.S. pork producers. Primarily, this has been a consequence of supply chain disruptions and the loss of packing plant capacity. As such, producers are having to adjust pig flows and growth of finishing pigs to accommodate altered marketing strategies. Typically, producers aim to optimize grow-finish pig growth rates and feed intake to maximize pig performance and profitability.


The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith 2020 University of Mississippi

The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith

Honors Theses

Numerous studies have examined relationships between adrenal glucocorticoids and the immune system’s ability to fight disease. The relationship can vary, with glucocorticoids having either stimulatory or inhibitory effects. The pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) elicits an adaptive immune response in birds, in which B cells produce MG-specific antibodies to fight the infection and prevent reoccurrence. Previous research found that Eastern Bluebirds that produce the most antibodies in response to MG infection also have the highest glucocorticoid levels. This finding led to the current study investigating whether corticosterone, the primary glucocorticoid in birds, stimulates production of antibodies in response to ...


Impacts Of Embryonic Exposure To Cannabidiol Or ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Frailty In F0 And F1 Generations, Anika Faruque 2020 University of Mississippi

Impacts Of Embryonic Exposure To Cannabidiol Or ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Frailty In F0 And F1 Generations, Anika Faruque

Honors Theses

Exposure to cannabinoids during critical development periods has increased with epileptic children being commonly prescribed CBD for seizures and pregnant women taking it recreationally. Many studies have been done on the possible benefits and drawbacks of cannabinoid exposure on the human brain, but not much is known about how it can affect the developing brain long-term. To see the potential adverse effects of cannabinoid exposure during critical stages of development and discover potential developmental origins of disease in consuming cannabinoids during embryogenesis, zebrafish embryos (6-96 hours post fertilization) were exposed to varying concentrations of CBD (0.02, 0.1, 0 ...


Effect Of Ambient Temperature On Recovery Of Surgically Instrumented Sprague-Dawley Rats, Gianna Mangone 2020 James Madison University

Effect Of Ambient Temperature On Recovery Of Surgically Instrumented Sprague-Dawley Rats, Gianna Mangone

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

Based on current guidelines for housing rodents after surgical instrumentation, rodents may be housed at temperatures that hinder surgical recovery and cause thermal stress– room temperature (21°C) being one of them. Rodents are often housed at room temperature since this temperature is easy for humans to be caring for them. However, if recovering rodents are thermally stressed, experimental results will be confounded. To address this issue, Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically instrumented with radiotelemtry thermoprobes (Data Sciences, #TA-10F40) to monitor their core temperatures, then housed at one of five temperatures to assess the effect ambient temperature had on multiple aspects ...


The Ability Of Thaumoctopus Mimicus To Be Operantly Conditioned To A Sound Stimulus, Stephanie Wittman 2020 Bowling Green State University

The Ability Of Thaumoctopus Mimicus To Be Operantly Conditioned To A Sound Stimulus, Stephanie Wittman

Honors Projects

This paper focuses on the ability of the mimic octopus Thaumoctopus mimicus to be operantly conditioned to an auditory stimulus. The octopus is known to be the most advanced of the invertebrates and has learning abilities that are comparable to vertebrates in spite of their differences in brain structure. These animals have been shown to react to visual and tactile stimuli and can be operantly conditioned to perform behaviors to obtain a food reward. The goal of this experiment is to determine whether the octopus can be operantly conditioned to swim into a box on the side of its tank ...


Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna 2020 University of Connecticut

Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna

Honors Scholar Theses

Microglia are the macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, playing an important role in the immune response to disease states of the nervous system. This study conducts an investigation on the activity of microglia in response to low grade neuroepithelial tumors. Using mouse models and microglial markers, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of microglia activation, migration, and invasion within the brain cortex during early stages of tumor development was conducted. It was found that the presence of a low grade neuroepithelial tumor in the cortex of one hemisphere of the brain causes significant microglia activation in comparison to the ...


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