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Tpr-Containing Proteins Control Protein Organization And Homeostasis For The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Jill Bradley-Graham 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Tpr-Containing Proteins Control Protein Organization And Homeostasis For The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Jill Bradley-Graham

Doctoral Dissertations

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex, multifunctional organelle comprised of a continuous membrane and lumen that is organized into several functional regions. It plays various roles including protein translocation, folding, quality control, secretion, calcium signaling, and lipid biogenesis. Cellular protein homeostasis is maintained by a complicated chaperone network, and the largest functional family within this network consists of proteins containing tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs). TPRs are well-studied structural motifs that mediate intermolecular protein-protein interactions, supporting interactions with a wide range of ligands or substrates. Nine TPR-containing proteins have been shown to localize to the ER and control protein organization and ...


The Effects Of Phosphate On The Metamorphosis Of Larval Western Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma Mavortium), Lexy Polivanov 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Effects Of Phosphate On The Metamorphosis Of Larval Western Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma Mavortium), Lexy Polivanov

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This investigation will collect data to assist in determining if elevated aquatic phosphate levels affects the metamorphosis rate of larval western barred tiger salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium). Monoammonium phosphate fertilizers are being used on crops in Nebraska (NDA, 2017). This area lines up with the area the western barred tiger salamanders are disappearing from (Damme, 2018). Monoammonium phosphate is made up of nitrogen and phosphate. There have been several studies showing how nitrogen is harmful to amphibians such as this salamander (Griffis-Kyle, 2007) (Griffis-Kyle & Richtie, 2007), but there have not been many showing how phosphate affects amphibian’s metamorphosis in the ...


Canine Models Of Inherited Musculoskeletal And Neurodegenerative Diseases, Brett D. Story, Matthew E. Miller, Allison M. Bradbury, Emily D. Million, Dongsheng Duan, Toloo Taghian, Dominik Faissler, Deborah Fernau, Sidney J. Beecy, Heather Gray-Edwards 2020 Auburn University

Canine Models Of Inherited Musculoskeletal And Neurodegenerative Diseases, Brett D. Story, Matthew E. Miller, Allison M. Bradbury, Emily D. Million, Dongsheng Duan, Toloo Taghian, Dominik Faissler, Deborah Fernau, Sidney J. Beecy, Heather Gray-Edwards

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Mouse models of human disease remain the bread and butter of modern biology and therapeutic discovery. Nonetheless, more often than not mouse models do not reproduce the pathophysiology of the human conditions they are designed to mimic. Naturally occurring large animal models have predominantly been found in companion animals or livestock because of their emotional or economic value to modern society and, unlike mice, often recapitulate the human disease state. In particular, numerous models have been discovered in dogs and have a fundamental role in bridging proof of concept studies in mice to human clinical trials. The present article is ...


Pgc-1Α Overexpression Increases Transcription Factor Eb Nuclear Localization And Lysosome Abundance In Dystrophin-Deficient Skeletal Muscle, Hannah R. Spaulding, Amanda K. Ludwig, Katrin Hollinger, Matthew B. Hudson, Joshua T. Selsby 2020 Iowa State University

Pgc-1Α Overexpression Increases Transcription Factor Eb Nuclear Localization And Lysosome Abundance In Dystrophin-Deficient Skeletal Muscle, Hannah R. Spaulding, Amanda K. Ludwig, Katrin Hollinger, Matthew B. Hudson, Joshua T. Selsby

Animal Science Publications

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the absence of functional dystrophin protein and results in progressive muscle wasting. Dystrophin deficiency leads to a host of dysfunctional cellular processes including impaired autophagy. Autophagic dysfunction appears to be due, at least in part, to decreased lysosomal abundance mediated by decreased nuclear localization of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a transcription factor responsible for lysosomal biogenesis. PGC‐1α overexpression decreased disease severity in dystrophin‐deficient skeletal muscle and increased PGC‐1α has been linked to TFEB activation in healthy muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which PGC ...


Activation Of The Sonic Hedgehog Effector Smoothened Counteracts L-Dopa Induced Dyskinesia By Restoring Cholinergic Interneuron Function, Lauren Malave 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Activation Of The Sonic Hedgehog Effector Smoothened Counteracts L-Dopa Induced Dyskinesia By Restoring Cholinergic Interneuron Function, Lauren Malave

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Many types of neurons act as multimodal signaling centers. Yet, we have only limited insight into the regulation and functional consequences of neuronal co-transmission. For example, dopamine (DA) neurons, whose degeneration causes motor deficits characteristic of Parkinson’s Diseases (PD), communicate with all their targets by DA but only a selective subset of their targets using GABA, Glutamate, and the secreted cell signaling protein Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). It is unknown whether Levo-dopamine (L-Dopa) induced dyskinesia (LIDs), a severely debilitating side effect of DA supplementation in PD, might appear because DA neuron targets are exposed to high DA- but low Shh- ...


Demarcation Of Sepsis-Induced Peripheral And Central Acidosis With Ph (Low) Insertion Cycle Peptide, Kelly E. Henry, Aisling M. Chaney, Veronica L. Nagle, Haley C. Cropper, Saghar Mozaffari, Chip Slaybaugh, Keykavous Parang, Oleg A. Andreev, Yana K. Reshetnyak, Michelle L. James, Jason S. Lewis 2020 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

Demarcation Of Sepsis-Induced Peripheral And Central Acidosis With Ph (Low) Insertion Cycle Peptide, Kelly E. Henry, Aisling M. Chaney, Veronica L. Nagle, Haley C. Cropper, Saghar Mozaffari, Chip Slaybaugh, Keykavous Parang, Oleg A. Andreev, Yana K. Reshetnyak, Michelle L. James, Jason S. Lewis

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Acidosis is a key driver for many diseases, including cancer, sepsis, and stroke. The spatiotemporal dynamics of dysregulated pH across disease remain elusive, and current diagnostic strategies do not provide localization of pH alterations. We sought to explore if PET imaging using hydrophobic cyclic peptides that partition into the cellular membrane at low extracellular pH (denoted as pH [low] insertion cycles, or pHLIC) can permit accurate in vivo visualization of acidosis. Methods: Acid-sensitive cyclic peptide c[E4W5C] pHLIC was conjugated to bifunctional maleimide-NO2A and radiolabeled with 64Cu (half-life, 12.7 h). C57BL/6J mice were ...


Optimizing Animal Welfare In Commercial Laying Hens Through Novel Management Practices And Farm Manager Evaluation, John R. Brunnquell 2020 University of Kentucky

Optimizing Animal Welfare In Commercial Laying Hens Through Novel Management Practices And Farm Manager Evaluation, John R. Brunnquell

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The commercial production of pasture and free-range eggs in the United States is expanding rapidly. According to the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Management Assistance, in May of 2019 there were 2.6M pasture hens and 4.5M free-range hens representing 1.9% of the nation’s laying flock. There is little industry and/or academic experience with this style of production in the United States. Programs such as the European Layer Training Initiative (ELTI), which emerged in 2019, have tried to fill this void but participation from the US was low. The principal sources for guidance of commercial ...


Frontal Brain Injury: Effects On Flexibility, Impulse Control, And Attention, Christopher Matthew O'Hearn 2020 WVU

Frontal Brain Injury: Effects On Flexibility, Impulse Control, And Attention, Christopher Matthew O'Hearn

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is defined as an impact to the head, penetration of the skull, or rapid deceleration of the skull, resulting in an alteration of brain function or neurological deficit. Cognitive deficits are common following TBI and often go unresolved due to a lack of effective treatments. These deficits often perseverate into the chronic post injury phase, so the development of rehabilitative strategies is imperative. Behavioral flexibility, impulse control, and attention are a few cognitive processes that are commonly affected by TBI. The current research compares these processes between rats with and without a severe frontal brain injury ...


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan McNamara 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


Investigating The Morphology Of Iprgcs In Control Vs. Glaucomatous Retinas, Samantha Cook 2020 The University of Akron

Investigating The Morphology Of Iprgcs In Control Vs. Glaucomatous Retinas, Samantha Cook

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Glaucoma is a build-up of pressure in the eye that leads to the gradual loss of sight. The intention of this study was to investigate how glaucoma affects intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs). These cells contain melanopsin, a photopigment, that enables the cells to react to light. Four-month-old control and five-month-old glaucoma mice retinas were dissected, stained using primary and secondary antibodies, then traced using ImageJ’s Simple Neurite Tracer. There were no significant differences in soma size, total dendritic length, dendritic field size, and dendritic field diameter between control and glaucoma ipRGCs. However, further research is needed to ...


A Procedure For Dual Simple T-Cannulation In The Small Intestine Of Pigs Using A Single Right Flank Laparotomy, A. L. Petry, S. A. Gould, John F. Patience 2020 Iowa State University

A Procedure For Dual Simple T-Cannulation In The Small Intestine Of Pigs Using A Single Right Flank Laparotomy, A. L. Petry, S. A. Gould, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

Singular cannulation in the small intestine of pigs is a common methodology for studying nutrient digestibility, delivering compounds into the gastrointestinal tract, or repeated tissue and digesta sampling. In that respect, it is an important tool for nutritionists and researchers. However, there is a dearth of detailed methodologies describing multiple intestinal cannulations using modern techniques. The objective of this experiment was to develop a single right flank laparotomy technique that allowed for imsertion of multiple cannulas in the small intestine, with minimal variation, and allowed for externalisation of both cannulas on the same lateral side as the laparotomy. Thirty gilts ...


Enhancing Digestibility Of Corn Fed To Pigs At Two Stages Of Growth Through Management Of Particle Size Using A Hammermill Or A Roller Mill, Jesus A. Acosta, Amy L. Petry, Stacie A. Gould, Cassandra K. Jones, Charles R. Stark, Adam C. Fahrenholz, John F. Patience 2020 Iowa State University

Enhancing Digestibility Of Corn Fed To Pigs At Two Stages Of Growth Through Management Of Particle Size Using A Hammermill Or A Roller Mill, Jesus A. Acosta, Amy L. Petry, Stacie A. Gould, Cassandra K. Jones, Charles R. Stark, Adam C. Fahrenholz, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The experimental objective was to determine the role of mean particle size (PS), grinding method, and body weight (BW) category on nutrient, fiber, and energy digestibility of corn. A total of 48 barrows were housed in individual pens and randomly assigned to one of six dietary treatments for 11 d at two BW categories (55 kg and 110 kg). The six treatments consisted of corn ground at three different targeted mean PSs (300, 500, and 700 µm) using either a roller mill or a hammermill. Fecal samples were collected for the last 3 d of each feeding period. Titanium dioxide ...


Generating Broadly Protective Immune Responses To Viral Influenza, Evan Engelhardt 2020 Iowa State University

Generating Broadly Protective Immune Responses To Viral Influenza, Evan Engelhardt

Creative Components

Modern influenza vaccines are very effective against the strains they are composed of. However, variations between flu strains easily bypasses the induced immunity, rendering the vaccine outdated by the time the next flu season comes around. Current research into a “universal” influenza vaccine that can elicit a broadly protective response from the immune system has made great progress. Most methods are designed to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies to conserved sequences within surface glycoproteins. These methods can be adapted to induce broad cellular immunity as well. Memory to conserved sequences grants the immune system protection against divergent strains of influenza that ...


Effect Of The Prospect Of Transport On Captive Tiger Behavior And Fecal Cortisol In Naïve And Experienced Tigers, Callan Lichtenwalter 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of The Prospect Of Transport On Captive Tiger Behavior And Fecal Cortisol In Naïve And Experienced Tigers, Callan Lichtenwalter

Theses and Dissertations

With close to 5,000 captive tigers in the United States, it is vital to ensure that these tigers are receiving adequate welfare whether they are in an accredited facility, or privately owned. The goal of this study was to assess whether captive tigers at a rescue facility with experience being transported outside of the facility would respond differently to the presentation of their transport vehicle than their naïve counterparts who had only been transported within the facility. The behavior of 5 naïve and 7 experienced tigers (n = 12) located at Turpentine Creek Wildlife Refuge in Eureka Springs, Arkansas was ...


Physiological Response Of Elasmobrachs During Propofol Immersion, Matthew Levendosky 2020 Georgia Southern University

Physiological Response Of Elasmobrachs During Propofol Immersion, Matthew Levendosky

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sensory experiments require anesthesia so the animal is immobilized, however fish anesthetics have shown to depress sensory responses. Newer anesthetics may offer similar anesthetic relief, but differ in means of action so sensory responses may be unaffected. Propofol has been used intravenously on small elasmobranchs but may provide prolonged effects if used as an immersion anesthetic. Objectives of this study were 1. Determine appropriate concentration of anesthetic to minimize induction and recovery for animals anesthetized at a surgical plane of anesthesia and 2. Measure physiological response of the pupil to light stimuli during anesthetic immersion. To address these objectives, I ...


Evaluating The Occurrence Of Age-Related Peripheral Neuropathy In Het3 Mice And Development Of A Whole Tissue Imaging Technique For Analyzing Total Innervation In The Subcutaneous Adipose Depot, Jake Willows 2019 University of Maine

Evaluating The Occurrence Of Age-Related Peripheral Neuropathy In Het3 Mice And Development Of A Whole Tissue Imaging Technique For Analyzing Total Innervation In The Subcutaneous Adipose Depot, Jake Willows

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Adipose tissue can be characterized as either being a white (energy storing) depot or a brown (energy expending) depot and both have been found to contain dense networks of neural innervation. This adipose nerve supply regulates numerous metabolic functions and likely plays an important role in the function of adipose blood vessels. Recently our lab has shown in the C57BL/6 mouse model that peripheral neuropathy, or the dying back and dysfunction of the nerves in the superficial tissues such as the skin, can extend into the subcutaneous adipose tissue in conditions commonly associated with the neuropathic phenotype (i.e ...


Estimation Of Genetic Components Related To Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Susceptibility In Angus And Angus Derived Cattle Produced In The Southern United States, Eric Oxford 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Estimation Of Genetic Components Related To Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Susceptibility In Angus And Angus Derived Cattle Produced In The Southern United States, Eric Oxford

Theses and Dissertations

The economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) has been documented in many parts of the world. Many researchers have observed that prevention of this disease is very difficult given current methodologies. This is primarily due to the multifactorial nature of this disease. The objective of this dissertation was to determine the impact of IBK on calf performance and estimate genetic parameters, heritability and estimated breeding values for IBK susceptibility. Data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS; while genetic parameters were estimated using a linear animal model for both single- and two-traits through MTDFREML. Additional evaluations calculated heritability using ...


Establishing An Ideal Inclusion Rate Of Fermented Soybean Meal And Sodium Butyrate On Growth Performance, Complete Blood Cell Count, And Nutrient Utilization In Nursery Pigs, Kristopher A. Bottoms 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Establishing An Ideal Inclusion Rate Of Fermented Soybean Meal And Sodium Butyrate On Growth Performance, Complete Blood Cell Count, And Nutrient Utilization In Nursery Pigs, Kristopher A. Bottoms

Theses and Dissertations

To evaluate increasing levels of sodium butyrate (SB) in nursery diets on growth performance (Experiment 1 & 2), complete blood cell count (Experiment 2), and the optimal level of fermented soybean meal for maximum performance in weanling pigs (Experiment 3), weaned pigs were blocked with initial body weight (BW) and allotted to dietary treatments. Treatments were: 1) Control (C) moderately complex corn-soybean-meal based supplemented with 0.05% benzoic acid (BA), but devoid of SB; C diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.10%, or 0.15% SB (Experiment 1). Treatments in experiment 2 consisted of 1) a moderately complex corn-soybean-meal based diet devoid of SB and BA (NC), 2) The NC diet supplemented with 0.5% BA, 3, 4 and 5) NC diet supplemented with 0.5% BA and 0.05%, 0.10% or 0.15% SB, respectively. Treatments in experiment 3 consisted of 1) a fermented soybean protein-poultry by-product diet (C), 2, 3, and 4) C diet was ...


Environmental Risk Factors For Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Triclosan And Other Consumer Antimicrobials, Katherine Z. Sanidad 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Environmental Risk Factors For Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Triclosan And Other Consumer Antimicrobials, Katherine Z. Sanidad

Doctoral Dissertations

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a serious health problem since the incidence and prevalence of IBD has dramatically increased throughout the world. There is evidence that environmental factors are primarily responsible for the increase of IBD, therefore, it is important to identify novel environmental risk factors to reduce the risk of IBD and its associated diseases. Antimicrobials used in consumer products might serve as environmental risk factors for IBD and its associated diseases. Triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BET), and chloroxylenol (PCMX) are widely used antimicrobial ingredients in consumer products and are ubiquitous contaminants in ...


Patterns Of Morphological Plasticity In Metriaclima Zebra And Danio Rerio Suggest Differently Canalized Phenotypes Due To Form-Function Relationships, Dylan Jockel 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Patterns Of Morphological Plasticity In Metriaclima Zebra And Danio Rerio Suggest Differently Canalized Phenotypes Due To Form-Function Relationships, Dylan Jockel

Masters Theses

In order to ascertain the degree of compatibility in developmental restructuring and behavioral plasticity between two fish species frequently made subject of laboratory research (Metriaclima zebra & Danio rerio), alternative trophic niche exposure experiments utilizing novel three-prong feeding treatments were conducted to obtain morphometric data, which demonstrated both species do bear some degree of plasticity. The results are somewhat complicated by differences in locality of detectable restructuring, which may be due to disparity in the form-function relationship for each species’ lineage. Each is notable in the manner of respective species’ jaw protrusion, as it is driven by anterior kinethmoid rotation in ...


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