Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

3,945 Full-Text Articles 8,508 Authors 1,232,390 Downloads 243 Institutions

All Articles in Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health

Faceted Search

3,945 full-text articles. Page 1 of 160.

Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette 2023 Murray State University

Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette

Honors College Theses

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a substance that has been used in complementary medicine for many years. However, modern medicine has little knowledge of how this substance is utilized and metabolized in ruminant animals. Regulations on quality assurance and use in animals are lacking, and CBD supplementation in livestock is not approved. If CBD supplements can be shown to be safe and effective, detection in the animal will be important for determining regulation of use. A withdrawal period can then be established to allow time for deterioration of product to safe levels before livestock products enter human markets. This study sought to …


Leveraging Bio-Inspired Molecules For Cancer Theranostics, Douglas S. MacPherson 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Leveraging Bio-Inspired Molecules For Cancer Theranostics, Douglas S. Macpherson

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A variety of molecules can be radiolabeled and delivered to a cancer site for the purposes of diagnostics and therapy. Among the most promising of tumor targeting molecules are peptides and antibodies. These bio-inspired molecules can be designed and synthesized to target and respond to cancer cells based on the properties of those cells. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes are over-expressed by some metastatic cancers, in which they are responsible for the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. In recent years, MMPs have emerged as promising targets for enzyme-responsive diagnostic probes because oligopeptides can be designed to be selectively hydrolyzed …


Exploring Gaps In City Climate Planning In The Mountain West, Joshua Padilla, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. 2023 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Exploring Gaps In City Climate Planning In The Mountain West, Joshua Padilla, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Environment

This fact sheet explores data from the 2022 Brookings Institution report by Joseph W. Kane, Adie Tomer, Caroline George, and Jamal Russell Black called “Not according to plan: Exploring gaps in city climate planning and the need for regional action." The original report analyzes decarbonization plans for 50 of the largest U.S. cities and comparatively ranks each plan using a point system of 5 categories. This fact sheet focuses on Mountain West cities (Denver, CO; Phoenix, AZ; Las Vegas, NV; Salt Lake, UT; and Albuquerque, NM) included in the original study.


The Effects Of Salinity And Acetaminophen On The Aquatic Snail Physa Acuta, Michelle Sackey-Ansah, Megan Mackey, Daniel Elias, Jason Doll, Alyssa Brookhart 2023 North Carolina Wesleyan University

The Effects Of Salinity And Acetaminophen On The Aquatic Snail Physa Acuta, Michelle Sackey-Ansah, Megan Mackey, Daniel Elias, Jason Doll, Alyssa Brookhart

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Pharmaceuticals are increasingly detected in water bodies, and their presence can negatively impact aquatic organisms. This effect can be amplified when combined with increasing salinity in freshwater ecosystems. Acetaminophen is a widely used analgesic that is commonly found in river, streams, and waters where it is discharged directly. Therefore, organisms present in these locations (e.g., insects, snails, amphibians, and fish) are likely to be affected by acetaminophen. In this study, we determined the effects of elevated salinity (0.68 g/L), acetaminophen (500 µg/L) and combined elevated salinity (0.68 g/L) and acetaminophen (500 µg/L), on the growth, reproduction, and movement of the …


Soil Properties And Potassium Availability In Pullen Farm Murray, Kentucky, Ava Isaacs, Gracey Moffitt, Whitney Sides 2023 Murray State University

Soil Properties And Potassium Availability In Pullen Farm Murray, Kentucky, Ava Isaacs, Gracey Moffitt, Whitney Sides

Posters-at-the-Capitol

One of the most important factors regarding soil and plant health is nutrient availability and fertility. Of these two factors that were mentioned available potassium is a key component. With that being said we decided that it would be beneficial to see how potassium can be traced within the soil in various locations after fertilizer is applied. There were two parts to this experiment. Part one was taking soil core samples in order to obtain various soil properties such as soil organic matter, soil water holding capacity and bulk density and observe if these properties have any effect on the …


Developmental Pharmacokinetics Of Indomethacin In Preterm Neonates: Severely Decreased Drug Clearance In The First Week Of Life., Wojciech Krzyzanski, Bradley Stockard, Andrea Gaedigk, Allison Scott, Whitney M. Nolte, Kim T. Gibson, J Steven Leeder, Tamorah Lewis 2023 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Developmental Pharmacokinetics Of Indomethacin In Preterm Neonates: Severely Decreased Drug Clearance In The First Week Of Life., Wojciech Krzyzanski, Bradley Stockard, Andrea Gaedigk, Allison Scott, Whitney M. Nolte, Kim T. Gibson, J Steven Leeder, Tamorah Lewis

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Indomethacin is used commonly in preterm neonates for the prevention of intracranial hemorrhage and closure of an abnormally open cardiac vessel. Due to biomedical advances, the infants who receive this drug in the neonatal intensive care unit setting have become younger, smaller, and less mature (more preterm) at the time of treatment. To develop a pharmacokinetics (PK) model to aid future dosing, we designed a prospective cohort study to characterize indomethacin PK in a dynamically changing patient population. A population PK base model was created using NONMEM, and a covariate model was developed in a primary development cohort and subsequently …


Vapourized Cannabis Extract Administration Impairs Memory And Alters Neural Activity In Laboratory Rats, Megan Chladny 2023 Wilfrid Laurier University

Vapourized Cannabis Extract Administration Impairs Memory And Alters Neural Activity In Laboratory Rats, Megan Chladny

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Although people have smoked cannabis for millennia, administration of cannabis by heating the dried plant material or distilled extracts to a temperature just below the combustion point (i.e., vapourization or "vaping") has rapidly increased over the past few years (Javadi-Payder, Cole, and Taffe, 2018; Manwell, Charchoglyan, Brewer, Matthews, Heipel, and Mallet, 2014). Conversely, most of the cannabinoid research using rodent models has used parenteral routes of administration to examine the effects of purified cannabis extracts such as ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), making it difficult to directly compare laboratory research to human drug use. Building on previous studies showing that THC …


Antibacterial, Antioxidant, And Repellency Potential Of The Essential Oil From Spartium Junceum L. Grown In Lebanon, Hawraa Zahrddin, Mahmoud Khalil, Akram Hijazi 2022 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University

Antibacterial, Antioxidant, And Repellency Potential Of The Essential Oil From Spartium Junceum L. Grown In Lebanon, Hawraa Zahrddin, Mahmoud Khalil, Akram Hijazi

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

The goal of our present study is to assess the pharmacological potential of essential oil extracted from Spartium junceum cultivated in Lebanon. This oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus. Then, an organoleptic characterization and an evaluation of its antioxidant, repellent/insecticidal, and antibacterial activities have been evaluated. The obtained results showed that this oil had an antioxidant activity reaching 82 % dependent on the dilution used. In addition, it showed an insecticidal effect and an antibacterial effect.


Risk Factors For Emergency Medical Care Or Hospitalization Due To Heat-Related Illness Or Injury: A Systematic Review, Blair Litwiller, Amber N. Barnes 2022 University of North Florida

Risk Factors For Emergency Medical Care Or Hospitalization Due To Heat-Related Illness Or Injury: A Systematic Review, Blair Litwiller, Amber N. Barnes

Florida Public Health Review

Background: Temperatures globally have been predicted to increase due to changes in the climate. As the earth gets warmer, it is expected that heat-related illness will also increase worldwide. An effective and appropriate public health response will be critical. Purpose: The aim of this review was to identify risk factors associated with heat-related illness and injury to provide target areas for future interventions. Methods: A review of existing literature was analyzed for risk factors that may increase the likelihood of being admitted to an emergency department for a heat related illness or injury. Results: Of the …


Effectiveness And Safety Of Direct Oral Anticoagulants Among Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation And Multimorbidity, Amol Dhamane, Mauricio Ferri, Allison V. Keshishian, Cristina Russ, Nipun Atreja, Cynthia Gutierrez, Birol Emir, Huseyin Yuce, Manuela Di Fusco 2022 Bristol-Myers Squibb

Effectiveness And Safety Of Direct Oral Anticoagulants Among Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation And Multimorbidity, Amol Dhamane, Mauricio Ferri, Allison V. Keshishian, Cristina Russ, Nipun Atreja, Cynthia Gutierrez, Birol Emir, Huseyin Yuce, Manuela Di Fusco

Publications and Research

Introduction

In the USA, there is a steady rise of atrial fibrillation due to the aging population with increased morbidity. This study evaluated the risk of stroke/systemic embolism (S/SE) and major bleeding (MB) among elderly patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and multimorbidity prescribed direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs).

Methods

Using the CMS Medicare database, a retrospective observational study of adult patients with NVAF and multimorbidity who initiated apixaban, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2017 was conducted. High multimorbidity was classified as having ≥ 6 comorbidities. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the hazard …


An Investigation Of The Effects Of Insulin And Magnesium On Bone Homeostasis In A 3d Bone Model, Katherine Lefferts 2022 Seton Hall University

An Investigation Of The Effects Of Insulin And Magnesium On Bone Homeostasis In A 3d Bone Model, Katherine Lefferts

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes formation, degradation, and repair in a constant state of remodeling. Bone remodeling is performed and regulated by three cell types: osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Bone homeostasis, the balance of bone formation and resorption, is regulated by biologically active substances secreted by the three bone cell types, as well as circulating hormones and proteins in the body. Insulin is the main anabolic hormone in the body, and its effects on bone homeostasis and regulation are still being uncovered. Magnesium is a trace element that is critical to bone homeostasis. It affects the secretion of …


Quantifying The Toxicological Effects Of The Organic Uv Filters Avobenzone And Homosalate On Acropora Cervicornis, Samantha F. Buckley 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Quantifying The Toxicological Effects Of The Organic Uv Filters Avobenzone And Homosalate On Acropora Cervicornis, Samantha F. Buckley

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Reports of the environmental effects of organic UV filters such as oxybenzone have led to the marketing of “reef-safe” sunscreen ingredients, including avobenzone and homosalate. Avobenzone provides broad-spectrum UV protection which blocks higher wavelength UV rays, the leading cause of aging and skin cancer. However, as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic UV filters have similar structures to crude oil and estrogens, some of which have been labeled endocrine disrupters. Common in personal care products, UV filters enter marine ecosystems via wastewater effluent and swimmers. Significant stress and mortality have been observed in juvenile and some adult scleractinian corals after exposure …


Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore 2022 Kennesaw State University

Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore

Symposium of Student Scholars

Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a powerful tool for developing anticancer and antimicrobial agents. Within this, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative approach to screening and validating weak and robust binders with targeted proteins, making NMR among the most attractive strategies in FBDD. Inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme (Ivyp1) of P. aeruginosa serves as an excellent target because of its active cellular location and implications in clinical prognosis for cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. This study uses current NMR and biophysical techniques to develop a covalent, fragment-linked warhead inhibitor for Ivyp1 through synthetic methods, warhead linking, and …


Health Effects Of Neonicotinoids On An Agricultural Community, Jocelyn Rodriguez-Paar 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Health Effects Of Neonicotinoids On An Agricultural Community, Jocelyn Rodriguez-Paar

Capstone Experience

Mead, Nebraska, a small United States agricultural community consisting of approximately 600 people, was accidentally exposed to high amounts of neonicotinoids when AltEn, an ethanol plant that used neonicotinoid coated corn and soybean seeds for biofuel, was discovered not disposing of the toxic byproduct safely. Coincidentally, there was also a leak in their wastewater system that also contaminated the nearby areas. Although neonicotinoids are not considered highly dangerous with low dose exposures, large dose exposures can cause symptoms similarly to nicotine poisonings, such as difficulty breathing, vomiting, nausea, hypertension, tachycardia, and lethargy (Imamura, T. et al., 2010). Neonicotinoid poisoning can …


How Will Climate Change Affect The Future, Ashanti K. Belone, Farrukh Zia 2022 CUNY New York City College of Technology

How Will Climate Change Affect The Future, Ashanti K. Belone, Farrukh Zia

Publications and Research

Climate Change has played a massive role in the habitat of us earth dwellers and the animals that co-exists with us. I believe that essentially climate change plays a massive role because this can dictate whether or not the earth is habitable and if a need for evacuation is necessary. Many might believe that climate change only refers to the rising temperature but that’s just the icing on the cake. Earth is a system that is very much connected, this means that changes in one area will set off a chain reaction allowing these changes to happen in many other …


The Impact Of Pharmacogenetics On Oral Fluid Steady State Drug Testing Results, Aliya D. Lewis 2022 CUNY John Jay College

The Impact Of Pharmacogenetics On Oral Fluid Steady State Drug Testing Results, Aliya D. Lewis

Student Theses

Pharmacogenetics refers to the relationship between phenotypic variation in metabolism and response to certain drugs. The interface of pharmacogenetics and forensic toxicology is not well explored. A major component of the opioid metabolic pathway has to do with a family of cytochromes called cytochrome P450 (CYP450). CYP450 refers to a general family of enzymes capable of catalyzing the oxidative biotransformation of lipophilic substances, CYPs are further categorized into families and sub-families (Roller, 2015; Zanger & Schwab, 2013). The gene CYP2D6 belongs to the CYP2 family which is responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics. This study looked at the effect of …


Developmental Effects Of Chronic Low-Level Arsenic Exposure In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells And In Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, M. Chiara Perego 2022 Clemson University

Developmental Effects Of Chronic Low-Level Arsenic Exposure In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells And In Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, M. Chiara Perego

All Dissertations

Arsenic is an environmental contaminant commonly found in food and drinking water. Exposure to arsenic during embryonic development has been linked to reduced muscle growth, disrupted muscle development and locomotor activity, impaired neurodevelopment, reduced IQ, impaired memory and learning deficits. While the mechanisms responsible for developmental changes following in utero exposure to arsenic are not well known, one possibility is that arsenic might disrupt proper cellular differentiation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which arsenic exposure could alter stem cell differentiation into neurons.

First, we continuously exposed P19 mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to 0.1 μM (7.5 ppb) …


Insights On The Behavior Of Nano-Copper In The Agroecosystem: Mycorrhizal Associations With Spearmint (Mentha Spicata), Suzanne Annette Apodaca 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Insights On The Behavior Of Nano-Copper In The Agroecosystem: Mycorrhizal Associations With Spearmint (Mentha Spicata), Suzanne Annette Apodaca

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Nanotechnology offers significant potential benefits to our society, including the agriculture sector. With the advancement of nano-enabled agrochemicals towards sustainable and efficient agricultural practices, it is essential to address environmental issues associated with the use of nanoscale materials. The same properties that give promise to applications of nanotechnology in modern agriculture could have unintended consequences on ecosystem dynamics. A point of concern for risk management is the impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to beneficial microbial communities, which support a variety of ecosystem services.

Use of copper (Cu) products in agriculture are based on their abundance, role as a micronutrient, and …


Understanding Effect Of Ionic Liquid On Metalloproteins: Laccase And Azurin, Aashka Y. Patel 2022 Rowan University

Understanding Effect Of Ionic Liquid On Metalloproteins: Laccase And Azurin, Aashka Y. Patel

Theses and Dissertations

Interactions between ionic liquids and biomolecules have been of great interest due to the intrinsic properties of ionic liquids and the flexibility to mix and match cations and anions to create unique ionic liquids. A number of ionic liquid-biomolecule studies have focused on the interactions with proteins, including industrially relevant enzymes. One of these, laccase from Trametes versicolor, is a naturally derived enzyme used in the breakdown of phenolic compounds in a wide variety of industries, especially useful in breakdown of lignocellulosic materials. Here, a combination of experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate the interactions …


Acknowledgment Of Reviewers, 2022 Taiwan Food and Drug Administration

Acknowledgment Of Reviewers

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress