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The Degradation Of Pharmaceutical Pollutants In Wastewater Catalyzed By Chloroperoxidase And The Construction Of Chloroperoxidase H105r Mutant, Qinghao He 2016 Florida International University

The Degradation Of Pharmaceutical Pollutants In Wastewater Catalyzed By Chloroperoxidase And The Construction Of Chloroperoxidase H105r Mutant, Qinghao He

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Trace amounts of pharmaceuticals have been detected in water, from nanograms per liter to micrograms per liter, and have a negatively effect in the aquatic environment and an increased potential risk of drug poisoning for human and animals. In order to address the problem, drug degradation catalyzed by chloroperoxidase (CPO) has been investigated. CPO is a heme-containing glycoprotein secreted by the fungus, Caldariomyces fumago, it catalyzes two major types of oxidations, two one-electron oxidations as catalyzed by most peroxidases and two-electron oxidations which are rare for conventional peroxidases.

Five common drugs from a variety of classes which were persistent in ...


Ex Vivo Immune Responses In Freshwater Fish Leucocytes Exposed To Environmental Serotypes Of Lipopolysaccharides, Hakim Samai 2016 Université Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UMR-I 02 SEBIO

Ex Vivo Immune Responses In Freshwater Fish Leucocytes Exposed To Environmental Serotypes Of Lipopolysaccharides, Hakim Samai

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Mitigation Of Pesticide Toxicity By Food-Grade Lactobacilli, Mark E. Trinder 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Mitigation Of Pesticide Toxicity By Food-Grade Lactobacilli, Mark E. Trinder

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lactobacilli are Gram-positive bacteria used in fermented foods. Many species are commensal microbiota members that confer host benefits. This thesis investigated lactobacilli mitigation of organophosphate and neonicotinoid pesticide toxicity in mammals and insects, respectively. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and GR-1 (LGR-1) were found to sequester, but not metabolize, organophosphate pesticides (parathion and chlorpyrifos) in solution. For LGG, this sequestration reduced organophosphate pesticide absorption in a Caco-2 intestinal Transwell model and promoted survival of Drosophila melanogaster lethally exposed to chlorpyrifos. Supplementation of mice with LGR-1 was found to alter host xenobiotic metabolism in the liver, and consequently chlorpyrifos metabolism following acute ...


Policy Options To Mitigate Cigarette Filter Litter In California, Max Wechsler 2016 The University of San Francisco

Policy Options To Mitigate Cigarette Filter Litter In California, Max Wechsler

Master's Projects and Capstones

Approximately 16.2 billion cellulose acetate cigarette filters are littered in California annually. Cigarette filter litter (CFL) creates an annual financial burden of over $1.27 billion for California. CFL also poses unquantifiable damages to human and environmental health in the form of ingestion, toxicity, formation into microplastics, and quality of life degradation. These costs and damages warrant the adoption of policy measures in order to mitigate CFL. Cigarette taxes and fees raise government revenue, but they are politically challenging due to California Proposition 26. Locational smoking bans encourage anti-smoking cultural norms and may decrease consumption, although indoor smoking bans ...


Flow Cytometric Analysis For Cyanobacteria In 36 New Jersey Freshwater Bodies, Ruchit Patel 2016 Seton Hall University

Flow Cytometric Analysis For Cyanobacteria In 36 New Jersey Freshwater Bodies, Ruchit Patel

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Eutrophication, a process that occurs due to excessive accumulation of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous is primarily from anthropogenic nitrogen and natural occurrences. This phenomenon causes cyanobacterial overgrowth which can potentially lead to toxic algal blooms that affect public drinking water sources and recreational usage. An immediate need to detect bloom forming cyanobacteria in freshwater bodies early hand is critical to implement prevention strategies. These microorganisms contain phycobiliproteins such as phycoerytrhin, and allophycocyanin as part of the phycobillisome that allow autofluorescence. In this study, 36 freshwater bodies from 14 New Jersey counties were collected and processed for flow cytometric ...


Are Electronic Cigarettes The Solution To Smoking Cessation?, Heather L. Walsh, Audrey L. McMurray 2016 James Madison University

Are Electronic Cigarettes The Solution To Smoking Cessation?, Heather L. Walsh, Audrey L. Mcmurray

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2016 to 2019

Objectives: Little is known regarding the effectiveness of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as therapy to aid in smoking cessation. Many hypothesize that e-cigarettes are equally as effective or more effective than alternate smoking cessation therapies. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence on effectiveness of e-cigarettes on smoking cessation and quitting behavior as compared to other smoking cessation therapies, or no therapy at all.

Methods: Searches were done in PubMed utilizing the terms “electronic cigarettes” and “smoking cessation” [MeSH terms]. In PubMed, the following filters limits were used: published in the last 5 years, human species, English language ...


Evaluating The Cytotoxic Effects Of Cellulose Nanocrystals (Cncs) Using Autobioluminescent Yeast And Human Cells, Julianna Hughes Burchett 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluating The Cytotoxic Effects Of Cellulose Nanocrystals (Cncs) Using Autobioluminescent Yeast And Human Cells, Julianna Hughes Burchett

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are widely used in different industries including pharmaceutical and cosmetic production due to their adept physical and biological properties. Because CNCs are becoming a more prevalent material and have a high potential of being redistributed in the environment, it is important to understand their toxic potentials in biological systems, including organisms of various trophic levels. This study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of CNCs in the lower eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells using autobioluminescent yeast and human cell reporters, respectively. The S. cerevisiae and HEK293 reporter cells were engineered to express a synthetic ...


The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley 2016 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is partially attributed to perturbations in lipid metabolism. Xenobiotics, such as pharmaceutical drugs and environmental chemicals, have been associated with increased risk of CVD in multiple large-scale human population studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. We and others have identified several xenobiotics as potent agonists for the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that can be activated by numerous drugs as well as environmental and dietary chemicals. However, the role of PXR in mediating the pathophysiological effects of xenobiotic exposure in humans and animals remains elusive ...


The Influence Of Abiotic Factors On The Uptake And Elimination Of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol By Larval Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus), Benjamin Livingston Hlina 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Influence Of Abiotic Factors On The Uptake And Elimination Of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol By Larval Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus), Benjamin Livingston Hlina

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The backbone of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Great Lakes is the use of the piscicide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which is applied to streams containing larval sea lampreys. However, TFM effectiveness can be influenced by abiotic factors such as pH and temperature, which fluctuate daily and seasonally. The objectives of this thesis were to evaluate the influence of pH, temperature, and season on the toxicity, uptake, and elimination of TFM by larval sea lamprey. Radio-labeled TFM (14C-TFM) was used to determine how TFM uptake rates varied at different water pHs or temperatures during exposure to TFM at the ...


The Sublethal Physiological Effects Of Exposure To Copper And Silver Mixtures On Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Wesley Truong 2016 truo7840

The Sublethal Physiological Effects Of Exposure To Copper And Silver Mixtures On Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Wesley Truong

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The mechanisms behind metal-metal interactions in freshwater environments are currently not well understood. Freshwater environments consist of many different types of metals, from those naturally present such as copper (Cu) and those that originate from anthropogenic sources like silver (Ag). Both Cu and Ag use apical sodium (Na+) channels for uptake into the gills of freshwater fish. In the gills, the mechanisms of Cu2+ and Ag+ toxicity appear to be similar to one another, which is by inhibiting Na+ /potassium (K+)- adenosine triphosphatase (NKA) and carbonic anhydrase (CA). Inhibition of NKA and CA results in ionoregulatory disturbances where branchial ...


Street Drug Markets Beyond Favelas In Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Elenice De Souza De Souza Oliveira, Braulio Figueiredo Alves Silva, Marcos Oliveira Prates 2015 Montclair State University

Street Drug Markets Beyond Favelas In Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Elenice De Souza De Souza Oliveira, Braulio Figueiredo Alves Silva, Marcos Oliveira Prates

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

This study examines whether social disorganization mechanisms that explain clusters of street drug markets in socially disorganized neighborhoods in developed countries can also help explain geographical patterns of drug dealing across neighborhoods in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data for this study includes drug arrests from 2007 to 2011 and socio demographic data from the 2010 Census. To examine the influence of exploratory variables on drug market locations, the Negative Binominal regression model was used at two levels of analysis—the Belo Horizonte city center and other neighborhoods including favelas. The findings show that a high hot spot of street drug markets ...


Odorant Receptor-Based Discovery Of Natural Repellents Of Human Lice, Julien Pelletier, Pingxi Xu, Kyong-Sup Yoon, John M. Clark, Walter S. Leal 2015 University of California-Davis

Odorant Receptor-Based Discovery Of Natural Repellents Of Human Lice, Julien Pelletier, Pingxi Xu, Kyong-Sup Yoon, John M. Clark, Walter S. Leal

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

The body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, is an obligate blood-feeding ectoparasite and an important insect vector that mediates the transmission of diseases to humans. The analysis of the body louse genome revealed a drastic reduction of the chemosensory gene repertoires when compared to other insects, suggesting specific olfactory adaptations to host specialization and permanent parasitic lifestyle. Here, we present for the first time functional evidence for the role of odorant receptors (ORs) in this insect, with the objective to gain insight into the chemical ecology of this vector. We identified seven putative full-length ORs, in addition to the odorant receptor ...


Occupational Exposure To Isoflurane Anesthetic Gas In The Research Environment, Andrea R. Mulvenon 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Occupational Exposure To Isoflurane Anesthetic Gas In The Research Environment, Andrea R. Mulvenon

Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation is a compilation of studies related to the halogenated anesthetic gas isoflurane. Historically, halogenated anesthetic gases have been used in the health care industry. In 1977 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) issued a recommended exposure limit (REL) of two parts per million (ppm) averaged over one hour of exposure for halogenated anesthetic gases (NIOSH 1977). The purpose of the standard was to protect healthcare workers from exposure to halothane, methoxyflurane, and chloroform. However, isoflurane only became available after the NIOSH REL was adopted. Therefore, the NIOSH REL is not directly applicable to isoflurane. Moreover ...


Photocatalytic Mineralization Of Phenol On Fluidized Titanium Oxide-Coated Silica Gel, Guillermo J. Rincon 2015 University of New Orleans

Photocatalytic Mineralization Of Phenol On Fluidized Titanium Oxide-Coated Silica Gel, Guillermo J. Rincon

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

A bench-scale tubular reactor with recirculation was built in order to study the efficiency of the photocatalytic oxidation of phenol on fluidized titanium oxide-coated silica gel beads. A UV-C lamp placed along the central vertical axes of the reactor was used as source of photons. A bed of silica gel beads was fluidized by means of fluid recirculation and forced to follow upward helical flow around the lamp. Anatase was successfully synthetized on silica gel particles of average diameters 224, 357 and 461 µm, as confirmed by scanning electron micrographs, through a sol-gel technique using a titanium (iv)isopropoxide / hydrochloric ...


Fighting For The Right To Breathe: Exploring Perspectives Of Environmenal Threats In The South Durban Basin, Kayleigh Bhangdia 2015 SIT Study Abroad

Fighting For The Right To Breathe: Exploring Perspectives Of Environmenal Threats In The South Durban Basin, Kayleigh Bhangdia

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The goal of this project is to understand the way in which community members in South Durban perceive the environmental threats that they face. I have contextualized the current environmental injustices present in the wake of the Apartheid legacy. I worked closely with the South Durban Environmental Conservation Alliance in preparing my questions and conducting my interviews. I conducted 24 interviews in three different communities in the South Durban Basin including Wentworth, Merebank, and Clairwood. Following the interviews in Merebank and Clairwood, I engaged the participants in a short participatory mapping exercise in which they highlighted where the pollution was ...


Soil Total Organic Carbon And Farmers’ Perceptions Associated With Bokashi Application In Cerro Punta, Panama, Emma Searson 2015 SIT Study Abroad

Soil Total Organic Carbon And Farmers’ Perceptions Associated With Bokashi Application In Cerro Punta, Panama, Emma Searson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Sustainable use and maintenance of agricultural soils are important for maintaining long-term agricultural productivity and environmental quality. These issues are especially important in Cerro Punta, known as the breadbasket of Panama, which is experiencing severe erosion. While current practices and agrochemical usage damage soil health and function over time, application of organic material improves soil physic-chemical properties such as nutrient and total organic carbon (TOC) content. Bokashi, a fermented organic soil amendment with effective microorganisms (EM), is thought to be especially beneficial due to its ability to augment populations of soil microbes, which deliver plant-available nutrients to crops and improve ...


Determination Of The Baseline Concentration Of Mercury And Percentage Of Organic Material In Sub-Alpine Forest Soil Before Clear Cutting Within The White Mountain National Forest, Daniel Sunghoon Hong 2015 Trinity College

Determination Of The Baseline Concentration Of Mercury And Percentage Of Organic Material In Sub-Alpine Forest Soil Before Clear Cutting Within The White Mountain National Forest, Daniel Sunghoon Hong

Senior Theses and Projects

Clear-cutting has been practiced for centuries to provide timber for our societal needs. It is the most economically profitable method of timber harvesting but can create disturbances in the ecosystems when practiced irresponsibly. Clear-cutting vast parcels of land can have adverse effects on the quality of the soils, including erosion, loss of nutrients due to rapid runoff, and disruption of habitats and wildlife. Moreover, with large parcels of trees cut, soils are more exposed to direct airborne fallout and rapid runoff of trace metals such as mercury (Hg) into nearby fluvial systems. In the summer of 2013, soil samples were ...


Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure Alters Oxytocin Receptor Gene Expression And Maternal Behavior In Rat, Howard Cromwell 2014 Bowling Green State University

Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure Alters Oxytocin Receptor Gene Expression And Maternal Behavior In Rat, Howard Cromwell

Howard Casey Cromwell

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is a persistent organic pollutant known to induce diverse molecular and behavioral alterations. Effects of PCB exposure could be transmitted to future generations via changes in behavior and gene expression. Previous work has shown that PCB-exposure can alter social behavior. The present study extends this work by examining a possible molecular mechanism for these changes. Pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley) were exposed through diet to a combination of non-coplanar (PCB 47 - 2,20,4,40-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and coplanar (PCB 77 - 3,30,4,40- tetrachlorobiphenyl) congeners. Maternal care behaviors were examined by evaluating the rate and quality of nest building ...


An Evaluation Of The Us High Production Volume (Hpv) Chemical-Testing Programme: A Study In (Ir)Relevance, Redundancy And Retro Thinking, Andrew Nicholson, Jessica Sandler, Troy Seidle 2014 People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

An Evaluation Of The Us High Production Volume (Hpv) Chemical-Testing Programme: A Study In (Ir)Relevance, Redundancy And Retro Thinking, Andrew Nicholson, Jessica Sandler, Troy Seidle

Troy Seidle, PhD

Under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Programme, chemical companies have volunteered to conduct screening-level toxicity tests on approximately 2800 widely-used industrial chemicals. Participating companies are committed to providing available toxicity information to the EPA and presenting testing proposals for review by the EPA and posting on the EPA Web site as public information. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and a coalition of animal protection organisations have reviewed all the test plans submitted by the participating chemical companies for compliance with the original HPV framework, as well as with animal welfare guidelines ...


Numerical Simulations Of In Vitro Nanoparticle Toxicity – The Case Of Poly(Amido Amine) Dendrimers., Marcus Maher, Pratap Naha, Sourav Prasanna Mukherjee, Hugh Byrne 2014 Technological University Dublin

Numerical Simulations Of In Vitro Nanoparticle Toxicity – The Case Of Poly(Amido Amine) Dendrimers., Marcus Maher, Pratap Naha, Sourav Prasanna Mukherjee, Hugh Byrne

Articles

A phenomenological rate equation model is constructed to numerically simulate nanoparticle uptake and subsequent cellular response. Polyamidoamine dendrimers (generations 4-6) are modelled and the temporal evolution of the intracellular cascade of; increased levels of reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidant species, caspase activation, mitochondrial membrane potential decay, tumour necrosis factor and interleukin generation is simulated, based on experimental observations.

The dose and generation dependence of several of these response factors are seen to well represent experimental observations at a range of time points. The model indicates that variations between responses of different cell-lines, including murine macrophages, human keratinocytes and colon cells ...


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