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Molecular Basis Of A Novel Adaptation To Hypoxic-Hypercapnia In A Strictly Fossorial Mole, Kevin L. Campbell, Jay F. Storz, Anthony V. Signore, Hideaki Moriyama, Kenneth C. Catania, Alexander P. Payson, Joseph Bonaventura, Jörg Stetefeld, Roy E. Weber 2010 University of Manitoba

Molecular Basis Of A Novel Adaptation To Hypoxic-Hypercapnia In A Strictly Fossorial Mole, Kevin L. Campbell, Jay F. Storz, Anthony V. Signore, Hideaki Moriyama, Kenneth C. Catania, Alexander P. Payson, Joseph Bonaventura, Jörg Stetefeld, Roy E. Weber

Jay F. Storz Publications

Background: Elevated blood O2 affinity enhances survival at low O2 pressures, and is perhaps the best known and most broadly accepted evolutionary adjustment of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental hypoxia. This phenotype arises by increasing the intrinsic O2 affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb) molecule, by decreasing the intracellular concentration of allosteric effectors (e.g., 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; DPG), or by suppressing the sensitivity of Hb to these physiological cofactors.

Results: Here we report that strictly fossorial eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus) have evolved a low O2 affinity, DPG-insensitive Hb - contrary to expectations for a mammalian species that is adapted ...


Genetic Differences In Hemoglobin Function Between Highland And Lowland Deer Mice, Jay F. Storz, Amy M. Runck, Hideaki Moriyama, Roy E. Weber, Angela Fago 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Genetic Differences In Hemoglobin Function Between Highland And Lowland Deer Mice, Jay F. Storz, Amy M. Runck, Hideaki Moriyama, Roy E. Weber, Angela Fago

Jay F. Storz Publications

In high-altitude vertebrates, adaptive changes in blood–O2 affinity may be mediated by modifications of hemoglobin (Hb) structure that affect intrinsic O2 affinity and/or responsiveness to allosteric effectors that modulate Hb–O2 affinity. This mode of genotypic specialization is considered typical of mammalian species that are high-altitude natives. Here we investigated genetically based differences in Hb–O2 affinity between highland and lowland populations of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a generalist species that has the broadest altitudinal distribution of any North American mammal. The results of a combined genetic and proteomic analysis revealed that deer ...


Chlorella Viruses Encode Most, If Not All, Of The Machinery To Glycosylate Their Glycoproteins Independent Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Golgi, James L. Van Etten, James Gurnon, Giane M. Yanai-Balser, David Dunigan, Michael V. Graves 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Chlorella Viruses Encode Most, If Not All, Of The Machinery To Glycosylate Their Glycoproteins Independent Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Golgi, James L. Van Etten, James Gurnon, Giane M. Yanai-Balser, David Dunigan, Michael V. Graves

Virology Papers

In contrast to all other viruses that use the host machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi to glycosylate their glycoproteins, the large dsDNA-containing chlorella viruses encode most, if not all, of the components to glycosylate their major capsid proteins. Furthermore, all experimental results indicate that glycosylation occurs independent of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. (Review article)


Importance Sampling Of Word Patterns In Dna And Protein Sequences, Hock Peng Chan, Nancy R. Zhang, Louis H. Y. Chen 2010 National University of Singapore

Importance Sampling Of Word Patterns In Dna And Protein Sequences, Hock Peng Chan, Nancy R. Zhang, Louis H. Y. Chen

Statistics Papers

The use of Monte Carlo evaluation to compute p-values of pattern counting test statistics is especially attractive when an asymptotic theory is absent or when the search sequence or the word pattern is too short for an asymptotic formula to be accurate. The drawback of applying Monte Carlo simulations directly is its inefficiency when p-values are small, which precisely is the situation of importance. In this paper, we provide a general importance sampling algorithm for efficient Monte Carlo evaluation of small p-values of pattern counting test statistics and apply it on word patterns of biological interest, in particular palindromes and ...


Subsampling Methods For Genomic Inference, Peter J. Bickel, Nathan Boley, James B. Brown, Haiyan Huang, Nancy R. Zhang 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Subsampling Methods For Genomic Inference, Peter J. Bickel, Nathan Boley, James B. Brown, Haiyan Huang, Nancy R. Zhang

Statistics Papers

Large-scale statistical analysis of data sets associated with genome sequences plays an important role in modern biology. A key component of such statistical analyses is the computation of p-values and confidence bounds for statistics defined on the genome. Currently such computation is commonly achieved through ad hoc simulation measures. The method of randomization, which is at the heart of these simulation procedures, can significantly affect the resulting statistical conclusions. Most simulation schemes introduce a variety of hidden assumptions regarding the nature of the randomness in the data, resulting in a failure to capture biologically meaningful relationships. To address the ...


Incomplete Lineage Sorting: Consistent Phylogeny Estimation From Multiple Loci, Elchanan Mossel, Sébastien Roch 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Incomplete Lineage Sorting: Consistent Phylogeny Estimation From Multiple Loci, Elchanan Mossel, Sébastien Roch

Statistics Papers

We introduce a simple computationally efficient algorithm for reconstructing phylogenies from multiple gene trees in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, that is, when the topology of the gene trees may differ from that of the species tree. We show that our technique is statistically consistent under standard stochastic assumptions, that is, it returns the correct tree given sufficiently many unlinked loci. We also show that it can tolerate moderate estimation errors.


Functional Properties Of The Hiv-1 Subtype C Envelope Glycoprotein Associated With Mother-To-Child Transmission, Hong Zhang, Marzena Rola, John T. West, Damien C. Tully, Piotr Kubis, Jun He, Chipepo Kankasa, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Functional Properties Of The Hiv-1 Subtype C Envelope Glycoprotein Associated With Mother-To-Child Transmission, Hong Zhang, Marzena Rola, John T. West, Damien C. Tully, Piotr Kubis, Jun He, Chipepo Kankasa, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Understanding the properties of viruses capable of establishing infection during perinatal transmission of HIV-1 is critical for designing effective means of limiting transmission. We previously demonstrated that the newly transmitted viruses (in infant) were more fit in growth, as imparted by their envelope glycoproteins, than those in their corresponding mothers. Here, we further characterized the viral envelope glycoproteins from six mother-infant transmission pairs and determined whether any specific envelope functions correlate with HIV-1 subtype C perinatal transmission. We found that most newly transmitted viruses were less susceptible to neutralization by their maternal plasma compared to contemporaneous maternal viruses. However, the ...


Enhancement Of Autophagy During Lytic Replication By The Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Replication And Transcription Activator, Hui-Ju Wen, Zhilong Yang, You Zhou, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Enhancement Of Autophagy During Lytic Replication By The Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Replication And Transcription Activator, Hui-Ju Wen, Zhilong Yang, You Zhou, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Autophagy is one of two major degradation systems in eukaryotic cells. The degradation mechanism of autophagy is required to maintain the balance between the biosynthetic and catabolic processes and also contributes to defense against invading pathogens. Recent studies suggest that a number of viruses can evade or subvert the host cell autophagic pathway to enhance their own replication. Here, we investigated the effect of autophagy on the KSHV (Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) life cycle. We found that the inhibition of autophagy reduces KSHV lytic reactivation from latency, and an enhancement of autophagy can be detected during KSHV lytic replication. In ...


The Role Of Cuticle, Fatty Acids, And Lipid Signaling In Plant Defense, Ye Xia 2010 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Cuticle, Fatty Acids, And Lipid Signaling In Plant Defense, Ye Xia

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is initiated upon recognition of specific microbial effectors by cognate plant resistance proteins and immunizes distal tissues of plants against secondary infections. SAR involves the generation of a mobile signal at the site of primary infection, which then translocates to and activates defense responses in the distal tissues via some unknown mechanism(s). This study shows that an ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN 4 (ACP4), GLABRA1 (GL1) and ACYL CARRIER BINDING PROTEINS (ACBP) are required for the processing of the mobile SAR signal in distal tissues of Arabidopsis. Although acp4, gl1 and acbp plants generate the mobile signal ...


Detection, Validation, And Downstream Analysis Of Allelic Variation In Gene Expression, Daniel C. Ciobanu, Lu Engle, Khyobeni Mozhui, Xusheng Wang, Manjunatha Jagalur, John A. Morris, William L. Taylor, Klaus Dietz, Perikles Simon, Robert W. Williams 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Detection, Validation, And Downstream Analysis Of Allelic Variation In Gene Expression, Daniel C. Ciobanu, Lu Engle, Khyobeni Mozhui, Xusheng Wang, Manjunatha Jagalur, John A. Morris, William L. Taylor, Klaus Dietz, Perikles Simon, Robert W. Williams

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Common sequence variants within a gene often generate important differences in expression of corresponding mRNAs. This high level of local (allelic) control—or cis modulation—rivals that produced by gene targeting, but expression is titrated finely over a range of levels. We are interested in exploiting this allelic variation to study gene function and downstream consequences of differences in expression dosage. We have used several bioinformatics and molecular approaches to estimate error rates in the discovery of cis modulation and to analyze some of the biological and technical confounds that contribute to the variation in gene expression profiling. Our analysis ...


Srebp Pathway Genes As Candidate Markers In Country Ham Production, Benedicte Renaville, Kimberly L. Glenn, Benny E. Mote, Bin Fan, Kenneth J. Stalder, Max F. Rothschild 2010 Università di Udine

Srebp Pathway Genes As Candidate Markers In Country Ham Production, Benedicte Renaville, Kimberly L. Glenn, Benny E. Mote, Bin Fan, Kenneth J. Stalder, Max F. Rothschild

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Country hams are dry-cured products from the Southeastern region of the USA. This high value product requires quality fresh meat to avoid later processing problems. The marker SREBF1 is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis and antioxidative enzyme transcription. The SREBF1 gene and its regulators, SCAP and MBTPS1, were investigated for associations with several meat quality traits in country hams. After single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification, PCR-RFLP tests were designed for one polymorphism in each of the three investigated genes. Meat quality and physical traits were collected on 299 fresh hams. Significant associations were found ...


Tympanic Temperature In Confined Beef Cattle Exposed To Excessive Heat Load, Terry L. Mader, John B. Gaughan, Leslie J. Johnson, G. Leroy Hahn 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Tympanic Temperature In Confined Beef Cattle Exposed To Excessive Heat Load, Terry L. Mader, John B. Gaughan, Leslie J. Johnson, G. Leroy Hahn

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Angus crossbred yearling steers (n=168) were used to evaluate effects on performance and tympanic temperature (TT) of feeding additional potassium and sodium to steers exposed to excessive heat load (maximum daily ambient temperature exceeded 32°C for three consecutive days) during seasonal summer conditions. Steers were assigned one of four treatments: (1) control; (2) potassium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO3); (3) sodium supplemented (diet containing 1.10% NaCl); or (4) potassium and sodium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO3 and 1.10% NaCl). Overall, additional KHCO3 at the 2% level or NaCl at the 1% level did not ...


Feed Intake Of Sheep As Affected By Body Weight, Breed, Sex, And Feed Composition, R. M. Lewis, G. C. Emmans 2010 Scottish Agricultural College

Feed Intake Of Sheep As Affected By Body Weight, Breed, Sex, And Feed Composition, R. M. Lewis, G. C. Emmans

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The hypotheses tested were that genetic size-scaling for mature BW (A, kg) would reduce variation in intake between kinds of sheep and that quadratic polynomials on u = BW/A with zero intercept would provide good descriptions of the relationship between scaled intake (SI, g/A0.73 d) and degree of maturity in BW (u) across feeds of differing quality. Both sexes of Suffolk sheep from 2 experimental lines (n = 225) and from 3 breed types (Suffolk, Scottish Blackface, and their cross; n = 149) were recorded weekly for ad libitum feed intake and BW; recording of intake was from weaning through ...


Strain Differences In Stress Responsivity Are Associated With Divergent Amygdala Gene Expression And Glutamate-Mediated Neuronal Excitability, Khyobeni Mozhui, Rose-Marie Karlsson, Thomas L. Kash, Jessica Ihne, Maxine Norcross, Sachin Patel, Mollee R. Farrell, Elizabeth E. Hill, Carolyn Graybeal, Kathryn P. Martin, Marguerite Camp, Paul J. Fitzgerald, Daniel C. Ciobanu, Rolf Sprengel, Masayoshi Mishina, Cara L. Wellman, Danny G. Winder, Robert W. WIlliams, Andrew Holmes 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Strain Differences In Stress Responsivity Are Associated With Divergent Amygdala Gene Expression And Glutamate-Mediated Neuronal Excitability, Khyobeni Mozhui, Rose-Marie Karlsson, Thomas L. Kash, Jessica Ihne, Maxine Norcross, Sachin Patel, Mollee R. Farrell, Elizabeth E. Hill, Carolyn Graybeal, Kathryn P. Martin, Marguerite Camp, Paul J. Fitzgerald, Daniel C. Ciobanu, Rolf Sprengel, Masayoshi Mishina, Cara L. Wellman, Danny G. Winder, Robert W. Williams, Andrew Holmes

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Stress is a major risk factor for numerous neuropsychiatric diseases. However, susceptibility to stress and the qualitative nature of stress effects on behavior differ markedly among individuals. This is partly because of the moderating influence of genetic factors. Inbred mouse strains provide a relatively stable and restricted range of genetic and environmental variability that is valuable for disentangling gene–stress interactions. Here, we screened a panel of inbred strains for anxiety- and depression-related phenotypes at baseline (trait) and after exposure to repeated restraint. Two strains, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J, differed in trait and restraint-induced anxiety-related

behavior (dark/light exploration ...


Biochemical Profiling Of Histone Binding Selectivity Of The Yeast Bromodomain Family, Qiang Zhang, Suvobrata Chakravarty, Dario Ghersi, Lei Zeng, Alexander N. Plotnikov, Roberto Sanchez, Ming-Ming Zhou 2010 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Biochemical Profiling Of Histone Binding Selectivity Of The Yeast Bromodomain Family, Qiang Zhang, Suvobrata Chakravarty, Dario Ghersi, Lei Zeng, Alexander N. Plotnikov, Roberto Sanchez, Ming-Ming Zhou

Interdisciplinary Informatics Faculty Publications

Background: It has been shown that molecular interactions between site-specific chemical modifications such as acetylation and methylation on DNA-packing histones and conserved structural modules present in transcriptional proteins are closely associated with chromatin structural changes and gene activation. Unlike methyl-lysine that can interact with different protein modules including chromodomains, Tudor and MBT domains, as well as PHD fingers, acetyl-lysine (Kac) is known thus far to be recognized only by bromodomains. While histone lysine acetylation plays a crucial role in regulation of chromatin-mediated gene transcription, a high degree of sequence variation of the acetyl-lysine binding site in the bromodomains has limited ...


The Role Of Mitochondria In The Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect In Human Lymphoblastoid Cells, Sountharia Rajendran 2010 Wayne State University

The Role Of Mitochondria In The Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect In Human Lymphoblastoid Cells, Sountharia Rajendran

Wayne State University Theses

This work evaluated the radiation-induced bystander effect in mitochondrial mutant cells and in normal cells treated with mitochondrial inhibitors. Although much research has been performed on the bystander effect, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Cells without intact mitochondrial DNA have been shown to lack the bystander effect, which is an energy-dependent process. Based on these findings, cells harboring mutations in the mitochondrial genes responsible for ATP synthesis, and normal cells treated with mitochondrial inhibitors, were hypothesized to show a decreased bystander effect when compared to normal cells that were not treated with the mitochondrial inhibitors.

Radiation-induced bystander effects ...


Analysing The Effects Of Loss Of Sin3 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Aishwarya Swaminathan 2010 Wayne State University

Analysing The Effects Of Loss Of Sin3 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Aishwarya Swaminathan

Wayne State University Dissertations

Sin3A has been previously shown to be an essential gene for Drosophila viability and is implicated in the regulation of cell cycle. In this study, we show that SIN3 is not only required for embryonic viability but also for post-embryonic development. Genetic analysis suggests that the different isoforms of SIN3 may regulate unique sets of genes during development. The developmental lethality occurring due to ubiquitous knock down of SIN3 is hypothesized to be to the result of defects in cell proliferation. Conditional knock down of SIN3 in the wing discs results in a curly wing phenotype in the adult fly ...


Towards An Understanding Of The Etiology Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Identification Of Genes Implicated In Aaa Risk And Development, John Hunt Lillvis 2010 Wayne State University

Towards An Understanding Of The Etiology Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Identification Of Genes Implicated In Aaa Risk And Development, John Hunt Lillvis

Wayne State University Dissertations

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease for which mechanisms of formation are still not well understood. Despite a strong genetic component to AAA risk, specific risk alleles are still largely unidentified. AAA is also a localized disease with a majority occurring in the infrarenal abdominal aorta and is six times more common than aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. To determine whether risk alleles are present in functional positional candidate genes. we: 1. performed a genetic association study using DNA from AAA cases and controls in ten candidate genes and 2. performed exon sequencing on three genes with evidence ...


Determination Of The Essential Functions Of A Conserved Cyclin, Cyclin Y, In Drosophila, Dongmei Liu 2010 Wayne State University

Determination Of The Essential Functions Of A Conserved Cyclin, Cyclin Y, In Drosophila, Dongmei Liu

Wayne State University Dissertations

The Drosophila gene CG14939 encodes a member of a highly conserved family of cyclins, the Y type cyclins, which have not been functionally characterized in any organism. Here I report the generation and phenotypic characterization of a null mutant of CG14939, which we rename Cyclin Y (CycY). I show that the null mutant, CycYE8, is homozygous lethal with most mutant animals arresting during pupal development. The mutant exhibits delayed larval growth and major developmental defects during metamorphosis. Heat shock-induced expression of CycY at different times during development resulted in variable levels of rescue, the timing of which suggests a ...


Density Based Pruning For Identification Of Differentially Expressed Genes From Microarray Data, Jianjun Hu, J. Xu 2010 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Density Based Pruning For Identification Of Differentially Expressed Genes From Microarray Data, Jianjun Hu, J. Xu

Faculty Publications

Motivation

Identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray datasets is one of the most important analyses for microarray data mining. Popular algorithms such as statistical t-test rank genes based on a single statistics. The false positive rate of these methods can be improved by considering other features of differentially expressed genes.

Results

We proposed a pattern recognition strategy for identifying differentially expressed genes. Genes are mapped to a two dimension feature space composed of average difference of gene expression and average expression levels. A density based pruning algorithm (DB Pruning) is developed to screen out potential differentially expressed genes usually ...


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