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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Ischool Student Research Journal, Vol.14, Iss.1 May 2024

Ischool Student Research Journal, Vol.14, Iss.1

School of Information Student Research Journal

Volume 14, Issue 1 of the School of Information Student Research Journal explores the multifaceted impacts of artificial intelligence (AI) on academia, particularly within library and information science (LIS) education and scholarly publishing. Highlighting the proactive measures taken by San Jose State University's iSchool, this issue underscores the necessity of integrating AI competencies, such as data privacy and ethical AI use, into curricula. Through detailed case studies and policy reviews, the issue examines the ethical and societal implications of AI, including biases and inequalities, advocating for adaptive and responsible AI integration.

Odin Halvorson's paper emphasizes the transformative potential of Large …


Book Review: Organizing Women: Home, Work, And The Institutional Infrastructure Of Print In Twentieth-Century America, Christine Pawley, Madelaine Russell May 2024

Book Review: Organizing Women: Home, Work, And The Institutional Infrastructure Of Print In Twentieth-Century America, Christine Pawley, Madelaine Russell

School of Information Student Research Journal

In carefully selected case studies of white and Black middle-class American women, Pawley, a professor emerita at the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Information School, provides a detailed exploration of the “largely untold history” of women who used their involvement in print-centered organizations to reshape their lives beyond the unpaid domestic sphere (1). The first three chapters of the book trace the histories of primarily domestic women who held active roles in institutions of print culture such as journalism and radio broadcasting while the last three focus on the lives of women whose full-time employment helped to shape the developing public library …


Looking Ahead: Incorporating Ai In Mlis Competencies, Souvick Ghosh, Denise Mccoy May 2024

Looking Ahead: Incorporating Ai In Mlis Competencies, Souvick Ghosh, Denise Mccoy

School of Information Student Research Journal

Libraries have long been essential for democratizing knowledge and providing reliable information, extending their services to meet diverse community needs, including educational programs and internet access (Pawley, 2022; Freudenberger, 2022). Librarians, as custodians of information and culture, possess core competencies in information organization, digital literacy, and research skills. The San José State University (SJSU) School of Information (iSchool) aims to educate professionals who significantly impact global communities through high-quality education, research, and technology innovation. This article examines the Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS) program at SJSU iSchool, focusing on the evolution of its 14 core competencies to incorporate …


Into The Unknown: Developing Ai Policies For The Student Research Journal, Marc Hoffeditz May 2024

Into The Unknown: Developing Ai Policies For The Student Research Journal, Marc Hoffeditz

School of Information Student Research Journal

In light of the artificial intelligence (AI) boom in late 2022, policies governing the use and disclosure of artificial intelligence in scholarly journals have occupied editorial boards of all disciplines. The Student Research Journal (SRJ) at San José State University sought to tackle this issue with an inclusive process to better serve our authors and editorial team in uncertain times. This editorial will discuss the work of the SRJ’s AI Policy Working Group in completing a comprehensive review of literature surrounding the topics of AI and scholarly publishing, detail the journal’s first AI disclosure policy in depth, and identify next …


Ai In Academia: Policy Development, Ethics, And Curriculum Design, Odin Halvorson May 2024

Ai In Academia: Policy Development, Ethics, And Curriculum Design, Odin Halvorson

School of Information Student Research Journal

Artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a pivotal force in modern society, significantly impacting various sectors, including academia. This paper examines the broad implications of AI, particularly Large Language Models (LLMs), and their transformative potential across educational institutions. The San Jose State University's iSchool is highlighted as a case study, demonstrating its proactive approach to integrating nascent technologies and revising curriculum competencies to address AI's influence. As AI reshapes library and information science (LIS) education, the development of new competencies, such as data privacy and ethical AI use, becomes essential. Furthermore, the ethical and societal implications of AI, including potential …


Current Challenges Of Digital Forensics, Alec Noland May 2024

Current Challenges Of Digital Forensics, Alec Noland

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Criminals have access to advanced technology that enables them to carry out malicious activities, often leaving behind digital evidence. Digital forensics is the scientific investigation of digital evidence that aims to uncover criminal activity and prevent further disruption. The increase in cybercrime has made digital forensics an essential aspect of the justice system. However, the field is currently struggling to keep up with the rapidly growing threat of cybercrime due to several challenges. One of these challenges stems from a lack of universal standardization in required qualifications, education, and training, causing discrepancies between agencies and organizations. The pace of technological …


The Use Of Microbiome Sequencing To Identify Individuals In Forensic Science, Sophia Konieczny May 2024

The Use Of Microbiome Sequencing To Identify Individuals In Forensic Science, Sophia Konieczny

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The Human Genome Project's (HGP) completion in 2003 laid the groundwork for further research into the human body. This paved the way for microbiome sequencing, revealing the diverse microbial communities within the human body. These advancements led to the emergence of microbial forensics, leveraging Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies like Amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics for individual identification. Unlike traditional genetic profiling, microbiome analysis provides insights beyond genetic profiling, offering information about an individual's lifestyle and environment. Microbial communities on the skin's surface and objects can serve as trace evidence, aiding in suspect identification and investigative leads. Despite its promise, …


Taser Use In Law Enforcement: Examining Effectiveness, Medical Consequences, And Ideal Scenarios, Benjamin Smyers May 2024

Taser Use In Law Enforcement: Examining Effectiveness, Medical Consequences, And Ideal Scenarios, Benjamin Smyers

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The methods police officers use to detain resisting subjects have changed over time. One addition to their methods is the Thomas A. Swift Electric Rifle (TASER), which hinders subjects using electric shock. This paper examines the effectiveness of the TASER, the potential risk of injury for suspects, and scenarios where its use is most likely to succeed. Since its adoption, the TASER has reduced the likelihood of injury to officers and suspects and is more effective against heavy-set and intoxicated individuals. Although extremely unlikely to result in death, injuries are more likely when used against mentally disturbed people and in …


The Limitations And Future Of Isotope Analysis In Forensic Anthropology, Kris Weller May 2024

The Limitations And Future Of Isotope Analysis In Forensic Anthropology, Kris Weller

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

This research paper will discuss the applications of isotope analysis in forensic anthropology, focusing on the limitations of this technique and its potential future uses. Isotope analysis is based on the principle that isotope ratios vary across geographic regions and that humans incorporate those unique isotope ratios into their bodies when they eat and drink. Forensic anthropology uses isotope analysis to determine a decedent’s approximate region of origin or residence. It is especially in cases where the remains are partially or highly decomposed, and when other avenues of investigation have been exhausted. In its current form, the applications of isotope …


Child Pornography: A Growing Threat For Forensic Science In The Digital Age, Nadia Palomares May 2024

Child Pornography: A Growing Threat For Forensic Science In The Digital Age, Nadia Palomares

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

In the United States, child pornography is any visual portrayal of people under the age of eighteen in sexually explicit circumstances. Child pornography can be found in multiple forms. With each advancement in visual technology, there is a new form in which sexual content, including child pornography, can be depicted. Photographs, films, videos, and live streaming are all popular modern forms, while artwork and the written word were popular forms before the invention of the camera in 1816. Unfortunately, the rate of these advancements in technology has far surpassed the rate of those in forensics. The use of outdated techniques …


Privatized Immigration Detention In California And The Opportunity For Reform, Natalie Lager May 2024

Privatized Immigration Detention In California And The Opportunity For Reform, Natalie Lager

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The expanding literature on “crimmigration” law has turned academic attention toward the state of carceral immigration detention in the U.S. Immigration detention has increasingly become a private enterprise, which raises new concerns for immigrant rights and the political legitimacy of privatizing carceral institutions. California’s private detention centers have an alarming record of Constitutional violations, and detention corporations are seldom penalized for violating immigrants’ rights. In response, the California legislature passed AB 32 to ban private prisons and detention centers. In Geo Group v. Newsom (2020), the Ninth Circuit Court struck down the ban. Laws that dismantle private detention, such as …


Deconstructing Drugs: Addressing The Stigma, Harm Reduction, And Policy Solutions, Charlotte Theriault May 2024

Deconstructing Drugs: Addressing The Stigma, Harm Reduction, And Policy Solutions, Charlotte Theriault

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Black and homeless people who struggle with substance use disorder (SUD), especially opioid use disorder (OUD), have experienced unique obstacles due to inequalities relating to their social determinants of health (SDOH). Historical context and peer-reviewed research were used to evaluate racial bias and expand upon the factors that contributed to the opioid crisis, the effects of COVID-19 on drug overdoses, and the presence of fentanyl in illicit drug supplies. Various studies combat the stigma surrounding substance use disorder (SUD) by acknowledging the disease as a chronic health condition. Research showed that the most effective way to combat these inequalities and …


Understanding Cadaver Dogs, Carlyn Sampson May 2024

Understanding Cadaver Dogs, Carlyn Sampson

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The exploration of cadaver dogs as an accuracy and reliability tool in the field of forensic science. Due to limited research on cadaver dogs, this paper will illustrate the main factors that are crucial to making reliable and accurate scent detection dogs. It also highlights the olfactory system of dogs, which sets them apart from other mammals and enables them to detect scents with a high degree of accuracy. It will dive into the research on the genetics of canine olfaction, and the role of olfactory receptor genes in scent identification. It is demonstrated that different dog breeds are comparable …


Examining The Historical Evolution And Contemporary Significance Of Human Rights, Ailing Lu May 2024

Examining The Historical Evolution And Contemporary Significance Of Human Rights, Ailing Lu

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

This paper delves into the complex concept of human rights, examining its historical evolution and contemporary significance through the perspectives of Lynn Hunt's "Inventing Human Rights," Michelline R. Ishay's "The History of Human Rights," and Samuel Moyn's "The Last Utopia." Hunt's work explores the 18th-century Enlightenment, highlighting the political foundations of natural, equal, and universal rights. Ishay provides a comprehensive account spanning ancient civilizations to modern globalization, emphasizing the dynamic nature of human rights struggles. Moyn challenges conventional views, asserting the mid-20th century emergence of contemporary human rights amidst the Cold War and failed utopian visions. While each historian offers …


“Kenough”: What Greta Gerwig’S Barbie Film Has To Teach Us About Social And Distributive Justice Related To Masculinity And Positive Masculine Qualities, B.D. White May 2024

“Kenough”: What Greta Gerwig’S Barbie Film Has To Teach Us About Social And Distributive Justice Related To Masculinity And Positive Masculine Qualities, B.D. White

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Beyond Barbie’s feminist messages, the academy award winning film gently nudges the viewer to consider “male fragility,” prompting a deeper exploration of male role norms (MRNs) and masculine expression among cisgendered, American men. Conforming to these norms is linked to societal issues such as higher rape myth acceptance, homophobia, transphobia, and gender role strain. This analysis underscores the necessity of challenging traditional male norms for a more just society. This paper redefines MRNs, arguing that they are not a blueprint for healthy masculinity but a distortion rooted in a culture that restricts men's experiences. Norms are scrutinized, offering definitions, social …


Turning Points: An Evaluation Of Formal And Informal Interventions In The Life Of Ex-Offenders, Kapil Sharma May 2024

Turning Points: An Evaluation Of Formal And Informal Interventions In The Life Of Ex-Offenders, Kapil Sharma

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

In life course criminology, turning points and how they relate to the desistance process have received considerable attention. Scholars have proposed that significant events in people's lives, such as employment, marriage, and parenthood, strengthen their social ties and cause them to refrain from committing crimes. This study uses data from the Record Clearance Project of San Jose State University to identify concrete, significant "turning points" in the lives of ex-offenders. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate specific "turning points" events in offenders' life courses that compelled them to stop anti-social behavior and develop a pro-social identity, as well as the …


Transit Workforce Development Challenges And Mitigation Practices, Jodi Godfrey May 2024

Transit Workforce Development Challenges And Mitigation Practices, Jodi Godfrey

Mineta Transportation Institute

The objective of this research is to summarize previously conducted research related to workforce development challenges in the transit industry, detailing major findings and subsequent recommendations based on the annotated bibliography of the current atmosphere and most successful ways to mitigate those challenges to attract and retain talent in the transit industry. According to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the U.S. had over 10 million job openings and only 5.7 million unemployed workers in March 2023. In 2017, the Washington Post posited that there were not enough workers to fill the vacancies, as the U.S. Census Bureau announced a 17-year …


What Do Americans Think About Federal Tax Options To Support Transportation? Results From Year Fifteen Of A National Survey, Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Hilary Nixon May 2024

What Do Americans Think About Federal Tax Options To Support Transportation? Results From Year Fifteen Of A National Survey, Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Hilary Nixon

Mineta Transportation Institute

This report summarizes the results from the fifteenth year of a national public opinion survey asking U.S. adults questions related to their views on federal transportation taxes. A nationally representative sample of 2,522 respondents completed the online survey from February 7 to March 12, 2024. The questions test public opinions about raising the federal gas tax rate, replacing the federal gas tax with a new mileage fee, and imposing a mileage fee just on commercial travel. In addition to asking directly about support for these tax options, the survey collected data on respondents’ views on the quality of their local …


Impervious Surfaces From High Resolution Aerial Imagery: Cities In Fresno County, Yushin Ahn, Richard Poythress May 2024

Impervious Surfaces From High Resolution Aerial Imagery: Cities In Fresno County, Yushin Ahn, Richard Poythress

Mineta Transportation Institute

This study investigates impervious surfaces — areas covered by materials with restricted water permeability, such as pavement, sidewalks, and parking lots—due to their crucial role in influencing water dynamics within urban landscapes. The impermeability of these surfaces disrupts natural water absorption processes, resulting in adverse environmental consequences such as increased flooding, erosion, and water pollution. The research employs impervious surface analysis, a method involving the mapping and analysis of these surfaces within specified study areas, including cities, counties, and census tracts. Remote sensing techniques, specifically satellites and aerial imagery, are commonly utilized for the identification and classification of impervious surfaces. …


Does California High-Speed Rail Promote Accessibility For Station Cities?: Case Study Of Fresno And Merced, Chih-Hao Wang, Na Chen May 2024

Does California High-Speed Rail Promote Accessibility For Station Cities?: Case Study Of Fresno And Merced, Chih-Hao Wang, Na Chen

Mineta Transportation Institute

California High-Speed Rail (CHSR) will largely change transportation cost across the state after it starts operating. Past studies show that only Fresno and Merced among station cities in the Central Valley would attract more future activities with the CHSR. The establishment of active CHSR also implies a new daily living sphere for all the station cities, and, therefore, accessibility to work and residential amenities should be reviewed to inform planners of future land-use and transportation developments. A research framework has been developed better to understand the impact of CHSR on job and amenity accessibility by driving, transit, and walking in …


Exploring Equity Frameworks For A Cross-Jurisdictional Vehicle Miles Traveled Mitigation Program In Santa Clara County, Serena Alexander, Luana Chen, Maxwell Belote-Broussard May 2024

Exploring Equity Frameworks For A Cross-Jurisdictional Vehicle Miles Traveled Mitigation Program In Santa Clara County, Serena Alexander, Luana Chen, Maxwell Belote-Broussard

Mineta Transportation Institute

The Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) partnered with a Mineta Transportation Institute (MTI) research team and San José State University (SJSU) students for assistance in developing the equity framework for the agency’s proposed Equitable Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) Mitigation Program. The goal of the program is to reduce the amount of driving generated from new developments in Santa Clara County through transportation solutions with equity and cross-jurisdictional collaboration in mind. During the Fall 2023 semester, graduate urban planning students from SJSU worked to develop policy recommendations for the program equity framework through a literature review, spatial analysis, community engagement …


Finding Ways To Transform A College Going Culture And Aspirations Of Latinx Students, Martin Macias Apr 2024

Finding Ways To Transform A College Going Culture And Aspirations Of Latinx Students, Martin Macias

McNair Research Journal SJSU

No abstract provided.


Misgendering As A Microaggression: Gender Expression And Trans Pedagogy, Mylene Gibbs Apr 2024

Misgendering As A Microaggression: Gender Expression And Trans Pedagogy, Mylene Gibbs

McNair Research Journal SJSU

No abstract provided.


California Speech-Language Pathology Programs’ Emphasis On Cultural And Linguistic Diversity: An Environmental Scan, Natalia Aguirre Apr 2024

California Speech-Language Pathology Programs’ Emphasis On Cultural And Linguistic Diversity: An Environmental Scan, Natalia Aguirre

McNair Research Journal SJSU

No abstract provided.


How Will California’S Electric Vehicle Policy Impact State-Generated Transportation Revenues? Projecting Scenarios Through 2040, Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Hannah King, H. A. “Burt” Tasaico Mar 2024

How Will California’S Electric Vehicle Policy Impact State-Generated Transportation Revenues? Projecting Scenarios Through 2040, Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Hannah King, H. A. “Burt” Tasaico

Mineta Transportation Institute

California faces unprecedented uncertainty about how much revenue the state will raise from a package of taxes on motor fuels and annual registration fees on light-duty vehicles that was established in 2017 by Senate Bill 1 (SB 1). The SB 1 taxes are by far the largest source of revenue that the State of California generates to support maintenance, operations, and improvements for state highways, and the funds also contribute substantially to local transportation and public transit budgets. To help policymakers navigate the uncertainty about future SB 1 transportation revenue, this study used spreadsheet models to project revenue from the …


The Transportation Sector, Cap-And-Trade And Blockchain: A Carbon Credit Trading Platform, Aditya Mankar, Forouzan Golshani Mar 2024

The Transportation Sector, Cap-And-Trade And Blockchain: A Carbon Credit Trading Platform, Aditya Mankar, Forouzan Golshani

Mineta Transportation Institute

This study offers a solution that facilitates direct trading of carbon credits with no intermediaries by using blockchain technology aligned with the cap-and-trade system. With this solution, along with other major transformations in the industry, the transportation sector can take more ownership of emissions and mitigate the impact of its role as the largest contributor of greenhouse gasses. The solution sits at the confluence of the Cap-and-Trade initiative, carbon credit trading, and blockchain technology. Although the concept of blockchains has been the subject of significant curiosity, scrutiny, boosterism, investment, criticism, it most importantly is at the core of useful, rapidly …


Beneath I-280: Excavating A Neighborhood Lost To San José Freeways, Leila Ullmann, Gordon Douglas Feb 2024

Beneath I-280: Excavating A Neighborhood Lost To San José Freeways, Leila Ullmann, Gordon Douglas

Mineta Transportation Institute

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, thousands of people in San José, California were displaced from their homes as the state used eminent domain to purchase land and uproot neighborhoods for the construction of Interstate freeways. This report presents a multifaceted research and public knowledge effort that uncovers some of the communities buried beneath these freeways, in the area where I-280 and CA-87 meet today near downtown San José. The project builds primarily from previously unprocessed California Department of Transportation (CalTrans) archival documents, which this project studies for the first time. The records are rich in detail about valuation and sale …


Understanding Workforce Diversity In The Transit Industry: Establishing A Baseline Of Diversity Demographics, Asha W. Agrawal, Evelyn Blumenberg, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, Brittney Lu Feb 2024

Understanding Workforce Diversity In The Transit Industry: Establishing A Baseline Of Diversity Demographics, Asha W. Agrawal, Evelyn Blumenberg, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, Brittney Lu

Mineta Transportation Institute

This study provides baseline data on the status of the racial/ethnic and gender diversity of the transit agency workforce in the U.S. and identifies potential barriers and promising practices for diversifying this workforce. Public transit agencies function best when the diversity of their workforce represents the communities they serve, yet previous research finds an underrepresentation of women and minorities in senior and managerial roles, along with an overconcentration of men and workers of color—particularly Black workers—in operational roles (e.g., drivers, janitors).

The study updates those earlier studies with newer data drawn from five discrete research tasks: 1) review of the …


Investigating The Effects Of Alcohol Consumption On Manual And Automated Driving: A Systematic Review, Miaomiao Dong, Yuni Lee, Jackie Cha, Gaojian Huang Feb 2024

Investigating The Effects Of Alcohol Consumption On Manual And Automated Driving: A Systematic Review, Miaomiao Dong, Yuni Lee, Jackie Cha, Gaojian Huang

Mineta Transportation Institute

There are direct correlations between drunk driving and car-related injuries, disabilities, and death. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) may provide useful driver support systems to prevent or reduce road accidents. However, AVs are not yet fully automated and require human drivers to take over the vehicle at times. Therefore, understanding how alcohol affects driving performance in both manual and automated driving is important because manual drives may offer insights into the takeover process in AVs. A systematic review of 53 articles from eight databases was conducted. Findings were categorized based on the human information processing model, which can be extended to the …


Ischool Student Research Journal, Vol.13, Iss.2, Student Reseach Journal Jan 2024

Ischool Student Research Journal, Vol.13, Iss.2, Student Reseach Journal

School of Information Student Research Journal

No abstract provided.