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Masters Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Use Of Unoccupied Aerial Vehicle (Drones) Based Remote Sensing To Model Platform Topography And Identify Human-Made Earthen Barriers In Salt Marshes, Joshua J. Ward Mar 2024

Use Of Unoccupied Aerial Vehicle (Drones) Based Remote Sensing To Model Platform Topography And Identify Human-Made Earthen Barriers In Salt Marshes, Joshua J. Ward

Masters Theses

Elevation is a foundational driver of salt marsh morphology. Elevation governs inundation and hydrological patterns, vegetation distribution, and soil health. Anthropogenic impacts at grand scales (e.g., rising sea levels) and local scales (e.g., infrastructure) have altered the elevation of the salt marsh surface, changing the topography and morphology of these ecosystems. This study establishes and assesses means to document and analyze these impacts using Unoccupied Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing to model platform topography. This thesis’s first and primary study presents and compares methods of producing high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) with UAV-based Digital Aerial Photogrammetry (DAP) and Light …


Extracting Dnn Architectures Via Runtime Profiling On Mobile Gpus, Dong Hyub Kim Mar 2024

Extracting Dnn Architectures Via Runtime Profiling On Mobile Gpus, Dong Hyub Kim

Masters Theses

Due to significant investment, research, and development efforts over the past decade, deep neural networks (DNNs) have achieved notable advancements in classification and regression domains. As a result, DNNs are considered valuable intellectual property for artificial intelligence providers. Prior work has demonstrated highly effective model extraction attacks which steal a DNN, dismantling the provider’s business model and paving the way for unethical or malicious activities, such as misuse of personal data, safety risks in critical systems, or spreading misinformation. This thesis explores the feasibility of model extraction attacks on mobile devices using aggregated runtime profiles as a side-channel to leak …


Fish Assemblage Structure In Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands Over Ten Years, Matthew S. Silverhart Jan 2024

Fish Assemblage Structure In Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands Over Ten Years, Matthew S. Silverhart

Masters Theses

Coastal wetlands in the Laurentian Great Lakes are important habitats for many fish species. The geographic scale of the watershed and the diversity of land uses in the region result in substantial environmental variation among coastal wetlands. During 2011-2020, annual surveys were conducted as part of the Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program (GLCWMP) to better understand the status and trends of coastal wetlands. Fish sampling consisted of fyke netting in monodominant vegetation zones. During this time, 1225 unique monodominant plant zones in coastal wetlands were sampled, resulting in 584,125 fishes captured that consisted of 113 different species. Yellow Perch …


A New Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Method With Second Difference Quotients For The Wave Equation, Andrew Calvin Janes Jan 2024

A New Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Method With Second Difference Quotients For The Wave Equation, Andrew Calvin Janes

Masters Theses

"Recently, researchers have investigated the relationship between proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), difference quotients (DQs), and pointwise in time error bounds for POD reduced order models of partial differential equations. In \cite {Sarahs}, a new approach to POD with DQs was developed that is more computationally efficient than the standard DQ POD approach and it also retains the guaranteed pointwise in time error bounds of the standard method. In this thesis, we extend the new DQ POD approach from \cite {Sarahs} to the case of second difference quotients (DDQs). Specifically, a new POD method utilizing DDQs and only one snapshot and …


Time Series Anomaly Detection Using Generative Adversarial Networks, Shyam Sundar Saravanan Jan 2024

Time Series Anomaly Detection Using Generative Adversarial Networks, Shyam Sundar Saravanan

Masters Theses

"Anomaly detection is widely used in network intrusion detection, autonomous driving, medical diagnosis, credit card frauds, etc. However, several key challenges remain open, such as lack of ground truth labels, presence of complex temporal patterns, and generalizing over different datasets. In this work, we propose TSI-GAN, an unsupervised anomaly detection model for time-series that can learn complex temporal patterns automatically and generalize well, i.e., no need for choosing dataset-specific parameters, making statistical assumptions about underlying data, or changing model architectures. To achieve these goals, we convert each input time-series into a sequence of 2D images using two encoding techniques with …


Hysplit In Simulating The Atmospheric Dispersion Of Hazardous Aerosols: A Case Study In St. Louis, Missouri, Ahmet Tolga Odabasi Jan 2024

Hysplit In Simulating The Atmospheric Dispersion Of Hazardous Aerosols: A Case Study In St. Louis, Missouri, Ahmet Tolga Odabasi

Masters Theses

"Atmospheric dispersion and transmission play an important role in the behavior and effects of air pollution. Human health can be adversely affected by air pollution in a variety of ways, both immediately and over time. The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) modeling program, a computer model and software package, tracks the transport trajectories and distributions of air pollution and various pollutants, including radioactive pollutants, in the atmosphere. It also facilitates research on pollution sources. This study simulated the transport of hazardous aerosols in St. Louis region for the years 2020, 2021, and 2022 using the HYSPLIT modeling …


The Deep Bsde Method, Daniel Kovach Jan 2024

The Deep Bsde Method, Daniel Kovach

Masters Theses

"The curse of dimensionality is the non-linear growth in computing time as the dimension of a problem increases. Using the Deep Backwards Stochastic Differential Equation (Deep BSDE) method developed in [HJE18], I approximate the solution at an initial time to a one-dimensional diffusion equation. Although we only approximate a one-dimensional equation, this method extends well to higher dimensions because it overcomes the curse of dimensionality by evaluating the given partial differential equation along "random characteristics''. In addition to the implementation, I also present most of the mathematical theory needed to understand this method"-- Abstract, p. iii


Social Justice Mathematics: Classroom Practices That Give Students Rigor While Building Agency, Emily Marquise Dec 2023

Social Justice Mathematics: Classroom Practices That Give Students Rigor While Building Agency, Emily Marquise

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a social justice approach to mathematics instruction. While many students have math aversion, students in low socioeconomic communities exhibit this to a higher degree putting them at a disadvantage as they progress through their educational career. More than 3.4 million K-12 students in the United States come from families that earn less than the median income yet achieve scores in the top percentile (Wyner et al., 2007). This raises the question of why so many students in low-socioeconomic settings are not given rigorous content that will keep them competitive …


Targeting Macrophytes: Increased Water Quality Through Optimized Vegetation Considerations For Constructed Wetlands, Austin Mcbrady Dec 2023

Targeting Macrophytes: Increased Water Quality Through Optimized Vegetation Considerations For Constructed Wetlands, Austin Mcbrady

Masters Theses

This study of constructed wetland design investigated relationships between macrophyte species selection and planting density for water quality improvement. A lab-scale wetland was compared against a pilot-scale wetland in San Antonio, Texas at Mitchell Lake to measure differences in effluent water quality improvement using three native macrophyte species. Using a novel, two-phase method, a targeting macrophyte was identified from among other species based on its marked capability for improving water quality factors, then was planted in varied majority densities to compare differences in treatment effectiveness. The results of this study showed that this complimentary approach to wetland design displayed significant …


Assessing The Effects Of The Spring Hunting Season Start Date On Wild Turkey Seasonal Productivity And Hunter Behavior, Joseph Quehl Dec 2023

Assessing The Effects Of The Spring Hunting Season Start Date On Wild Turkey Seasonal Productivity And Hunter Behavior, Joseph Quehl

Masters Theses

Many states throughout the Southeast have documented declines in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) harvest and estimates of recruitment in poult-per-hen ratios. Wild turkey populations are driven by seasonal productivity, so the decline in these parameters may indicate a decline in the overall population. One hypothesis as to why we are seeing a reduction in productivity and a potential population decline is that the spring hunting season is disrupting the reproductive cycle by harvesting too many males before they have had the opportunity to breed, or by harvesting dominant males and disrupting the social hierarchy of the flock. Our …


Synthesis Of Block Copolymer Additives For Examining Phase Morphology And Improving Mechanical Properties Of Thermoplastics Elastomers., Bishal Upadhyay Dec 2023

Synthesis Of Block Copolymer Additives For Examining Phase Morphology And Improving Mechanical Properties Of Thermoplastics Elastomers., Bishal Upadhyay

Masters Theses

Polystyrene-block-poly(1,4-butaidene)-block-polystyrene (PS-PB-PS) triblock copolymers are one of the most widely studied thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) due to their ease of synthesis, non-polar nature, and commercial applicability. Like many block copolymers, incompatibility between PS and PB causes these TPEs to undergo microphase segregation. Many studies have examined the mechanical properties of blends of TPEs and PS homopolymer additives. However, there have been few studies focused on understanding the morphology and mechanical properties of blends of TPEs and copolymer additives with different architectures. Herein, I describe the synthesis of linear and graft copolymer additives based on the random copolymers poly(methyl methacrylate-random-cyclohexyl methacrylate) (PrC). …


The Influence Of Ion-Ion Correlations On Conductivity In Concentrated Ionic Systems, Md Dipu Ahmed Dec 2023

The Influence Of Ion-Ion Correlations On Conductivity In Concentrated Ionic Systems, Md Dipu Ahmed

Masters Theses

This study delves into the fascinating realm of concentrated ionic systems, such as ionic liquids, superionic materials, organic ionic plastic crystals, and polyelectrolytes, which hold immense potential for energy storage applications. The focus is on understanding the intricate role of ionic correlations in shaping their ionic conductivity behavior. These correlations can either boost or impede conductivity, yet their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Through extensive investigation of various materials, including ionic liquids with differing anionic masses, pure organic ionic plastic crystals, and doped systems, this research employs advanced techniques like dielectric spectroscopy and innovative momentum conservation models to quantify these correlations. …


The Impacts Of Tilled-In Biodegradable Plastic Mulch On Soil Microbial Communities, Corissa L. Martin Dec 2023

The Impacts Of Tilled-In Biodegradable Plastic Mulch On Soil Microbial Communities, Corissa L. Martin

Masters Theses

Plastics mulch films are used in agriculture to help increase crop production by regulating soil water retention and soil temperature while also preventing weed growth. Despite these benefits, plastic mulches have led to higher levels of microplastic pollution as weathering occurs. In response to this issue, biodegradable plastic mulches (BDMs) have been introduced to help reduce plastic pollution as they are designed to be tilled into soil after each growing season to continue degradation. Degradation of these mulch films is dependent on climate and, in some areas, complete degradation can take years. Since some biodegradable plastic mulches are made of …


A Multi-Regional Assessment Of Eastern Whip-Poor-Will (Antrostomus Vociferus) Occupancy In Managed And Unmanaged Forests Using Autonomous Recording Units, Jeffery T. Larkin Nov 2023

A Multi-Regional Assessment Of Eastern Whip-Poor-Will (Antrostomus Vociferus) Occupancy In Managed And Unmanaged Forests Using Autonomous Recording Units, Jeffery T. Larkin

Masters Theses

State and federal agencies spend considerable time and resources to enhance and create habitat for wildlife. Understanding how target and non-target species respond to these efforts can help direct the allocation of limited conservation resources. However, monitoring species response to habitat management comes with several logistical challenges that are exacerbated as the area of geographic focus increases. I used autonomous recording units (ARUs) to mitigate these challenges when assessing Eastern Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus) response to forest management. I deployed 1,265 ARUs across managed and unmanaged public and private forests from western North Carolina to southern Maine. I then …


Machine Learning Modeling Of Polymer Coating Formulations: Benchmark Of Feature Representation Schemes, Nelson I. Evbarunegbe Nov 2023

Machine Learning Modeling Of Polymer Coating Formulations: Benchmark Of Feature Representation Schemes, Nelson I. Evbarunegbe

Masters Theses

Polymer coatings offer a wide range of benefits across various industries, playing a crucial role in product protection and extension of shelf life. However, formulating them can be a non-trivial task given the multitude of variables and factors involved in the production process, rendering it a complex, high-dimensional problem. To tackle this problem, machine learning (ML) has emerged as a promising tool, showing considerable potential in enhancing various polymer and chemistry-based applications, particularly those dealing with high dimensional complexities.

Our research aims to develop a physics-guided ML approach to facilitate the formulations of polymer coatings. As the first step, this …


Heat Flow In The Southern Margin Of Salar De Atacama: Deep Groundwater Temperature Distributions And The Implications For Subsurface Flow And Land Surface Energy Budgets, Graham Thomas Nov 2023

Heat Flow In The Southern Margin Of Salar De Atacama: Deep Groundwater Temperature Distributions And The Implications For Subsurface Flow And Land Surface Energy Budgets, Graham Thomas

Masters Theses

Salar de Atacama (SdA) located in Northern Chile is home to one of the planet’s largest salar systems and lithium resources. Managing groundwater resources in salars is not obvious due to the lack of scientific understanding on the connectivity between the freshwater and brine systems. Using heat as a tracer in SdA provides a cost-effective method to further investigate groundwater flow in salars. This study employs 372 temperature-depth profiles from 90 boreholes between 2013-18 to understand the distinct thermal zones and flow between them in SdA. Three thermal zones exist within the southern margin of SdA’s thermal regime, at higher …


Microplastics In Local Communities’ Tap Water, Zachary T. Rattell Nov 2023

Microplastics In Local Communities’ Tap Water, Zachary T. Rattell

Masters Theses

Microplastics are an emerging environmental contaminant. One of the ways microplastics can get into the environment is by the breakdown of larger plastics. These plastics can come from industrial practices, discarded fabrics, agriculture, and general plastic waste. As these plastics are broken down microplastics leach into the environment. The widespread use of plastics has resulted in the spread of microplastic contaminants all over the world. Microplastics have been reported to be in drinking water, so this paper is looking at the presence of microplastics in local communities of different demographics and socioeconomic statuses. In other studies of different drinking water …


Thermal Conductivity And Mechanical Properties Of Interlayer-Bonded Graphene Bilayers, Afnan Mostafa Nov 2023

Thermal Conductivity And Mechanical Properties Of Interlayer-Bonded Graphene Bilayers, Afnan Mostafa

Masters Theses

Graphene, an allotrope of carbon, has demonstrated exceptional mechanical, thermal, electronic, and optical properties. Complementary to such innate properties, structural modification through chemical functionalization or defect engineering can significantly enhance the properties and functionality of graphene and its derivatives. Hence, understanding structure-property relationships in graphene-based metamaterials has garnered much attention in recent years. In this thesis, we present molecular dynamics studies aimed at elucidating structure-property relationships that govern the thermomechanical response of interlayer-bonded graphene bilayers.

First, we present a systematic and thorough analysis of thermal transport in interlayer-bonded twisted bilayer graphene (IB-TBG). We find that the introduction of interlayer C-C …


Intrusion Detection: Machine Learning Techniques For Software Defined Networks, Jacob S. Rodriguez Aug 2023

Intrusion Detection: Machine Learning Techniques For Software Defined Networks, Jacob S. Rodriguez

Masters Theses

In recent years, software defined networking (SDN) has gained popularity as a novel approach towards network management and architecture. Compared to traditional network architectures, this software-based approach offers greater flexibility, programmability, and automation. However, despite the advantages of this system, there still remains the possibility that it could be compromised. As we continue to explore new approaches to network management, we must also develop new ways of protecting those systems from threats. Throughout this paper, I will describe and test a network intrusion detection system (NIDS), and how it can be implemented within a software defined network. This system will …


Design And Fabrication Of A Trapped Ion Quantum Computing Testbed, Christopher A. Caron Aug 2023

Design And Fabrication Of A Trapped Ion Quantum Computing Testbed, Christopher A. Caron

Masters Theses

Here we present the design, assembly and successful ion trapping of a room-temperature ion trap system with a custom designed and fabricated surface electrode ion trap, which allows for rapid prototyping of novel trap designs such that new chips can be installed and reach UHV in under 2 days. The system has demonstrated success at trapping and maintaining both single ions and cold crystals of ions. We achieve this by fabricating our own custom surface Paul traps in the UMass Amherst cleanroom facilities, which are then argon ion milled, diced, mounted and wire bonded to an interposer which is placed …


Architecture Of Extraction: Imagining New Modes Of Inhabitation And Reclamation In The Mining Lifecyle, Erica Dewitt Aug 2023

Architecture Of Extraction: Imagining New Modes Of Inhabitation And Reclamation In The Mining Lifecyle, Erica Dewitt

Masters Theses

Mining is the primary method through which modern society obtains the minerals needed to fuel the global economy, provide for modern energy requirements, and support the built environment. Presently, mining accounts for nearly 1% of the global ice-free land surface, with a dramatic increase anticipated in the coming decades. Mining permanently changes and often destroys the pre-existing topography, hydrology, and ecology of the ground, and efforts to reclaim mining landscapes—with the aim of encouraging reforestation and soil replenishment—are often unsuccessful, rendering the land of abandoned mines both unusable and uninhabitable.

This thesis addresses the current state of mining in the …


Genetic Associations Of Alzheimer’S Disease And Mild Cognitive Impairment, Scott Hebert Aug 2023

Genetic Associations Of Alzheimer’S Disease And Mild Cognitive Impairment, Scott Hebert

Masters Theses

Over 6 million people are estimated to have been living with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in 2020, with another 12 million living with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Research has been conducted to evaluate genetic links to AD, but more research is needed on the subject. The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has been conducting a longitudinal study of AD and MCI since 2004 and offering their data to research teams around the world. Diagnostic and demographic data was collected from participants, as well as data regarding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNP data was transformed to a binary format regarding whether the …


Forecasting Covid-19 With Temporal Hierarchies And Ensemble Methods, Li Shandross Aug 2023

Forecasting Covid-19 With Temporal Hierarchies And Ensemble Methods, Li Shandross

Masters Theses

Infectious disease forecasting efforts underwent rapid growth during the COVID-19 pandemic, providing guidance for pandemic response and about potential future trends. Yet despite their importance, short-term forecasting models often struggled to produce accurate real-time predictions of this complex and rapidly changing system. This gap in accuracy persisted into the pandemic and warrants the exploration and testing of new methods to glean fresh insights.

In this work, we examined the application of the temporal hierarchical forecasting (THieF) methodology to probabilistic forecasts of COVID-19 incident hospital admissions in the United States. THieF is an innovative forecasting technique that aggregates time-series data into …


Per- And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) In Treated Sewage Sludge From Michigan Wastewater Treatment Plants, Garrett Wesley Link Aug 2023

Per- And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) In Treated Sewage Sludge From Michigan Wastewater Treatment Plants, Garrett Wesley Link

Masters Theses

Concentrations, compositions, and variability of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in sewage sludge are characterized using an extensive dataset of 350 samples from 190 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Michigan. All samples are comprised of final treated sewage sludge generated at the end of the wastewater treatment process. Concentrations of Σ24 PFAS are log normally distributed with a range of 1 to 3200 ng/g dry wt. and of average 108 ± 277 ng/g dry wt. Compounds with carboxyl and sulfonic functional groups comprised 29% and 71% of Σ24 PFAS concentrations, respectively, on average. Primary sample variability is associated …


Redox-Active Polymerization Catalysts And Their Applications, Nicholas M. Shawver Aug 2023

Redox-Active Polymerization Catalysts And Their Applications, Nicholas M. Shawver

Masters Theses

Traditional catalyst systems are reliable means to produce polymers with well-defined architectures and thermomechanical properties; however, they are often limited by a narrow monomer scope and their ability access few, if any, advanced polymer architectures. To address this limitation, a new class of catalysts have recently emerged that feature redox-active moieties that may access advanced architectures through catalyst electronic modulation that arises from redox events occurring on the ligand scaffold or at the active metal center itself. For example, researchers have explored the ability of redox-active catalysts to impart “on-off” kinetic control during ring-opening polymerizations and their ability to access …


Per- And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) In Treated Sewage Sludge From Michigan Wastewater Treatment Plants, Garrett Wesley Link Aug 2023

Per- And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) In Treated Sewage Sludge From Michigan Wastewater Treatment Plants, Garrett Wesley Link

Masters Theses

Concentrations, compositions, and variability of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in sewage sludge are characterized using an extensive dataset of 350 samples from 190 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Michigan. All samples are comprised of final treated sewage sludge generated at the end of the wastewater treatment process. Concentrations of Σ24 PFAS are log normally distributed with a range of 1 to 3200 ng/g dry wt. and of average 108 ± 277 ng/g dry wt. Compounds with carboxyl and sulfonic functional groups comprised 29% and 71% of Σ24 PFAS concentrations, respectively, on average. Primary sample variability is associated with …


Numerical And Experimental Constraints On Trace Element Fractionation During Lunar Magma Ocean Solidification, Dian Ji Aug 2023

Numerical And Experimental Constraints On Trace Element Fractionation During Lunar Magma Ocean Solidification, Dian Ji

Masters Theses

Traditional lunar magma ocean (LMO) theory suggests the anorthositic lunar crust formed by floating of buoyant plagioclase, one of the major products of LMO solidification, on the surface of LMO. To test this model, after applying experimentally determined LMO solidification sequences, we compared calculated Rare Earth Element (REE) concentrations of lunar plagioclase to plagioclase in Apollo ferroan anorthosites and lunar anorthositic meteorites. Several initial LMO compositions, and lunar-relevant mineral-melt partition coefficient predictive models were tested (where the partition coefficient is the concentration ratio of a specific element between two phases). Compared with plagioclase in the natural samples, modeled plagioclase directly …


Expression And Purification Of Polyketide Synthase Domains To Investigate Protein-Protein Interactions In Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways, Mujeeb Adeyinka Wakeel Aug 2023

Expression And Purification Of Polyketide Synthase Domains To Investigate Protein-Protein Interactions In Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways, Mujeeb Adeyinka Wakeel

Masters Theses

Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are multienzyme proteins catalyzing the production of the polyketide class of natural products with vast structural diversity. Type II PKSs catalyze polyketide biosynthesis using discrete (standalone) enzymes (domains), while type I PKSs use covalently linked enzymes arranged in a module to catalyze polyketide production. It is hypothesized that type II PKSs are the precursors to type I PKSs, proposing that the genes encoding individual discrete enzymes in type II PKSs fused to give the multienzyme modules of type I PKSs. We reasoned that the intramolecular-like reactions occurring in type I PKS modules might be a driving force …


Wast3d Potential, Andrew Larsen Jun 2023

Wast3d Potential, Andrew Larsen

Masters Theses

Waste is obsolete. Standard building industry practices are harmful to the environment. Non-traditional construction methods were examined as alternatives. Circular design logic was the guiding principle in material choice. Additive manufacturing is a proven modern method for building construction. Research on 3D printing case studies revealed that recycled plastic is a proven material and readily available. Removing plastic waste from the environment and sequestering it in architectural components gives the material a new purpose. The component of focus was a building block for a wall assembly. Inspiration was taken from the hexagonal Basalt rock formations found near volcanic fault lines. …


Reintroducing Hemp (Rongony) In The Material Palette Of Madagascar: A Study On The Potential Of Hemp Clay Components And Its Impact On Social And Ecological Communities., Henintsoa Thierry Andrianambinina Jun 2023

Reintroducing Hemp (Rongony) In The Material Palette Of Madagascar: A Study On The Potential Of Hemp Clay Components And Its Impact On Social And Ecological Communities., Henintsoa Thierry Andrianambinina

Masters Theses

When mentioning the word hemp, especially in the local language of Madagascar, the literal translation does not set it apart from marijuana, as they are both called “rongony” - creating the stigma around hemp as the negative stereotype of marijuana. However, the material has been used by the ancestors of Madagascar, as well as across cultures, in its fibrous form to produce fabrication like textile goods and packaging. During colonization, the prohibition of hemp intensified, and since then, any activity related to either of these plants is prohibited and will end in severe punitive measures. This thesis explores the strengths …