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Masters Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Utilizing Climate Change Refugia For Climate Change Adaptation And Management In The Northeast, Sara A. Wisner Mar 2022

Utilizing Climate Change Refugia For Climate Change Adaptation And Management In The Northeast, Sara A. Wisner

Masters Theses

To account for the effects of climate change, management plans in the northeast need to incorporate climate adaptation. Conserving climate change refugia is one adaptation strategy. Climate change refugia are areas buffered by climate change that enable the persistence of valued physical, ecological, and cultural resources; preserving these areas could be a potential adaptation strategy. Using a translational ecology approach where researchers and managers from the National Park Service, US Geological Survey, the University of Massachusetts, and elsewhere worked together, we focused on identifying refugia for tree, herbaceous plant, mammal, and bird species in order to prioritize them for conservation ...


Assessment Of The Economic And Ecosystem Service Contributions Of Usda Forest Service Landowner Assistance Programs In The Conterminous United States, Jacqueline S. Dias Mar 2022

Assessment Of The Economic And Ecosystem Service Contributions Of Usda Forest Service Landowner Assistance Programs In The Conterminous United States, Jacqueline S. Dias

Masters Theses

Forests provide immense goods and services to both local and regional communities. The USDA Forest Service’s, State and Private Forestry program administer multiple landowner assistance programs aimed at helping private forest owners while supporting the continued supply of ecosystem services (e.g., timber harvesting, recreation, carbon sequestration and storage). The two landowner assistance programs assessed in this study are the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) and the Forest Stewardship Program (FSP). A majority of the nation’s forests are privately owned, many of which are facing deleterious impacts like wildfires, invasive species, development pressures, and other adverse effects from climate ...


Low-Head Dam Removal Increases Functional Diversity Of Stream Fish Assemblages, Adam Christopher Jones Jan 2022

Low-Head Dam Removal Increases Functional Diversity Of Stream Fish Assemblages, Adam Christopher Jones

Masters Theses

Despite the growing number of dam removals to date, very few have been studied to understand their impacts on stream fish communities. Despite being the most common type of dam in the U.S., an even smaller proportion of studies focus on the impacts of low-head dam removals, instead, focusing on the impacts of removal of larger dams. In this study, two previously impounded Illinois rivers were monitored to assess the impacts of low-head dam removal on the functional assemblage of stream fishes. This was accomplished by aggregating fishes into habitat and reproductive guilds, relating community changes to habitat, environmental ...


Developing Novel Molecular Detection Techniques For Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges Tsugae), Meg Sanders Dec 2021

Developing Novel Molecular Detection Techniques For Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges Tsugae), Meg Sanders

Masters Theses

Hemlock forests in eastern North America face a deadly threat: the invasive insect, hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae. Early detection of this pest remains a key focus for management groups to ensure rapid response to control and stop the spread of HWA. In Chapter II, our goals were to develop an affordable, easy-to-use trap that is compatible with airborne eDNA sampling techniques and assess its efficiency as a monitoring tool for HWA. We tested three potential trap designs (i.e., passive trap, funnel trap, and motorized trap) against a standard sticky trap. Our passive, funnel, and motorized traps estimated ...


Designing Polymer Materials For Improved Additive Manufacturing, Kaizhong Guan Dec 2021

Designing Polymer Materials For Improved Additive Manufacturing, Kaizhong Guan

Masters Theses

Currently, two of the most used additive manufacturing methods for polymers are selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused filament fabrication (FFF). Although at high market size, they both have imperfections. The materials for SLS are limited and the objects manufactured by FFF existing anisotropic behavior. Targeting on these drawbacks, this thesis has proposed a novel method to prepare polypropylene (PP) microsphere which is suitable for SLS with low cost and scalable potential; and a novel material with polycarbonate as matrix that has shown a decrease in anisotropy after FFF printing.

The PP microsphere in this thesis was prepared via liquid-liquid ...


Quantifying Surface Water Capture By Municipal Pumping Wells In An Urban Watershed Impacted By Road Salt, Austen York Dec 2021

Quantifying Surface Water Capture By Municipal Pumping Wells In An Urban Watershed Impacted By Road Salt, Austen York

Masters Theses

The Spring Valley sub-watershed is located within the Kalamazoo Township contains Spring Valley Lake, a man-made impoundment that ultimately discharges into the Kalamazoo River. Elevated chloride levels in pumped water from the Kalamazoo Station 14 municipal wellfield, located along the shoreline of Spring Valley Lake, has resulted in less than ideal corrosivity values for the water distribution system. Specific project objectives include: (1) identifying the cause of elevated chloride, (2) assessing surface water capture by the Station 14 wellfield, and (3) characterizing of water quality in Spring Valley Lake. Monitoring along a series of sampling transects spanning the sub-watershed, focused ...


Evaluation Of Robust Deep Learning Pipelines Targeting Low Swap Edge Deployment, David Carter Cornett Dec 2021

Evaluation Of Robust Deep Learning Pipelines Targeting Low Swap Edge Deployment, David Carter Cornett

Masters Theses

The deep learning technique of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has greatly advanced the state-of-the-art for computer vision tasks such as image classification and object detection. These solutions rely on large systems leveraging wattage-hungry GPUs to provide the computational power to achieve such performance. However, the size, weight and power (SWaP) requirements of these conventional GPU-based deep learning systems are not suitable when a solution requires deployment to so called "Edge" environments such as autonomous vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and smart security cameras.

The objective of this work is to benchmark FPGA-based alternatives to conventional GPU systems that have the ...


Using Sedimentary Mercury Geochemistry To Evaluate The Niagara-Salina Transition, Silurian Michigan Basin, Usa, Sara Hayes Dec 2021

Using Sedimentary Mercury Geochemistry To Evaluate The Niagara-Salina Transition, Silurian Michigan Basin, Usa, Sara Hayes

Masters Theses

The Niagara-Salina boundary in the Michigan Basin is marked by an abrupt transition from carbonates to evaporites. Though the cause is uncertain, previous work suggests the onset of Salina evaporites was driven by basin restriction, but the presence of several global carbon isotope excursions (CIE) suggest a global driver. This study builds on this discussion using two relatively new geochemical proxies - elemental mercury concentrations [Hg] and Hg isotopes.

Mercury concentrations [Hg] were measured in 88 samples from the State Kalkaska #2-15 core from 6604.03 ft to 6797.42 ft. [Hg] ranges from 0.11 to 0.62 mg/kg ...


Vorticity And Kinematic Analysis Of The Cordillera Blanca Shear Zone, Peru, Corey Flynn Dec 2021

Vorticity And Kinematic Analysis Of The Cordillera Blanca Shear Zone, Peru, Corey Flynn

Masters Theses

Quantitative vorticity analyses applied to naturally deformed rocks are essential for studying kinematics in shear zones and can be performed using a range of methods, which have been developed over the last two decades. An understanding of vorticity, or the contribution of pure vs. simple shear, can permit for the modeling of shear zone development in a deformed region. Recent (5 Ma-present) deformation in the Cordillera Blanca Shear Zone of the Peruvian Andes has exposed sections of the middle crust at the surface, allowing for observation and analysis of shear zone processes. Oblique grain-shape (OGS) analysis and crystallographic vorticity analysis ...


Influence Of Physical Variability Of Highly Weathered Sedimentary Rock On Nitrate In Area 3 Of The Enigma Field Research Site At Y-12, Erin Kelly Dec 2021

Influence Of Physical Variability Of Highly Weathered Sedimentary Rock On Nitrate In Area 3 Of The Enigma Field Research Site At Y-12, Erin Kelly

Masters Theses

Uranium processing and waste storage in unlined waste ponds leached contaminants into the groundwater at Y-12, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from the 1950s to 1980s. Groundwater wells near the S-3 ponds have had the highest nitrate concentrations of groundwater anywhere in the world (>10,000 mg/L). For reference, the maximum contaminant level for nitrate in drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is 10 mg/L. Since 2012, the ENIGMA (Ecosystems and Networks Integrated with Genes and Molecular Assemblies) group has been characterizing, monitoring, and conducting field experiments to understand the interactions between contaminants, microbes, and the ...


Accelerating Dynamical Density Response Code On Summit And Its Application For Computing The Density Response Function Of Vanadium Sesquioxide, Wileam Y. Phan Dec 2021

Accelerating Dynamical Density Response Code On Summit And Its Application For Computing The Density Response Function Of Vanadium Sesquioxide, Wileam Y. Phan

Masters Theses

This thesis details the process of porting the Eguiluz group dynamical density response computational platform to the hybrid CPU+GPU environment at the Summit supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Leadership Computing Center. The baseline CPU-only version is a Gordon Bell-winning platform within the formally-exact time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) framework using the linearly augmented plane wave (LAPW) basis set. The code is accelerated using a combination of the OpenACC programming model and GPU libraries -- namely, the Matrix Algebra for GPU and Multicore Architectures (MAGMA) library -- as well as exploiting the sparsity pattern of the matrices involved in the ...


Modeling And Characterization Of Optical Metasurfaces, Mahsa Torfeh Oct 2021

Modeling And Characterization Of Optical Metasurfaces, Mahsa Torfeh

Masters Theses

Metasurfaces are arrays of subwavelength meta-atoms that shape waves in a compact and planar form factor. During recent years, metasurfaces have gained a lot of attention due to their compact form factor, easy integration with other devices, multi functionality and straightforward fabrication using conventional CMOS techniques. To provide and evaluate an efficient metasurface, an optimized design, high resolution fabrication and accurate measurement is required. Analysis and design of metasurfaces require accurate methods for modeling their interactions with waves. Conventional modeling techniques assume that metasurfaces are locally periodic structures excited by plane waves, restricting their applicability to gradually varying metasurfaces that ...


Statistical Improvements For Ecological Learning About Spatial Processes, Gaetan L. Dupont Oct 2021

Statistical Improvements For Ecological Learning About Spatial Processes, Gaetan L. Dupont

Masters Theses

Ecological inquiry is rooted fundamentally in understanding population abundance, both to develop theory and improve conservation outcomes. Despite this importance, estimating abundance is difficult due to the imperfect detection of individuals in a sample population. Further, accounting for space can provide more biologically realistic inference, shifting the focus from abundance to density and encouraging the exploration of spatial processes. To address these challenges, Spatial Capture-Recapture (“SCR”) has emerged as the most prominent method for estimating density reliably. The SCR model is conceptually straightforward: it combines a spatial model of detection with a point process model of the spatial distribution of ...


Sedimentary Processes Influencing Divergent Wetland Evolution In The Hudson River Estuary, Kelly Mckeon Oct 2021

Sedimentary Processes Influencing Divergent Wetland Evolution In The Hudson River Estuary, Kelly Mckeon

Masters Theses

Consistent shoreline development and urbanization have historically resulted in the loss of wetlands. However, some construction activities have inadvertently resulted in the emergence of new tidal wetlands, with prominent examples of such anthropogenic wetlands found within the Hudson River Estuary. Here, we utilize two of these human-induced tidal wetlands to explore the sedimentary and hydrologic conditions driving wetland development from a restoration perspective. Tivoli North Bay is an emergent freshwater tidal marsh, while Tivoli South Bay is an intertidal mudflat with vegetation restricted to the seasonal growth of aquatic vegetation during summer months. Using a combination of sediment traps, cores ...


Testing The Impact Of A Freshwater Wetland Restoration On Water Table Elevation And Soil Moisture Using A Parametric Groundwater Modeling Approach, Erika T. Ito Oct 2021

Testing The Impact Of A Freshwater Wetland Restoration On Water Table Elevation And Soil Moisture Using A Parametric Groundwater Modeling Approach, Erika T. Ito

Masters Theses

Wetlands are now recognized for the many social, environmental, ecological, and economic benefits they provide. They improve water quality, support biodiversity, abate floods and storms, and provide local recreational areas. Historically, many wetlands have been drained or altered for residential, commercial, or agricultural use. Effective wetland restoration projects reestablish ecosystem services and mitigate legacy effects of land use change to create self-sustaining systems. However, a persisting lack of scientifically-vetted methodological and evaluation guidelines in the field of restoration ecology has caused many restoration efforts to fail to restore natural wetland hydrologic conditions. By definition, wetlands must be saturated, permanently or ...


Algorithm Performance On The Estimation Of Cdom And Doc In The North Slopes Of Alaska, Monica Weisenbach Oct 2021

Algorithm Performance On The Estimation Of Cdom And Doc In The North Slopes Of Alaska, Monica Weisenbach

Masters Theses

Use of satellite imagery makes environmental monitoring easy and convenient with little of the logistics involved in planning sampling campaigns. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important component to track as a proxy for the large pool of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In a world contending with the looming issue of global climate change, the ability to investigate the carbon cycle of inland to coastal environments allows for examination of the magnitude of carbon flowing through the system and potential changes over years. The Arctic region is a critical area for climate change impacts but is a difficult landscape ...


Benjamin Smith Lyman: Geologist At The Intersection Of Hokkaido, Japan, And The United States, Benjamin Ashby Oct 2021

Benjamin Smith Lyman: Geologist At The Intersection Of Hokkaido, Japan, And The United States, Benjamin Ashby

Masters Theses

Benjamin Smith Lyman was a geologist from Northampton, Massachusetts, who was contracted by the Japanese government in 1872 to carry out coal surveys on the island of Hokkaidō 北海道. What started out as a standard geological survey, quickly evolved into a lifelong interest in Japan for Lyman. The large collection of letters, books, photographs, and other documents housed under the Benjamin Smith Lyman Collection at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, serve as a primary source on both early relations between the Japanese and the West and the beginnings of the large network of academic writings which today can be classified ...


Per- And Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances (Pfas) Cycling Within Michigan: Connections Between Contaminated Sites, Landfills, And Wastewater Treatment Plants, Ross W. Helmer Aug 2021

Per- And Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances (Pfas) Cycling Within Michigan: Connections Between Contaminated Sites, Landfills, And Wastewater Treatment Plants, Ross W. Helmer

Masters Theses

The disposal and treatment of Per- and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances (PFAS) contaminated solid and liquid wastes, and associated cycling within the natural and engineered environment is a complex topic. PFAS data on contaminated sites, landfill leachates, the influent, effluent, and biosolids from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within Michigan were compiled from publicly available and private sources. Most of the datasets are based on a 28-analyte suite generated using a modified form of the US EPA 537 analytical method, with a subset of data from the 18-analyte ASTM D7979-19 method. Approximately 70% of the 171 contaminated sites in Michigan have maximum ...


Cover Crop Treatment Impacts On Selected Soil Health Indicators In Two Tennessee Long-Term No-Till Corn-Soybean Rotations, Adam A. Zimmerman Aug 2021

Cover Crop Treatment Impacts On Selected Soil Health Indicators In Two Tennessee Long-Term No-Till Corn-Soybean Rotations, Adam A. Zimmerman

Masters Theses

Soil hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and soil microbial biomass carbon (SMB-C) estimates in Tennessee no-till corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation systems may be changed with cover crops. This study assessed differences in Ksat rates and SMB-C values under common cover crop treatments of two no-till corn and soybean rotation systems in west and middle Tennessee. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat/crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), cereal rye/crimson clover, a five species mix (containing cereal rye, crimson clover, whole oats (Avena sativa L.), daikon radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and ...


On Cup-Products Of Cofibers Of Maps Between Moore Spaces, Hopf Invariant, And Lusternik-Schnirelmann Category, Marwa A.S. Mosallam Aug 2021

On Cup-Products Of Cofibers Of Maps Between Moore Spaces, Hopf Invariant, And Lusternik-Schnirelmann Category, Marwa A.S. Mosallam

Masters Theses

In this thesis we make a detailed investigation of the cohomology rings of the cofibers Cβ of Moore spaces of dimension 2 by computing the cup products in cofibers and to do so we prove that the Hopf invariant in case of Moore spaces in the zero and nonzero homomorphism case is a homomorphism. We have shown when is 𝓍r,k a Co-H-Map. We calculated the homologies and cohomologies of Moore spaces of dimension 2 and of the cofibers Cβ where β=𝓍r,k. We used Lusternik-Schnirelmann category to determine the complexity of Cβ.



Dissolved Organic Carbon And The Potential Role To Stream Acidity In The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Jason R. Brown Aug 2021

Dissolved Organic Carbon And The Potential Role To Stream Acidity In The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Jason R. Brown

Masters Theses

A substantial societal shift towards environmental awareness has focused research efforts on the impacts of pollution on natural landscapes. Improvements to pollutant regulations and technology have resulted in sizeable reductions of atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic acids, especially nitrates and sulfates, which has altered the role of these ions in the environment. As such, understandings of environmental chemistry dynamics have required regular updating.

Through the National Park Service Vital Signs monitoring program, increases in precipitation pH observed in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) has been attributed to the reduction of inorganic acid concentrations. Unfortunately, these improvements have not been uniformly ...


Impact Of Calcium Carbonate Reactant Size And Mineralogy On Dolomite Stoichiometry, Katharine G. Rose Aug 2021

Impact Of Calcium Carbonate Reactant Size And Mineralogy On Dolomite Stoichiometry, Katharine G. Rose

Masters Theses

Dolomite is a common, diagenetic, Mg-Ca carbonate mineral. Dolomitization occurs by a dissolution-precipitation reaction between a CaCO3 precursor (calcite or aragonite) and Mg bearing fluids. The amount of Mg in dolomite, referred to as dolomite stoichiometry (mol% MgCO3), varies in natural dolomites (38-50 mol% MgCO3). Laboratory experiments have shown that dolomite stoichiometry is dependent on physiochemical factors of the diagenetic fluids (i.e., temperature, salinity, and Mg/Ca). The impact of the CaCO3 precursor on stoichiometry, however, has not been studied directly. This study tests how the CaCO3 precursor size (sieve size) and mineralogy (calcite ...


Invasives In Our National Parks: How Tourists Can Help Stop The Spread Of Invasive Species, Alexandria Elivira Marci Aug 2021

Invasives In Our National Parks: How Tourists Can Help Stop The Spread Of Invasive Species, Alexandria Elivira Marci

Masters Theses

Invasive species are a major issue around the world and more specifically in our U.S. National Parks. Ranging from plants to insects to animals, invasive species are a greater threat than many may imagine. The impact that invasive species have on an ecosystem encompasses more than taking over a native species’ environment; it includes competing for food, water, and other resources, as well as having an adverse effect on our economy and threatening us with deadly diseases. Many factors lead to the cause of spread of invasive species, but all point back to human interference, from purposely spreading invasive ...


Machine Learning Applications For Waveform Analysis, Micah R. Cruz Aug 2021

Machine Learning Applications For Waveform Analysis, Micah R. Cruz

Masters Theses

Since the later 20th century, the search for physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) has been paramount to many nuclear and particle physicists. Neutron and nuclear beta decay experiments provide one avenue to search for evidence of BSM physics by contributing to the unitarity check of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. Many of these experiments detect neutron decay products as digitized waveforms. As computing power increases and novel algorithms are developed, it is compelling to investigate machine learning methods as an analytic tool for such waveform data. These methods can allow for very fast data exploration techniques, and if pseudodata is available ...


Power System Stability Assessment With Supervised Machine Learning, Mirka Mandich Aug 2021

Power System Stability Assessment With Supervised Machine Learning, Mirka Mandich

Masters Theses

Power system stability assessment has become an important area of research due to the increased penetration of photovoltaics (PV) in modern power systems. This work explores how supervised machine learning can be used to assess power system stability for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) service region as part of the Data-driven Security Assessment for the Multi-Timescale Integrated Dynamics and Scheduling for Solar (MIDAS) project. Data-driven methods offer to improve power flow scheduling through machine learning prediction, enabling better energy resource management and reducing demand on real-time time-domain simulations. Frequency, transient, and small signal stability datasets were created using the ...


Experimental Alteration Of Venusian Surface Basalts In A Hybrid Co2-So2 Atmosphere, Robert B. Reid Aug 2021

Experimental Alteration Of Venusian Surface Basalts In A Hybrid Co2-So2 Atmosphere, Robert B. Reid

Masters Theses

Venus’ surface and interior dynamics remain largely unconstrained, due in great part to the major obstacles imposed by its 470°C, 90 bars surface conditions and its thick, opaque atmosphere. Orbiter-based thermal emission data provide an opportunity to characterize the Venus surface. However, interpretations of such spectra critically depend on understanding interactions between the planet’s surface basaltic rocks and its caustic, SO2-bearing CO2 atmosphere. Several studies, using remote sensing, thermodynamic modeling, and laboratory experiments have placed constraints on alteration mineralogies and rates. Yet constraint with respect to SO2-mediated reactions with basalts of contrasting compositions ...


Calculation And Modeling Of The Neutron’S Magnetic Moment, Abhyuday Sharda Aug 2021

Calculation And Modeling Of The Neutron’S Magnetic Moment, Abhyuday Sharda

Masters Theses

This thesis presents the current state of neutron magnetic moment calcu- lations. It details the development of calculations through history. It also delves into an experiment measuring the neutron magnetic moment. It ex- plores other methods by which calculations can be improved to get a better/ more accurate number. The conclusion is that there are still a lot of areas unexplored in context of the calculation of neutron magnetic moment and areas relevant to be worked upon are detailed.


Evaluating Public Masking Mandates On Covid-19 Growth Rates In U.S. States, Angus K. Wong Jul 2021

Evaluating Public Masking Mandates On Covid-19 Growth Rates In U.S. States, Angus K. Wong

Masters Theses

U.S. state governments have implemented numerous policies to help mitigate the spread of COVID-19. While there is strong biological evidence supporting the wearing of face masks or coverings in public spaces, the impact of public masking policies remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate how early versus delayed implementation of state-level public masking orders impacted subsequent COVID-19 growth rates. We defined “early” implementation as having a state-level mandate in place before September 1, 2020, the approximate start of the school-year. We defined COVID-19 growth rates as the relative increase in confirmed cases 7, 14, 21, 30, 45, 60-days after September ...


Algal Alterity : A Study Of Florida's Algae-Crisis-Culture, Katelyn Flood Jun 2021

Algal Alterity : A Study Of Florida's Algae-Crisis-Culture, Katelyn Flood

Masters Theses

This research critically engages with the ecology of media discourse surrounding Florida’s “harmful algae crisis” . It uses a content analysis of online news media articles to address how the presence and unique processes of aquatic algae organisms are entangled with people and cultural practices. Specifically, this work grapples with the dynamic relationship between algae organisms and the cultural production of meaning through visual imagery/stimuli. It examines both visual and textual representations of algae in mass media communications covering the harmful algae crisis or “red tide crisis” of 2017 and 2018: an extreme period of aquatic algae proliferation and ...


Development Of High Throughput Assays For Identification And Evaluation Of Small Molecule Inhibitors Of Microrna-31 Expression, Jackline A. Onyango May 2021

Development Of High Throughput Assays For Identification And Evaluation Of Small Molecule Inhibitors Of Microrna-31 Expression, Jackline A. Onyango

Masters Theses

Dysregulated expression of miRNAs has been linked to numerous cancers. On the other hand, miRNAs are potential drug targets due to the ability of their precursor molecules to fold into ligand binding structures. Small-molecule modulators of miRNAs offers opportunity for the development of new therapeutic agents and tools to further probe the mechanisms of miRNA functions. To facilitate the identification of miRNA modulators, the appropriate screening systems are needed, which would be adaptable for high-throughput applications, and allow for quantitative measurements. In this text, we present a molecular beacon-based assay to identify molecules that inhibit miRNA-31 processing by Dicer and ...