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Effect Of Developer Temperature On Photoresist Contrast In Grayscale Lithography, Dale Farnan, George Patrick Watson 2021 Singh Center for Nanotechnology

Effect Of Developer Temperature On Photoresist Contrast In Grayscale Lithography, Dale Farnan, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

SPR 220-3 photoresist was spin-coated onto a silicon wafer, exposed using a Heidelberg DWL66+ laserwriter at different laser powers, and developed at different temperatures. The effect of developer temperature on photoresist contrast was examined. Results show that increasing developer temperature decreased photoresist contrast and increased required dose.


Synthesis Of Superabsorbing Hydrogels Based On Starch Copolymers, Baxodir KHOLNAZAROV, Khayit TURAEV, Abdulakhat JALILOV 2021 Termez State University

Synthesis Of Superabsorbing Hydrogels Based On Starch Copolymers, Baxodir Kholnazarov, Khayit Turaev, Abdulakhat Jalilov

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The aim of this work is to synthesize highly swellable superabsorbent hydrogels based on starch copolymers. To achieve this goal, mineral-containing superabsorbent hydrogels based on starch, acrylamide, binder and initiator were synthesized. The optimal synthesis conditions were determined and studies were carried out on the influence of the molar ratios of the starting substances on the composition and physicochemical properties of the synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel. In the course of research, the optimum copolymerization temperature was 60 ° C, and the reaction time was 3 hours.

As a result of the study, a superabsorbent hydrogel based on starch, acrylamide and bentonite in ...


Synthesis Of Thiocol Oligomer Based On Sodium Tetrasulphide, Epichlorhydrine And Ammonium Phosphate, Bakhtiyor NORMURODOV, Khayit TURAEV, Abdulakhat JALILOV, Sherzod KASIMOV 2021 Termez State University

Synthesis Of Thiocol Oligomer Based On Sodium Tetrasulphide, Epichlorhydrine And Ammonium Phosphate, Bakhtiyor Normurodov, Khayit Turaev, Abdulakhat Jalilov, Sherzod Kasimov

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The purpose of this study is the synthesis and study of thiokol oligomer NEP-12 brand based on sodium tetrasulfide, epichlorohydrin and ammonium phosphate, which is intended for use as a main component of Thiokol sealant. To achieve this goal, a thiokol oligomer based on sodium tetrasulfide, epichlorohydrin, and ammonium phosphate was synthesized and investigated, and the optimal conditions for the synthesis of a thiokol oligomer were determined. Research has been carried out on the influence of the molar ratios of the starting substances on the composition and physicochemical properties of the synthesized thiocol oligomer. The optimum polycondensation temperature was taken ...


Synthesis And Structure Of The Coordination Complex Of Copper Ion With Collagen, Dildorа SADIKOVA, Adham RAFIKOV, Oybek TURSUNQULOV, Dilnoza SOYIBOVA 2021 Tashkent Institute of Textile and Light Industry, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Synthesis And Structure Of The Coordination Complex Of Copper Ion With Collagen, Dildorа Sadikova, Adham Rafikov, Oybek Tursunqulov, Dilnoza Soyibova

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The aim of this work is to synthesize, determine the composition and microstructure of complexes of copper (II) sulfate with collagen for use as a dye for textile material. Coordination complexes of copper (II) sulfate with collagen synthesized at different ratios of the initial substances by the interaction of solutions of different concentrations of copper sulfate and collagen of raw skin. With an increase in the salt content, the yield of the reaction product increases. With an excess of collagen, some of it does not bind into a complex and precipitates. With an excess of salt, almost the weight of ...


Growth And Characterization Of Molecular Ferroelectric Thin Films, Yifan Yuan 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Growth And Characterization Of Molecular Ferroelectric Thin Films, Yifan Yuan

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Compared with inorganic ferroelectrics, organic ferroelectrics have advantages of low cost and low toxicity, are in increasing demand in capacitors, piezoelectric, and memory devices to reduce the environmental load. This work focuses on two types of organic molecular ferroelectric materials, croconic acid (CA) and 2-methylbenzimidazole (MBI). The work here introduces several origins of ferroelectricity in typical organics and their switching mechanism. We then investigated the nucleation, growth, and ferroelectric measurements of CA thin films. We explored the effect of substrate temperature and an external electric field on the nucleation and growth processes. The results can be used to improve the ...


Nanocellulose Sheets From Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches Treated With Naoh Solution, Farah Fahma, Faiza Ayu Lestari, Ika Amalia Kartika, Nurmalisa Lisdayana, Evi Savitri Iriani 2021 IPB University (Bogor Agricultural University)

Nanocellulose Sheets From Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches Treated With Naoh Solution, Farah Fahma, Faiza Ayu Lestari, Ika Amalia Kartika, Nurmalisa Lisdayana, Evi Savitri Iriani

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The objective of this study is to produce nanocellulose sheets from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFBs). Nanocellulose sheets from OPEFBs were prepared through the dewatering process using vacuum filtration. Subsequently, the produced sheets were treated with NaOH solution to improve the mechanical stability of their structure, causing them to be firm in water. The water absorption of nanocellulose sheet increased with increasing NaOH concentrations up to 20 wt%, increasing tensile strength, and Young’s modulus, but decreased when they were treated with 30 wt%. The diameter shrinkage of nanocellulose sheets was directly proportional to the NaOH concentration and soaking ...


Energy Spotlight: Advances In Lib Electrolyte, Stabilizing Cspbbr3 In Mesoporous Silica, And Halide Segregation In Mixed Halide Perovskites, Nam-Soon Choi, Javier Vela, Jeffrey DuBose, Prashant V. Kamat 2021 Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology

Energy Spotlight: Advances In Lib Electrolyte, Stabilizing Cspbbr3 In Mesoporous Silica, And Halide Segregation In Mixed Halide Perovskites, Nam-Soon Choi, Javier Vela, Jeffrey Dubose, Prashant V. Kamat

Chemistry Publications

One of the biggest developments of the past decade in the field of colloidal semiconductors is the introduction of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. Because of their low cost, ease of synthesis, and near ideal optical properties, these materials are versatile building blocks for light-emitting displays, solar cells, environmental sensors, and radiation detectors.


An Update On The Future Prospects Of Glycerol Polymers, Shailja Goyal, Nacú B. Hernández, Eric W. Cochran 2021 Iowa State University

An Update On The Future Prospects Of Glycerol Polymers, Shailja Goyal, Nacú B. Hernández, Eric W. Cochran

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Glycerol, a water‐soluble polyol, is currently used in a wide variety of markets, e.g., as a sweetener in drinks, as an additive in the food and cosmetic industry, or as an antifreeze agent, to name a few. The blooming biodiesel production has created an excess supply of glycerol by‐product. Researchers all around the world are actively exploring strategies to utilize this cheap and abundantly available biobased molecule. To date, glycerol‐based polymers have only been examined extensively for use in biomedical applications, however, the use of biobased crude glycerol is nonviable for such applications due to the ...


Characterization, Immobilization, And Polymer Related Applications Of Watermelon Seed Powder, A Practical Source Of Urease Enzyme, Anthony Quan Quoc Mai 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Characterization, Immobilization, And Polymer Related Applications Of Watermelon Seed Powder, A Practical Source Of Urease Enzyme, Anthony Quan Quoc Mai

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Urease enzyme was crystallized almost a century ago, and to this day its intrinsic stability is not ideal for everyday applications. This work introduces a new process by which a naturally encapsulated material, watermelon seed powder (WMSP), is characterized for its stability and activity. WMSP enzymatic activity has been measured for over a year at various storage conditions—exposed to ambient atmosphere for a year, WMSP retained above 90% activity. In aqueous conditions, the enzyme maintained above 60% activity after two months; with the addition of a preservative that number stays at about 90%. There is a pH shift of ...


Biobased Foams For Thermal Insulation: Material Selection, Processing, Modelling, And Performance, Rebecca Mort, Keith Vorst, Greg Curtzwiler, Shan Jiang 2021 Iowa State University

Biobased Foams For Thermal Insulation: Material Selection, Processing, Modelling, And Performance, Rebecca Mort, Keith Vorst, Greg Curtzwiler, Shan Jiang

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

With the urgent need for the development of sustainable materials and a circular economy, a surge of research regarding biobased materials and associated processing methods has resulted in many experimental biobased foams. Although several biobased foams are already shown to have thermal and mechanical properties competitive with expanded polystyrene, there remains a fundamental knowledge gap leading to limited understanding of the principles that determine performance. This review outlines the progress in this burgeoning field, introducing materials selection and processing, comparing performance, examining efforts in modelling physical properties, and discusses challenges in applying models to real biobased systems. The focus is ...


All-Graphene-Based Open Fluidics For Pumpless, Small-Scale Fluid Transport Via Laser-Controlled Wettability Patterning, Lucas S. Hall, Dohgyu Hwang, Bolin Chen, Bryan Van Belle, Zachary T. Johnson, John A. Hondred, Carmen L. Gomes, Michael D. Bartlett, Jonathan C. Claussen 2021 Iowa State University

All-Graphene-Based Open Fluidics For Pumpless, Small-Scale Fluid Transport Via Laser-Controlled Wettability Patterning, Lucas S. Hall, Dohgyu Hwang, Bolin Chen, Bryan Van Belle, Zachary T. Johnson, John A. Hondred, Carmen L. Gomes, Michael D. Bartlett, Jonathan C. Claussen

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Open microfluidics have emerged as a low-cost, pumpless alternative strategy to conventional microfluidics for delivery of fluid for a wide variety of applications including rapid biochemical analysis and medical diagnosis. However, creating open microfluidics by tuning the wettability of surfaces typically requires sophisticated cleanroom processes that are unamenable to scalable manufacturing. Herein, we present a simple approach to develop open microfluidic platforms by manipulating the surface wettability of spin-coated graphene ink films on flexible polyethylene terephthalate via laser-controlled patterning. Wedge-shaped hydrophilic tracks surrounded by superhydrophobic walls are created within the graphene films by scribing micron-sized grooves into the graphene with ...


Evaluating The Thermoresponsive Properties Of Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Solutions For Smart Window Applications, Adam Reed 2021 The University of Akron

Evaluating The Thermoresponsive Properties Of Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Solutions For Smart Window Applications, Adam Reed

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

With HVAC and building energy usage expected to increase, there is a strong need for autonomous thermal management solutions. In particular, there has been a growing interest in thermoresponsive (TR) smart windows that are activated by ambient temperature changes. Most TR smart windows contain a liquid solution between two panes. The goal of this research project was to develop a self-supporting smart window by forming a gel that maintained its TR properties. A gel is less prone to spilling in the case of window breakage. It was also desired to tune the phase transition to occur at environmentally relevant conditions ...


Investigation Of Surface Charge Using Faraday Bucket Measurements: Analysis On Electrospun Polyvinylidene Fluoride Fiber Mats, Ryan Kantenwein 2021 The University of Akron

Investigation Of Surface Charge Using Faraday Bucket Measurements: Analysis On Electrospun Polyvinylidene Fluoride Fiber Mats, Ryan Kantenwein

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Piezoelectric polymer materials such as polyvinylidene fluoride exhibit beneficial properties for use in personal protective equipment (PPE) against viral contaminants and other foreign microparticles. The electrospinning process of this material allows for surface charge to develop over a controlled surface area. Kynar 761 at 10 wt% demonstrates increased surface charge after withstanding a flow of aerated NaCl particles from a TSI 8130 instrument. Utilizing voltage measurements from a Faraday bucket, 18 wt% Kynar 761 and MG-15 exhibit surface charge when undergoing an electrospinning process; however, Kynar MG-15 displays lower charge values than that of Kynar 761. Several critical factors such ...


Establishing Independent Tunability Of The Mechanical And Transport Properties Of Polymer Gels, Lucas Rankin 2021 Bucknell University

Establishing Independent Tunability Of The Mechanical And Transport Properties Of Polymer Gels, Lucas Rankin

Master’s Theses

Polymer gels can be used in the fabrication of materials for filtering liquid and gaseous media, solid-state electrolytes, and transdermal medical patches. This diverse range of applications primarily relies on the transport and mechanical properties of polymer gels. Both sets of properties have shown excellent tunability, but typically in a coupled fashion. Establishing the independent tunability of the transport and mechanical properties of polymer gels (using simple, cost-effective methods) is paramount if polymer gels are to be used to their full potential. Specifically, block copolymer gels self-assemble into organized nanoscale networks within the gel solvent, which allows for facile control ...


Optimization Composition Of The Wood-Polymer Composition Based On Polyvinylchloride, ALIYEV Sunnatulla, ILKHAMOV Giyos, JURAYEV Asror, MAGRUPOV Farkhad 2020 Tashkent Chemical-Technological Institute

Optimization Composition Of The Wood-Polymer Composition Based On Polyvinylchloride, Aliyev Sunnatulla, Ilkhamov Giyos, Jurayev Asror, Magrupov Farkhad

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The objective of the reaserch is to elaboration the composition of a wood-polymer composition based on polyvinyl chloride with improved performance properties. The influence of the components of the composition - modifiers, lubricants, regulators and stabilizers - on the properties of the composition was researched. Optimization of the composition of wood-polymer composition based on PVC made it possible to obtain a material with higher strength and fire resistance.


Stress Relaxation In Orthodontic Aligner Plastics; An In Vitro Comparison Study, Kristopher J. Keller 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Stress Relaxation In Orthodontic Aligner Plastics; An In Vitro Comparison Study, Kristopher J. Keller

Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to ascertain if repeated stresses from extension cycling would result in accumulated damage in aligner materials and affect force delivery. A secondary goal was to identify potential differences in mechanical behavior present among orthodontic aligner polymers. Four thermoplastic polymers (Essix ACE, Taglus, Zendura, and Zendura FLX) were thermoformed, cut into strips, and extension cycled to 0.4 millimeters in a 37C water bath. Force decay, maximum and minimum force, and elastic modulus were measured during cycling. Additional samples were subjected to controlled tension until failure, allowing the measurement of yield strength, ultimate strength ...


Two New Finite Element Schemes And Their Analysis For Modeling Of Wave Propagation In Graphene, Jichun Li 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Two New Finite Element Schemes And Their Analysis For Modeling Of Wave Propagation In Graphene, Jichun Li

Mathematical Sciences Faculty Publications

© 2020 The Author(s) In this paper, we investigate a system of governing equations for modeling wave propagation in graphene. Compared to our previous work (Yang et al., 2020), here we re-investigate the governing equations by eliminating two auxiliary unknowns from the original model. A totally new stability for the model is established for the first time. Since the finite element scheme proposed in Yang et al. (2020) is only first order in time, here we propose two new schemes with second order convergence in time for the simplified modeling equations. Discrete stabilities inheriting exactly the same form as the ...


Direct Solar Absorption Nanoparticle Doped Membranes For A Hybrid Membrane Distillation And Photovoltaic Cell, Alejandro Espejo Sanchez 2020 Boise State University

Direct Solar Absorption Nanoparticle Doped Membranes For A Hybrid Membrane Distillation And Photovoltaic Cell, Alejandro Espejo Sanchez

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The growing demand for clean water supplies is driving the need for an innovative approach of water desalination. Developing a method for treating water with high salinities is possible with membrane distillation (MD). Additionally, MD is very attractive for pairing with solar energy due to the low temperature requirements. The integration of a membrane distillation system with a photovoltaic (PV) system will result in the co-production of electricity and clean water, thereby improving the economics of MD. Such a hybrid system will directly absorb thermal energy in the membrane for desalination while taking advantage of the spectrally selective nature of ...


3-D Fabry–Pérot Cavities Sculpted On Fiber Tips Using A Multiphoton Polymerization Process, Jonathan W. Smith, Jeremiah C. Williams, Joseph S. Suelzer, Nicholas G. Usechak, Hengky Chandrahalim 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

3-D Fabry–Pérot Cavities Sculpted On Fiber Tips Using A Multiphoton Polymerization Process, Jonathan W. Smith, Jeremiah C. Williams, Joseph S. Suelzer, Nicholas G. Usechak, Hengky Chandrahalim

Faculty Publications

This paper presents 3-D Fabry–Pérot (FP) cavities fabricated directly onto cleaved ends of low-loss optical fibers by a two-photon polymerization (2PP) process. This fabrication technique is quick, simple, and inexpensive compared to planar microfabrication processes, which enables rapid prototyping and the ability to adapt to new requirements. These devices also utilize true 3-D design freedom, facilitating the realization of microscale optical elements with challenging geometries. Three different device types were fabricated and evaluated: an unreleased single-cavity device, a released dual-cavity device, and a released hemispherical mirror dual-cavity device. Each iteration improved the quality of the FP cavity's reflection ...


Easy-Processable And Aging-Free All-Polymer Polysiloxane Composites, Liyang Shen, Tung-Ping Wang, Shailja Goyal, Ting-Han Lee, Fang-Yi Lin, Sabrina Torres, Thomas Robison, Eric W. Cochran 2020 Iowa State University

Easy-Processable And Aging-Free All-Polymer Polysiloxane Composites, Liyang Shen, Tung-Ping Wang, Shailja Goyal, Ting-Han Lee, Fang-Yi Lin, Sabrina Torres, Thomas Robison, Eric W. Cochran

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Here, we report all-polymer polysiloxane composites that overcome the long-standing processing problems of silica-reinforced silicone rubbers. Polystyrene fillers are dispersed with styrene/dimethylsiloxane symmetric diblock and triblock copolymers that control the filler morphology, filler–matrix interactions, and filler–filler interactions. Surprisingly, the composites not only rival the traditional silica-reinforced polysiloxane in mechanical properties of cured materials but also have better processability and stability than the silica-filled compound before curing. Large amplitude oscillatory shear experiments demonstrate that the triblock copolymer addition strongly affects the rheological properties. We hypothesize that the bridges and entangled loops that were formed by the triblock copolymer ...


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