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Interpreting The Intentional Inaccessibility Of The Early Modern Roman Catholic Church, Kristen P. Quesada 2023 Brown University

Interpreting The Intentional Inaccessibility Of The Early Modern Roman Catholic Church, Kristen P. Quesada

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

Many may wonder why, in the modern day, the Roman Catholic Church continues to incorporate Latin, a now barely extant language, into its canonic religious rituals and public services. However, to understand whether there is a latently malicious intent lurking beneath this esoteric tradition, we must look back to the 1545 Council of Trent, in which these traditions were first canonized. This choice on the part of the Catholic Church helped incense the Protestant Reformation’s criticisms against the Church for exclusivizing the very religion its followers were practicing. This paper investigates the origins of the Catholic Church’s suppressive practices against …


The Theological Method Of Friedrich Schleiermacher, Jordan P. Ballard 2022 Liberty University

The Theological Method Of Friedrich Schleiermacher, Jordan P. Ballard

Eleutheria

What Friedrich Schleiermacher is most known for is his theological method of deriving doctrine from religious experience. He believed that religious piety is to be found in the “feeling of absolute dependence”, and all subsequent doctrines must be discovered through reflection upon religious experience. Understanding and critiquing Schleiermacher’s theological method requires examining his theological influences, his “feeling of absolute dependence,” and a few examples from his systematic theology. In the end, Schleiermacher’s theological method is ingenious but misguided because it is based on a faulty religious epistemology of human experience. What is needed instead is an objective standard of truth …


Shepherds And Hirelings In John 10: An Intertestamental Correction, Donald C. McIntyre 2022 Liberty University

Shepherds And Hirelings In John 10: An Intertestamental Correction, Donald C. Mcintyre

Eleutheria

This article will examine the Good Shepherd discourse attempting to analyze whether the Pharisees were in purview as false-shepherds as commonly assumed and finding that interpretation lacking. Given the events of inter-testamental history, septuagintal usage of μισθωτὸς, and the setting of the discourse occurring during the feast of dedication, this article will find that Jesus is drawing a contrast between the foreign false-shepherds found in the political rulers, as well as the hireling pharisee and himself as the true shepherds. Through a careful reading of the text, it becomes apparent that Jesus is not solely disappointed in the Pharisees actions, …


The "Write" Stuff: The Plausible Capability Of Jesus’ Followers To Author The Gospels, Charles D. T. Miller 2022 Liberty University; Trinity Baptist College

The "Write" Stuff: The Plausible Capability Of Jesus’ Followers To Author The Gospels, Charles D. T. Miller

Eleutheria

It is common for critics of the New Testament to cite William Harris’ 10% literacy rate for first-century Greco-Romans as evidence for the implausibility of Jesus’ followers to write, publish, and circulate the New Testament. This “evidence” is often used to dismiss the entire New Testament as a second-century fabrication that cannot accurately represent the true teachings of Jesus. Is this an accurate portrayal of Galilee during the time of Jesus? The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that Jesus’ followers possessed the “‘Write’ Stuff”—the ability to read, write, and memorize, as well as, access to the technology needed …


The History Of Apologetics: A Collaborative Article Review, Isaiah B. Parker 2022 Liberty University

The History Of Apologetics: A Collaborative Article Review, Isaiah B. Parker

Eleutheria

In The History of Apologetics, the authors examine a variety of noteworthy Western apologists throughout seven distinct historical eras: Patristic, Medieval, Early Modern, Nineteenth Century, Twentieth Century (American), Twentieth Century (European), and Contemporary. Each chapter presents four essential elements relating to the life and work of one apologist: historical background, theological context, apologetic methodology and response, and critical contribution(s) to apologetics. They aim to provide an overview of influential apologists within their unique cultural contexts. This review structures its content in the same manner, albeit with some necessary minor changes to the elements for ease of reading. The historical …


Pastoral Care For National Guard And Reserve: Using Bible Study To Equip National Guard And Reserve To Navigate Through The Blessings And Burdens Of Civilian-Military Vocations, David Schleusener 2022 Concordia Seminary, St. Louis

Pastoral Care For National Guard And Reserve: Using Bible Study To Equip National Guard And Reserve To Navigate Through The Blessings And Burdens Of Civilian-Military Vocations, David Schleusener

Doctor of Ministry Major Applied Project

Schleusener, David, S. "Pastoral Care for National Guard and Reserve: Using Bible Study to Equip National Guard and Reserve to Navigate through the Blessings and Burdens of Civilian Military Vocations" Doctor of Ministry. Major Applied Project, Concordia Seminary, 2022. 267 pp.

The researcher is a U.S. Navy Reserves chaplain and student at Concordia Seminary in Saint Louis, Missouri, in the Doctor of Ministry program. The researcher focused on the unique challenges, burdens, and significant stress our nation's reserve components face due to dual responsibilities in civilian and military sectors. National Guard and Reserve (NGR) is the term adopted for those …


The First Jesuits And The First Jesuit Universities, Paul Grendler 2022 University of Toronto

The First Jesuits And The First Jesuit Universities, Paul Grendler

Jesuit Higher Education: A Journal

John W. O’Malley S. J. in The First Jesuits described well the basic principles of the Jesuit educational ministry that shapeed Jesuit schools and universities. He did not discuss what constituted a Jesuit university because that was not the purpose of the book. After assessing the major contributions that O’Malley made to define the principles of Jesuit education, this article will pick up where O’Malley left off by describing the first Jesuit universities. There was not a single model of a Jesuit university. Instead, the Jesuits taught in four kinds of universities: the all-Jesuit university, the civic-Jesuit collegiate university, the …


Evdokimov & CléMents' "Two Martyrs In A Godless World: Dietrich Bonhoeffer And Alexander Men" (Book Review), Jonathan McCormick 2022 Gateway Seminary

Evdokimov & CléMents' "Two Martyrs In A Godless World: Dietrich Bonhoeffer And Alexander Men" (Book Review), Jonathan Mccormick

The Christian Librarian

No abstract provided.


Review Of The Routledge Handbook Of Pentecostal Theology, Tabitha Turpin 2022 Oral Roberts University

Review Of The Routledge Handbook Of Pentecostal Theology, Tabitha Turpin

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

The Routledge Handbook of Pentecostal Theology. Edited by Wolfgang Vondey. New York, NY: Routledge, 2020. 464 pp.


Review Of Christianity And Depression, Robert D. McBain 2022 Oral Roberts university

Review Of Christianity And Depression, Robert D. Mcbain

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

Christianity and Depression. By Tasia Scrutton. London, UK: SCM Press, 2020. xvi + 236 pp.


Review Of Apostles & Prophets: The Ministry Of Apostles And Prophets Throughout The Generations, David Osei-Nimoh 2022 Oral Roberts University

Review Of Apostles & Prophets: The Ministry Of Apostles And Prophets Throughout The Generations, David Osei-Nimoh

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

No abstract provided.


Called, Empowered, And Sent, Known And Unknown: A Reflection On Missional Leadership, Wonsuk Ma 2022 Oral Roberts University

Called, Empowered, And Sent, Known And Unknown: A Reflection On Missional Leadership, Wonsuk Ma

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

This issue of Spiritus focuses on Spirit-empowered mission and leadership, dedicated to the work and life of countless Spirit-filled “soldiers” of the kingdom. The movement has produced a host of dedicated leaders whose work is significant. Many publications introduce these figures.1 While Pentecostal-Charismatic “stars” receive both good and bad attention, the real heroes of empowered witnessing are often forgotten. They are the nameless “ordinary” believers who are in the same way called, Spirit-empowered, and sent by the same Lord.


S. B. J. Oschoffa (1909–85): The Miracle Of A Shared Life, Samuel Olamiji Akibu 2022 Oral Roberts University

S. B. J. Oschoffa (1909–85): The Miracle Of A Shared Life, Samuel Olamiji Akibu

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

In the twentieth century, God raised many faith giants among Africans for Africans and the whole world. These faith heroes contributed immensely to the decolonization, indigenization, and expansion of Christianity in Africa and the Global South. Among these highly spiritually invested Africans was a Beninese-Nigerian carpenter, Samuel Biléou Joseph Oschoffa (1909–1985). He was educated in the Methodist tradition before the Lord called him to lead one of the most significant African prophetic-charismatic indigenous movements, the Celestial Church of Christ. This article explores his life, ministerial legacies, and theology.


A Critical Analysis Of Reinhard Bonnke’S Charismatic Leadership Paradigm, Charles Morara Obara 2022 Oral Roberts University

A Critical Analysis Of Reinhard Bonnke’S Charismatic Leadership Paradigm, Charles Morara Obara

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

The study of leadership has evolved over the years, focusing on different approaches. In the early nineteenth century, leadership study focused on the traits, skills, and behavioral and situational approaches of leaders. In recent years the focus has emphasized servant leadership, authenticity, and charisma. This article focuses on the charismatic leadership theory propounded by Max Weber. This article aims at analyzing the charismatic leadership style of evangelist Reinhard Bonnke. The article starts with a definition of leadership followed by an overview of charismatic leadership and then delves into the life of Bonnke with a biographical sketch of his life. The …


Jimmy Swaggart: The Conflict Between Spirit-Empowerment And Human Weakness, Robert D. McBain 2022 Oral Roberts university

Jimmy Swaggart: The Conflict Between Spirit-Empowerment And Human Weakness, Robert D. Mcbain

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

This article explores how Jimmy Swaggart fits the profile of a Spirit-empowered leader. It summarizes Swaggart’s life and ministry, focusing on his calling, role as a defender of the faith, moral failure, and demise. The article then reflects on Swaggart’s story within the context of Spirit-empowered leadership, exploring how Swaggart fits Lee Roy Martin’s paradigm of a prophetic preacher while demonstrating various negative leadership traits. Stuck between the convictions of his calling and his weaknesses, Swaggart appears as a conflicted individual not immune from making serious errors. The article discusses this aspect of Swaggart’s life to consider how his story …


John Paul Ii: A Role Model Of Participative, Transformative, And Empowering Leadership, Tomasz Bialokurec 2022 Oral Roberts University

John Paul Ii: A Role Model Of Participative, Transformative, And Empowering Leadership, Tomasz Bialokurec

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

This article sets out to revisit charismatic leadership theory through the concepts of servanthood, participation, transformation, and empowerment. We will argue that only servant and participative leadership reflects the relational nature of the Holy Trinity and has a potential to transform and empower followers, offering a remedy to the issue of power in Spirit-empowered Christianity. We propose that this emerging paradigm of charismatic leadership is exemplified by Karol Wojtyła (John Paul II). The assessment employs the criteria of personal and socialized charismatic leadership, as well the apostle and teacher/scholar paradigms of leadership derived from Ephesians 4:11. The study also features …


Profile Of A Spirit-Empowered Leader: Opoku Onyinah, The “African Paul”, David Osei-Nimoh 2022 Oral Roberts University

Profile Of A Spirit-Empowered Leader: Opoku Onyinah, The “African Paul”, David Osei-Nimoh

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

Spirit-empowered leadership takes its shape from both the Old and New Testament Scriptures. God raised up, transformed with the Holy Spirit, and set aside some men and women to impact their generations and influence the trajectory of the church. Most operated within the apostolic, prophetic, evangelistic, pastoral, and teacher/scholar paradigms to execute God’s plan for their lives. In contemporary times, however, questions arise as to whether other individuals qualify as effective modern-day Spirit-empowered leaders who operate within the boundaries of these paradigms through the Holy Spirit’s enablement. Consequently, this research sought to examine the spiritual and theological infrastructure behind the …


Paradigms Of Global Spirit-Empowered Leadership, Eric N. Newberg 2022 Oral Roberts University

Paradigms Of Global Spirit-Empowered Leadership, Eric N. Newberg

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

Spirit-empowered leaders employ different paradigms of leadership. The aim of the article is to identify, explain, and critique these paradigms. Spirit-empowered leadership is conceived of as belonging to the category of charismatic leadership. Following Max Weber, charismatic leadership is understood as flowing from charisma or giftedness, which is attributed to the leader by his or her followers. The article starts with the findings of theorists concerning charismatic leadership. Then it delineates five paradigms of Spirit-empowered leadership—the apostle, prophet, healing evangelist, pastorpreneur, and teacher/scholar. Examples are offered from global contexts. Last, a summative assessment of the paradigms is conducted, using criteria …


The Unfinished Task In North American Evangelism And Its Impact On Spirit-Empowered Christianity, Daniel D. Isgrigg 2022 Oral Roberts University

The Unfinished Task In North American Evangelism And Its Impact On Spirit-Empowered Christianity, Daniel D. Isgrigg

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

This study explores the state of evangelism in North America, particularly the Spirit-empowered church in the US. Charted through the history of evangelism movements, most of which originated in North America, this essay will look at those movements, their impact on the church, and some theological reasons why North America has not been more effective in its own evangelistic efforts.


Against These Things There Is No Law: Spirit-Empowered Witness In Secular Uruguay, Rebekah Bled 2022 Oral Roberts University

Against These Things There Is No Law: Spirit-Empowered Witness In Secular Uruguay, Rebekah Bled

Spiritus: ORU Journal of Theology

Uruguay is a country unique in Latin America for its secularism. It secularized early, thoroughly, and publicly, under the leadership of President José Batlle y Ordoñez, at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. A century later, Uruguay still boasts the highest percentage of atheists, agnostics, and nones in the continent. This is a country that seems to defy the sometimes triumphalist narratives of the pentecostalization of the global South. Yet, even amidst this backdrop, there are bright spots of Spirit-empowered witness. This article seeks to examine two of these bright spots of Spirit-empowered hope during …


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