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Stephen F. Cohen, Nicholas Hayes 2020 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Stephen F. Cohen, Nicholas Hayes

University Chair in Critical Thinking Publications

No abstract provided.


Urban Warfare: Emerging Geopolitical Conundrum, Bert Chapman 2020 Purdue University

Urban Warfare: Emerging Geopolitical Conundrum, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Urban warfare is as old as human history. It is becoming increasingly important in international political and military planning due to increasing global urbanization and the presence of megacities (urban areas with populations exceeding 10 million) in many global regions and being in areas of recent and potential military conflict. 2018 World Bank data notes that approximately 56% of the world's population lives in urban areas which is up from 34% in 1960. Many of these megacities, including New York City, Los Angeles, Sao Paulo, Mumbai, Shanghai, and Manila are adjacent to oceanic waters and vulnerable to trade and ...


State-Sponsored Atheism: The Case Of Albania During The Enver Hoxha Era, İbrahim Karataş 2020 George Fox University

State-Sponsored Atheism: The Case Of Albania During The Enver Hoxha Era, İbrahim Karataş

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

This study analyzes how Enver Hoxha tried to abolish religions in Albania during the communist era. I argue that if atheism is not politicized and not exerted by force, its materialist damage is less. Yet, when atheization becomes a state policy and the government executes clergy, oppresses pious people, and destroys mosques and churches for the sake of atheism, irreligion then becomes a matter of state security. The study contends that when atheism is applied by force, atheist fundamentalism, which is no different than the religious version, emerges. Thus, irreligion becomes a threat to people’s lives and destroys society ...


On Both Sides Of The Wall, Christoph Schmauch 2020 George Fox University

On Both Sides Of The Wall, Christoph Schmauch

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

"Since the emphasis of this paper is to be on the Cold War and its aftermath, I will only mention that the first ten years of my life I lived in Silesia, Germany, on the outskirts of Breslau/Wroclaw during the Nazi period of World War II. I will begin with the end of WWII, 1945, my experience for two years in the mountains of Silesia under Polish administration, and from 1947 to 1950 in the Soviet zone of occupation in Germany in Görlitz, and beginning in 1950 in Ost-Berlin, the capital of the German Democratic Republic."


Report On The Visit Of Prof. And Mrs. Josef Hromádka To The U.S.A., 1966, John Heidbrink 2020 George Fox University

Report On The Visit Of Prof. And Mrs. Josef Hromádka To The U.S.A., 1966, John Heidbrink

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

Professor Josef L. Hromádka (referred to as JLH in the report) was a theologian of the Church of the Czech Brethren who took refuge in the USA during the Nazi conquest of his native Czechoslovakia and taught at Princeton Theological Seminary. He made what for many seemed a surprising decision to return to Prague after the communist coup d’etat in 1948. Soon he became the best known Protestant theologian on the other side of the “Iron Curtain” as he interpreted communism as a wave of a promising future to which Christians need to adjust in order to assist in ...


Nuclear Arms Treaties: Their National Security Impact On America, Megan A. Muldoon 2020 Liberty University

Nuclear Arms Treaties: Their National Security Impact On America, Megan A. Muldoon

Liberty University Journal of Statesmanship & Public Policy

Abstract

This paper attempts to historically analyze arms treaties and arms limitation agreements between the United States and Russia. The impact of limiting and reducing strategic nuclear weapons on both countries and the ability to prevent endless proliferation is discussed. Additionally, the lack of limiting and reduction agreements on China and on tactical nuclear weapons is analyzed into projections for what the future of arms agreements or races may look like. Lastly, the extending or allowing the New START agreement and its impact on U.S. national security is assessed.


The People Who “Burn”: “Communication,” Unity, And Change In Belarusian Discourse On Public Creativity, Anton Dinerstein 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The People Who “Burn”: “Communication,” Unity, And Change In Belarusian Discourse On Public Creativity, Anton Dinerstein

Doctoral Dissertations

The main intellectual problem I address in this study is how everyday communication activates the relationship between creativity, conflict, and change. More specifically, I look at how the communication of creativity becomes a process of transformation, innovation, and change and how people are propelled to create through everyday communication practices in the face of conflict and opposition. To approach this problem, I use the case of communication in modern-day Belarus to show how creativity becomes a vehicle for and a source of new social and cultural routines among the independent grassroots communities and initiatives in Minsk.

On one level, I ...


Arctic Geopolitics Reconsidered: Pathways To Conflict And Cooperation, Christopher Tremoglie 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Arctic Geopolitics Reconsidered: Pathways To Conflict And Cooperation, Christopher Tremoglie

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The Arctic region is widely considered to be one of the planet’s last frontiers. As the world’s countries competed for Earth’s resources, few areas of the world were left unscathed; the Arctic was one of those regions. However, as climate change accelerates the melting of sea ice in the Arctic, previously inaccessible areas, believed to contain an abundance of natural resources such as minerals, natural gas, and oil, will soon become available for extraction. This race for resources has created tension among the actors in the Arctic.

As such, this paper asks: what conditions would be necessary ...


Remittances And Development: Local Empowerment And National Dependency, Abby Foy 2020 University of Puget Sound

Remittances And Development: Local Empowerment And National Dependency, Abby Foy

International Political Economy Theses

Remittances, or money that is sent by a migrant to their home country, have been increasingly viewed as a potential way to economically develop low to middle income countries. Presently, the level of remittances sent is higher than that of official developmental aid. Considering that remittances are private capital utilized by locals, the intervention of a non-profit or large international financial organization to spur developmental projects is perhaps not needed. For countries that are reliant on remittances, there are a considerable number of tradeoffs associated with this inflow of capital. Firstly, although difficult to quantify on a large scale, remittances ...


The Past And The Present: Two Paradigms Of The Sino-African Investment, Emma Weirich 2020 University of Puget Sound

The Past And The Present: Two Paradigms Of The Sino-African Investment, Emma Weirich

International Political Economy Theses

Outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) has obvious economic and political connections between the recipient and donor countries. Such investment can benefit both sides and carry certain costs to both, whether through global scrutiny or domestic struggles. This these seeks to add to the ongoing discussion of China's OFDI to Africa by comparing China's investment during its socialist period (1949-1976) and its post-socialist era (1977 – present). This comparison reveals that China's foreign policy has transitioned from a socialist paradigm to a capitalist one in the last seven decades, which brought significant changes in its OFDI policies and practice ...


Georgia At A Crossroads: Balancing Western Aspirations, Russian Influences & Internal Divisions, Grace Ingle 2020 Dickinson College

Georgia At A Crossroads: Balancing Western Aspirations, Russian Influences & Internal Divisions, Grace Ingle

Student Honors Theses By Year

This research examines Georgia’s interest in European Union and NATO membership and evaluates potential routes for ensuring progress and security while reducing Russia’s residual post-Soviet influence. While much available scholarship focuses on the prospects of Georgia’s formal integration into the Western sphere, there is far less scholarship explicitly discussing Georgia’s potential future without accession to the EU or NATO or emphasizing the significance of the EU and NATO programs with which it already cooperates. Scholarly sources, original scholar interviews and primary-source materials are synthesized in this research to reveal the complexity of Russo-Georgian relations. Russia influences ...


Tinderbox: Danish-Russian Relations, 1989-2019, Maddy Ghose 2020 The University of San Francisco

Tinderbox: Danish-Russian Relations, 1989-2019, Maddy Ghose

Master's Theses

This thesis documents and analyzes the major trends of the military, political, economic, and cultural relationships between Denmark and Russia from 1989 to 2019. I document the relationship from the Danish perspective, using primary sources, with the aim to conduct analysis of Danish politicians’ speeches and activities during this period. The outcome is a comprehensive image of the Danish-Russian bilateral relationship at the present time. This relationship has fluctuated widely during the time period under study. Shared economic development interests in the 1990s contributed to a positive relationship; controversy surrounding the war in Chechnya and an assertive Danish prime minister ...


Guiding Principle 28: The Unfulfilled Promise To End Protracted Displacement In Azerbaijan, Kaleigh Rose McLaughlin 2020 University of South Dakota

Guiding Principle 28: The Unfulfilled Promise To End Protracted Displacement In Azerbaijan, Kaleigh Rose Mclaughlin

Honors Thesis

In 1998 internal displacement became a major focus of international concern with the adoption the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement by the United Nations. This seminal document outlined the rights and protections of internally displaced persons (IDPs), as well as developing policy solutions for ending displacement. In the two decades since the adoption of the Guiding Principles, there has been an explosion of research into various case studies. This paper re-examines the case of Azerbaijan within a new theoretical framework. This paper uses the work of Walter Kalin, former UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons (2004-2010 ...


The Collapse Of A Communist Giant: A Study Of Party Unity In The Soviet Union, Jillian Vice 2020 University of Mississippi

The Collapse Of A Communist Giant: A Study Of Party Unity In The Soviet Union, Jillian Vice

Honors Theses

This thesis seeks to analyze the breakdown of the unity of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) over policy disputes through three case studies: the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the cooperative movements, and the concessionist policy towards nationalist movements in the Baltic republics. Through a content analysis of primary sources including meeting minutes, diaries, newspaper sources and interviews, to ascertain the positions and opinions of party members and give insight into the party dialogue and atmosphere, revealing policy disagreements tied to contending values. This thesis finds that there was a breakdown in party unity during the Gorbachev era due ...


Complete U.S. Withdrawal From Middle East Highly Unlikely: Assessments For The Russian Government, Brittany Sheffield, Abigail Weiderhold 2020 James Madison University

Complete U.S. Withdrawal From Middle East Highly Unlikely: Assessments For The Russian Government, Brittany Sheffield, Abigail Weiderhold

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

The project aims to provide the Russian government with vital information regarding how Russian influence and power might be affected in the Middle East by potential United States’ decisions regarding withdrawal. The purpose of this project is to assess the likelihood of a U.S. withdrawal from the Middle East in order to support the creation of effective Russian foreign policy. The project will specifically look at the relationships between actors and the power dynamics which affect the region. The question of likelihood of U.S. withdrawal will be evaluated through the application of multiple methods including Analysis of Competing ...


The Fragility Of Democracy: The Rise Of Authoritarianism In Hungary And Poland, Maria Fernandez 2020 Dominican University of California

The Fragility Of Democracy: The Rise Of Authoritarianism In Hungary And Poland, Maria Fernandez

Political Science & International Studies | Senior Theses

Hungary and Poland have attempted to establish democratic systems of government since the end of Soviet occupation in 1991. Recently, both states have elected leaders who have started to manipulate their democratic institution into one that seems not so democratic; both Hungary and Poland have manipulated their judicial branch into one that now serves only their own interests. Leaders in Hungary and Poland have shown their support for regimes such as those in Russia, China, and Turkey. What factors contribute to democratically elected officials shifting towards authoritarianism in post Eastern-Bloc countries? From Samuel P Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations, to ...


National Minorities And European Union Accession: A Consideration Of Communist Legacies And Eu Conditionality In Central And Eastern Europe, Esther Moriah Yeung 2020 University of Pennsylvania

National Minorities And European Union Accession: A Consideration Of Communist Legacies And Eu Conditionality In Central And Eastern Europe, Esther Moriah Yeung

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe prompted Western Europe to integrate the region with European Union (EU) expansion. The collapse of the Eastern bloc was concerning to the West, which viewed the nationalist tensions in the region as having the potential to trigger destabilization and conflict. This thesis evaluates the treatment of Hungarian national minorities in three states that eventually joined the EU: Slovakia, Romania, and Slovenia. Marxist-Leninist legacies, in combination with democratization and EU membership, determined key differences in state compliance with EU national minority recommendations in the wake of membership. I identify how both communist-era ...


The Komsomol Experience Under Stalin, Grace E. Gallagher 2020 Gettysburg College

The Komsomol Experience Under Stalin, Grace E. Gallagher

Student Publications

Founded in 1918, the Communist Youth Organization, more commonly known as the Komsomol, was used as a method for political socialization for Soviet youth by providing a sense of community, activities, and a sense of identity. The organization was also used as a way to bolster the Soviet military and generate propaganda. The Komsomol was at its height during the Stalinist period. Members played substantial roles in the major highlights of Stalin’s political career, including the Five-Year Plans, the Purges, and World War II, giving them the political experience necessary to rise as a new generation of party leaders.


Collection Development At Two Armenian University Libraries: A Conversation With Librarians And Faculty, John Carey, D. Aram Donabedian, Arshak Balayan 2020 CUNY Hunter College

Collection Development At Two Armenian University Libraries: A Conversation With Librarians And Faculty, John Carey, D. Aram Donabedian, Arshak Balayan

Publications and Research

In the summer of 2016 two Hunter College librarians, working with a colleague in the Republic of Armenia, conducted an IRB-approved focus group at the American University of Armenia in Yerevan, Armenia. This group drew participants from the libraries and other academic departments of the American University of Armenia as well as Yerevan State University, a large public institution. The discussion attempted to ascertain whether these libraries have devised effective strategies to acquire materials and build collections in the face of the challenges they face (budgetary, linguistic, and sometimes political) and whether faculty at these institutions feel their library’s ...


Whose War Is It Anyway? How Afghanistan Became A Battlefield Over Global Hegemony During The Cold War, Kathryn Shapiro 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Whose War Is It Anyway? How Afghanistan Became A Battlefield Over Global Hegemony During The Cold War, Kathryn Shapiro

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Traditional scholarship depicts the Cold War, which began immediately after World War Two and ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, as a battle of freedom and democracy over communism and authoritarian control. Cold War propaganda cartoons often show an Uncle Sam figure facing off against the Soviet Union, or a Soviet Bear reaching out to grab and control Western Europe. While this may have been popular Cold War discourse, a close look at internal documents from the United States Government at the time reveals that the United States was more interested in protecting resources and their ...


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