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Assessing New Wars Theory In The Post-Arab Spring Era: The Libyan And Yemeni Wars (2011-2020), Shady El-Sherif 2022 American University in Cairo

Assessing New Wars Theory In The Post-Arab Spring Era: The Libyan And Yemeni Wars (2011-2020), Shady El-Sherif

Theses and Dissertations

Mary Kaldor’s “New Wars” theory which was first published in 1991 argues that warfare has changed after the Cold War with the growing globalization and the rise of violent non-state actors. According to the theory, globalization augmented certain problems that are considered the main causes of these “new wars” such as; state fragility/failure, identity politics, and war economy methods which all account at present for the continuation of conflicts, especially in the MENA region with more civilian casualties. To assess this theory, I am using a comparative case study methodology with a historical process-tracing approach for the Yemeni ...


Documenting Doha: Community Archiving And Collective Memory In Qatar, Sumayya Ahmed 2022 Simmons University

Documenting Doha: Community Archiving And Collective Memory In Qatar, Sumayya Ahmed

Journal of Contemporary Archival Studies

Heritage experts working in Qatar contend that international museum standards do not allow them to engage with local understandings of history and heritage, thereby acknowledging the disconnect between museums and Qatari collective memory. This article posits that due to the relative absence of relatable representations in international-facing museums, Qataris, building upon a local tradition of private folk museums, are collecting and sharing their heritage materials via social media in forms known in the field of archival studies as “community archiving.” In reviewing examples of Qatari online community archives, it notes correspondences to the characteristics of community archives that have been ...


Aftermaths Of Opposition: Effectiveness Of Repression Against Reformist Islamists In Saudi Arabia, Londyn Lorenz 2022 University of Mississippi

Aftermaths Of Opposition: Effectiveness Of Repression Against Reformist Islamists In Saudi Arabia, Londyn Lorenz

Honors Theses

Saudi Arabia has long been considered a religious, political, and economic hub of the Middle East and North Africa as the home of the two holiest cities in Islam: Mecca and Medina. The kingdom’s leaders, the Al Saud family, have relied on their Islamic clout to remain in power since the 1700s, but their Islamic credentials were called into question following their allowance of American troops on Saudi soil and alliance with Western ideals during and following the Gulf War of the 1990s. Islamist outrage against the throne poured out across the nation, bringing demands for political change and ...


A Country Prospering On Abuse: Migrant Worker Exploitation And Labor Reform In Qatar, Emma Towe 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Country Prospering On Abuse: Migrant Worker Exploitation And Labor Reform In Qatar, Emma Towe

Marketing Undergraduate Honors Theses

The countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council rely on migrant workers to drive their economies and perform hard labor while simultaneously abusing these workers through the kafala (sponsorship) system. Qatar is not an exception to this rule, even as labor reforms are being implemented. When Qatar was awarded the responsibility of hosting the 2022 FIFA World Cup, an international spotlight on labor abuses followed. Although Qatar has responded by enacting labor reforms, strong evidence shows continued abuse and lax enforcement of new polices. While the economy of Qatar thrives, overworked, underpaid migrant workers, who have little to no rights, continue ...


Allow Them To Take The Reins: Why Central Asian States Need To Lead In Afghanistan, Brandon Angel 2022 Liberty University

Allow Them To Take The Reins: Why Central Asian States Need To Lead In Afghanistan, Brandon Angel

Helm's School of Government Conference

No abstract provided.


Current United States Security Strategy: Underestimation Of Afghanistan’S State Of Affairs And Resulting Impacts On American Freedom, Hannah Crosby 2022 Liberty University

Current United States Security Strategy: Underestimation Of Afghanistan’S State Of Affairs And Resulting Impacts On American Freedom, Hannah Crosby

Helm's School of Government Conference

The intent of this paper is to analyze the current state of the United States Security Strategy and the volatile condition of Afghanistan. Due to the shifting focus of the current administration, the United States has been left unprepared for the cultural, social, and political impacts of the American withdrawal from Afghanistan. With a critical assessment of the current security strategy and a profound shift in American political and militaristic goals, the United States can develop proper prevention and containment tactics to combat the reconstitution of Afghanistan as a terrorist haven and deter possible actions that might be taken against ...


A Friendship Betrayed: The Jonathan Pollard Spy Case And American-Israeli Relations, Julie Sohnen 2022 University of Pennsylvania

A Friendship Betrayed: The Jonathan Pollard Spy Case And American-Israeli Relations, Julie Sohnen

Honors Program in History (Senior Honors Theses)

This thesis explores the mysterious Pollard affair, a tense episode of espionage and diplomatic crisis that transpired during the mid-1980s, toward the tail end of the Cold War. The spying and subsequent capture of Jonathan Pollard, an American Jew, to benefit Israel led to a reckoning in the relationship between the American and Israeli governments, between the American Jewish community and Israel, and between the American Jewish community and the U.S. government. Although Israel and the United States had a close and enduring working relationship at the time, Pollard received a life sentence. He was released on parole in ...


Tactical Mistakes: Women's Role In Terrorism, Laura Daniel 2022 Liberty University

Tactical Mistakes: Women's Role In Terrorism, Laura Daniel

Liberty University Journal of Statesmanship & Public Policy

Since the 1970s, the word "terrorism" has become a well-known term. Almost two decades after 9/11, it has become a part of everyday vocabulary and, at times, dominates the news cycle. However, the faces we see associated with terrorism are mainly men. When talking of a training camp or a video claiming responsibility for terrorist attacks, women are not a part of the majority. However, women do play a significant role in terrorism. This article evaluates the history of women in terrorism and their positions in terror organizations, as well as the tactical mistake of overlooking women's role ...


Constructing Kurdistan: Cross-Border Kurdish Relations And Ethnic Identity, Benjamin Meyer 2022 Connecticut College

Constructing Kurdistan: Cross-Border Kurdish Relations And Ethnic Identity, Benjamin Meyer

Government and International Relations Honors Papers

This thesis examines the emergence and politicization of ethnic identity in the Kurdish populations of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. Through a historical analysis of Kurdish revolts and nationalist movements the late imperial and colonial eras, it demonstrates that ‘Kurdishness’, or Kurdayetî, has been instrumentalized as ethnonationalism primarily in a defensive capacity, in response to external coercive pressures forcing the Kurds to ‘think like a state’ and view themselves in increasingly ethnopolitical terms. By illustrating the extent to which ethnonationalism was imposed upon the Kurdish people and the limited appeal it enjoyed in the first half of the twentieth century ...


Book Review: This Is How They Tell Me The World Ends: The Cyberweapons Arms Race (2020) By Nicole Perlroth, Amy C. Gaudion 2022 Penn State Dickinson Law

Book Review: This Is How They Tell Me The World Ends: The Cyberweapons Arms Race (2020) By Nicole Perlroth, Amy C. Gaudion

Dickinson Law Review

No abstract provided.


No Laughing Matter: Political Humor And Media In Egypt’S January 25th Revolution, Julia Brock 2022 Claremont Colleges

No Laughing Matter: Political Humor And Media In Egypt’S January 25th Revolution, Julia Brock

Scripps Senior Theses

The January 25th Revolution in Egypt began in 2011 when protestors took to the streets in Cairo and other Egyptian cities demanding that President Hosni Mubarak resign. They were armed with a savvy tool: humor. This study is a historical and theoretical approach to understanding political humor’s position as a space for politically subversive conversation in Egypt in the decade leading up to the January 25th Revolution, as well as during the revolution itself. Humor, media, and social movement theories are mobilized within this thesis to explain humor’s unique position within Egyptian society and its function within subversive ...


The Role Of The Governments Of Indonesia And Saudi Arabia In The Organizing The Hajj Prayer 2015 – 2021, Didi Subandi, Yon Machmudi 2021 Universitas Indonesia

The Role Of The Governments Of Indonesia And Saudi Arabia In The Organizing The Hajj Prayer 2015 – 2021, Didi Subandi, Yon Machmudi

Jurnal Middle East and Islamic Studies

ABSTRACT

This study discusses The Role of the Governments of Indonesia and Saudi Arabia in the Organizing the Hajj Prayer during 2015 – 2021 period with qualitative and descriptive method. We can conclude that the implementation of Hajj in Indonesia is strongly influenced by the bilateral relations of the two countries. This can be seen from a historical perspective, where even before Indonesia's independence there were quite a lot of pilgrims from Indonesia. The relationship between the Government of the Dutch East Indies (before Indonesia's independence) and Saudi Arabia was already established. In the future, bilateral relations between Indonesia ...


Arah Kebijakan Militer Arab Saudi Di Bawah Komando Mohammed Bin Salman (Mbs) Menghadapi Visi Saudi 2030, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Syaroni Rofii Mr. 2021 Universitas Indonesia

Arah Kebijakan Militer Arab Saudi Di Bawah Komando Mohammed Bin Salman (Mbs) Menghadapi Visi Saudi 2030, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Syaroni Rofii Mr.

Jurnal Middle East and Islamic Studies

The Saudi Arabia's Grand Vision 2030 which has been launched since 2016, but Saudi Arabia's involvement in the political arena in the Middle East has drained the finances of this rich country. Saudi Arabia actually wants to get out of the mud of conflict in the region and find a way to save face under de facto of the Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MBS) leadership. The larger goal of Saudi Vision 2030 is more important than maintaining its regional hegemony under the shadow of the United States. MBS's policy of involving Saudi Arabia, which is supported by ...


Peran Dan Kepentingan North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Nato) Dalam Konflik Perang Sipil Di Libya: Studi Kasus Periode Tahun 2011-2015, Harisuda Murdani, Yon Machmudi 2021 Universitas Indonesia

Peran Dan Kepentingan North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Nato) Dalam Konflik Perang Sipil Di Libya: Studi Kasus Periode Tahun 2011-2015, Harisuda Murdani, Yon Machmudi

Jurnal Middle East and Islamic Studies

The wave of the Arab Spring in the East The Civil War in Libya that occurred in the Middle East in 2011 was felt in Libya. The conflict that started as a demonstration ended in a civil war between the government and the Libyan opposition. NATO's humanitarian intervention is the mandate of the United Nations in the civil war in Libya uses the Responsibility to Protect rule to prevent the conflict from spreading. The presence of NATO as an international community is not only due to concern for Libya but there is an interest of oil resources in Libya ...


Analisis Implementasi Kebijakan Tni Dalam Menghadapi Ideologi Khilafah, Toufik Akbar Siddik, muhamad syauqillah 2021 universitas indonesia

Analisis Implementasi Kebijakan Tni Dalam Menghadapi Ideologi Khilafah, Toufik Akbar Siddik, Muhamad Syauqillah

Jurnal Middle East and Islamic Studies

Saat ini ancaman dalam bentuk radikalisme dan ideologi marak, bahkan gerilya. Isu masuknya paham radikal dan ideologi khilafah ke dalam tubuh TNI menjadi latar belakang analisis studi kasus dalam tugas akhir ini. Salah satu faktor yang memperkuat ketahanan prajurit TNI dalam menghadapi ideologi atau ideologi selain Pancasila adalah melalui kebijakan-kebijakan yang ada, sehingga tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bentuk-bentuk kebijakan di lingkungan TNI dan bagaimana implementasi kebijakan tersebut. Metodologi yang digunakan adalah deskriptif kualitatif dengan sumber data menekankan pada wawancara dan studi dokumentasi. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat beberapa bentuk kebijakan dan implementasi yang baik di lapangan. Dari ...


The Polarization Of The Hamas Movement In Palestine And Its Influence On Indonesian Defense Issues: A Geopolitical And Military Overview, Ahmad Budiman, Mulawarman Hannase 2021 Universitas Indonesia

The Polarization Of The Hamas Movement In Palestine And Its Influence On Indonesian Defense Issues: A Geopolitical And Military Overview, Ahmad Budiman, Mulawarman Hannase

Jurnal Middle East and Islamic Studies

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict has implications for the birth of armed groups that continue to

be polarized within Palestine, such as the PLO, Hamas, Fatah, and others to the PNA.

However, one group that exists and has a strong resonance in the Islamic world is Hamas.

The resonance also reached Indonesia. This study will examine the polarization of Hamas and

its military activities which are considered to represent the interests of Palestinian Muslims.

As a result, this has a snowball effect by generating bigger and stronger support which

ultimately affects the issue of Indonesia's national defense., This study uses a ...


Islamic Banking Risk Assessment Process: A Case Study From Indonesia, Ita Sitasari 2021 Sekolah Tinggi Ekonomi dan Perbankan Islam Mr. Sjafruddin Prawiranegara

Islamic Banking Risk Assessment Process: A Case Study From Indonesia, Ita Sitasari

Jurnal Middle East and Islamic Studies

Indonesian Islamic banks are required have minimum capital in relation to bank’s risk profile rating that comes from the comprehensive risk assessment process. This is a qualitative study to observe how Islamic banks in Indonesia respond to the regulation, with the focus observation on the material risk identification process, risk indicators and determination of risk level. Based on discussion with some risk officers of Islamic banks indicates that the banks do not have specific process to identify material risks. They make assessment on risk types that have been defined by regulator. They also do not develop additional Islamic risk ...


Hubungan Islam Dan Negara Dalam Perspektif Pemikiran Sekuler Ali Abdurraziq, Nurwahidin Nurwahidin, Muhammad Miqdad, Jamaluddin Djunaid 2021 Universitas Indonesia

Hubungan Islam Dan Negara Dalam Perspektif Pemikiran Sekuler Ali Abdurraziq, Nurwahidin Nurwahidin, Muhammad Miqdad, Jamaluddin Djunaid

Jurnal Middle East and Islamic Studies

Tulisan ini memberikan pengetahuan serta wawasan mengenai konsep islam dan perbedaan antara hukum agama dan hukum Negara menurut berbagai pendapat para ahli. Metode untuk artikel ini mengunakan Jenis kepustakaan atau library research. Jenis data dari metode ini yang didapatkan dari kumpulan data atau penulisan ilmiah yang memiliki tujuan untuk menyelesaikan suatu permasalahan yang terjadi melalui penelitian yang kritis dan mendalam terhadap data kepustakaa yang relevan. Data berasal dari sumber-sumber terkait penelitian lainnya. Tulisan ini menggunakan pendekatan teks untuk mengetahui bagaimana model pemikiran politik yang dimiliki oleh Ali Abdurraziq. Selain itu juga digunakan pendekatan sosiologis untuk melihat sejauh mana orisinalitas pemikiran ...


Three Muwahhid City Gates In Morocco, Rasha Ali 2021 The American University in Cairo AUC

Three Muwahhid City Gates In Morocco, Rasha Ali

Archived Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


"Claiming The Mad": Implications Of The Introduction Of The Mental Asylum In Colonial Egypt, Samar Gamal Nour 2021 The American University in Cairo AUC

"Claiming The Mad": Implications Of The Introduction Of The Mental Asylum In Colonial Egypt, Samar Gamal Nour

Archived Theses and Dissertations

What was colonial about colonial psychiatry in Egypt? Recent scholarship on colonial psychiatry opens a new window into this important historical problem and offers significant, if ambiguous, evidence about the practice of what we can call colonial psychology and what was considered pathological (mental) in the colonial context, thereby shedding light on the normal as well and hence elaborates on the proclivity of colonial psychiatry to provide a "naturalized" and pathologjzed accounts of the colonized subjects. The introduction of the modern European asylum in 1884 significantly changed the definition and perception of mental illness and madness in Egypt, as it ...


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