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David Versus Goliath: The Power Of Weakness In Asymmetric Warfare—Lessons From History, Nicholas K. Petaludis 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

David Versus Goliath: The Power Of Weakness In Asymmetric Warfare—Lessons From History, Nicholas K. Petaludis

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Under what conditions do violent nonstate actors (VNA) succeed against states? Why does David sometimes beat Goliath? Since at least the time of Thucydides and the Peloponnesian Wars, the realist narrative in international relations measures power primarily in relative, coercive, and deterrent terms. Strong states should accordingly face fewer constraints and enjoy more options while pursuing their national interests. Unconventional warfare, and its subsets of terrorism and insurgency, should—given these circumstances, end in VNA failure. Sometimes, however, VNAs find success. By comparing the literature on historical and current case studies, I propose that a set of preconditions and two mechanisms …


R&D Subsidies In Permissive And Restrictive Environment: Evidence From Korea, Yumi KOH, Gea M. LEE 2023 Singapore Management University

R&D Subsidies In Permissive And Restrictive Environment: Evidence From Korea, Yumi Koh, Gea M. Lee

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper investigates the extent to which a regulatory environment for R&D subsidies shapes the magnitude and direction of R&D subsidies set by a government and consequent innovation paths. When the WTO adopted a permissive regulatory environment, we find that the Korean government increased R&D subsidies significantly (89.21%) and selectively so for firms and industries with higher returns. Recipient firms conducted less basic research and more development research. Improvements in innovations were mostly incremental and minor. However, such changes did not persist once the WTO switched to a restrictive regulatory environment. Our findings show that the regulatory environment imposed by …


Research@Smu: Sustainable Living, Singapore Management University 2023 Singapore Management University

Research@Smu: Sustainable Living, Singapore Management University

Research Collection Office of Research & Tech Transfer

Sustainable Living is one of the three key priorities of the SMU 2025 Strategy, and the University is committed to develop it into an area of cross-disciplinary strength. The articles in this booklet highlight impactful sustainability research accomplishments at SMU, which spans five broad pillars: Sustainable Business Operations; Sustainable Finance and Impact Assessment; Sustainable Ageing and Wellness; Sustainable Urban Infrastructure; and Sustainable Agro-business and Food Consumption.

Contents:

Sustainable Business Operations

  • Managing the Load on Loading Bays
  • Going the Last-mile
  • Feeding a Growing World
  • Pooling the Benefits of Sharing a Ride

Sustainable Finance and Impact Assessment

  • When Going Green Becomes a …


Neighborhood Retail Amenities And Taxi Trip Behavior: A Natural Experiment In Singapore, Kwan Ok LEE, Shih-Fen CHENG 2023 Singapore Management University

Neighborhood Retail Amenities And Taxi Trip Behavior: A Natural Experiment In Singapore, Kwan Ok Lee, Shih-Fen Cheng

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

While a small change in land use planning in existing neighborhoods may significantly reduce private vehicle trips, we do not have a great understanding of the magnitude of the project- and shock-based causal change in travel behaviors, especially for the retail purpose. We analyze the impact of newly developed malls on the retail trip behavior of nearby residents for shopping, dining or services. Using the difference-in-differences approach and big data from a major taxi company in Singapore, we find that households residing within 800 m from a new mall are significantly less likely to take taxis to other retail destinations …


Racism And Resilience: Counter-Narratives Of Asian International College Students In The Age Of Covid-19, Katrina Liu, Richard Miller, Sharolyn D. Pollard-Durodola, Lei Ping 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Racism And Resilience: Counter-Narratives Of Asian International College Students In The Age Of Covid-19, Katrina Liu, Richard Miller, Sharolyn D. Pollard-Durodola, Lei Ping

The Qualitative Report

Using Asian Critical Race Theory and Resilience Theory, this qualitative study explores how Asian international college students experienced racism before and after the eruption of the COVID-19 pandemic and how they developed and used resilience to counteract that racism. Eleven Asian participants shared their counter-narratives through semi-structured interviews. Results reveal that, before the pandemic, participants were regularly subjected to racist acts and attitudes grounded in a deficit view of Asians that treated them as inscrutable foreigners, blamed them as individuals for perceived shortcomings in their home countries, dismissed their expertise outside of technical STEM fields, and failed to recognize their …


Emotions At The Border: Verbal Aspects Of The Attari-Wagah Patriotic Pilgrimage, Anna V. Bochkovskaya 2022 Lomonosov Moscow State University

Emotions At The Border: Verbal Aspects Of The Attari-Wagah Patriotic Pilgrimage, Anna V. Bochkovskaya

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

For over sixty years the Attari-Wagah checkpoint at the border between India and Pakistan has been a site for the Beating Retreat, a colorful ceremony of lowering the national flags performed jointly by the Indian Border Security Force and the Pakistan Rangers. This emotional ritual is generally perceived as a demonstration of aggressive designs, on the one hand, and as a symbol of goodwill and possible cooperation between neighbouring countries, on the other.

In recent decades visiting/viewing the border (sīmā darśan) has become an essential part of tourist packages for travellers in North-West India, while the notion of ‘patriotic pilgrimage’ …


Volume 5, Issue 2 (2022) 5.1.2 Migration, Community, And Environment During A Pandemic, 2022 James Madison University

Volume 5, Issue 2 (2022) 5.1.2 Migration, Community, And Environment During A Pandemic

International Journal on Responsibility

No abstract provided.


Explaining Suharto's Rise And Fall: International And Domestic Variables, Julia Batanghari 2022 University of San Diego

Explaining Suharto's Rise And Fall: International And Domestic Variables, Julia Batanghari

Undergraduate Honors Theses

For three decades (1968-1998), Indonesia was led by President Suharto, whose authoritarian military regime is remembered for its corruption and brutality. This paper offers an analysis of Suharto’s rule through the lens of two events: his 1965 purge of local ‘communists’ and the riots of May 1998. Drawing comparisons between the two, I delve into systemic causes by considering the influence of domestic and international variables. Exploring links between intergroup accommodation and democracy reveals that Suharto’s lack of ethnic, socioeconomic, and religious inclusivity paved the way not only for the anti-Chinese sentiment which pervaded Indonesian society during his presidency, but …


Associations Of The Covid-19 Pandemic With Older Individuals' Healthcare Utilization And Self-Reported Health Status: A Longitudinal Analysis From Singapore, Sangnam AHN, Seonghoon KIM, Kanghyock KOH 2022 University of Memphis

Associations Of The Covid-19 Pandemic With Older Individuals' Healthcare Utilization And Self-Reported Health Status: A Longitudinal Analysis From Singapore, Sangnam Ahn, Seonghoon Kim, Kanghyock Koh

Research Collection School Of Economics

Background: The COVID–19 pandemic has challenged the capacity of healthcare systems around the world and can potentially compromise healthcare utilization and health outcomes among non-COVID–19 patients. Objectives: To examine the associations of the COVID-19 pandemic with healthcare utilization, out-of-pocket medical costs, and perceived health among middle-aged and older individuals in Singapore. Method: Utilizing data collected from a monthly panel survey, a difference-in-differences approach was used to characterize monthly changes of healthcare use and spending and estimate the probability of being diagnosed with a chronic condition and self-reported health status before and during the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. Subjects: Data were …


Limited Shareholder Inspection Rights In Singapore: Worrying Legal Gap Or Unnecessary For Rankings?, Dan W. PUCHNIAK, TANG Samantha S. 2022 Singapore Management University

Limited Shareholder Inspection Rights In Singapore: Worrying Legal Gap Or Unnecessary For Rankings?, Dan W. Puchniak, Tang Samantha S.

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Singapore’s formal corporate law and governance rules normally meet or exceed global standards – which explains why it regularly tops prominent Asian and global rankings for good corporate governance. As such, Singapore’s outlier status, as the only leading economy in Asia that does not provide a specific mechanism for shareholders to access corporate information, is puzzling.In this Article we aim to solve this puzzle by offering two explanations that appear to make sense out of Singapore’s outlier status as having an unusually restrictive shareholder inspection rights regime. The first, demand-side, explanation is that Singapore’s controlling shareholder-dominated landscape generates little demand …


Mind The Gaps: Assessing And Enhancing The Trustworthiness Of Mental Health Apps, Gary Kok Yew CHAN 2022 Singapore Management University

Mind The Gaps: Assessing And Enhancing The Trustworthiness Of Mental Health Apps, Gary Kok Yew Chan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Mental health apps including artificial intelligence (“AI”)- powered apps and chatbots have raised serious concerns relating to safety, efficacy and privacy. This article assesses their trustworthiness based on lego-regulatory, ethical and technological measures in addressing the abovementioned concerns. Focusing on applications to mental health apps, it examines Singapore laws, regulations and guidelines relating to software-based and AI medical devices, data protection, consumer protection, advertising and medical negligence. Additionally, upon taking into account other non-binding ethical guidelines, certification standards and technological measures targeted at app developers, a few recommendations are offered for enhancing trust in mental health apps.


Shaping New Interregionalism: The Eu-Singapore Free Trade Agreement And Beyond, Pasha L. HSIEH 2022 Singapore Management University

Shaping New Interregionalism: The Eu-Singapore Free Trade Agreement And Beyond, Pasha L. Hsieh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The article examines the theoretical concept of interregionalism in the context of the evolving framework between the European Union (EU) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). As the EU's first free trade agreement (FTA) with an ASEAN country, the EU-Singapore FTA is a pathfinder agreement that signifies a new phase of interregionalism and the EU's new Asia strategy after the Treaty of Lisbon. The article argues that the innovative designs of the EU-Singapore FTA will shape the normative development of EU-ASEAN relations in the post-pandemic era. It also cautions that a comparative analysis of EU and US agreements …


Singapore Management University Report To Stakeholders 2021/2022, Singapore Management University 2022 Singapore Management University

Singapore Management University Report To Stakeholders 2021/2022, Singapore Management University

Report to Stakeholders

The title of the annual report, “Our Evolving Garden”, points to how the University continues to develop and progress as “One SMU”. With the world now learning to live with COVID-19 as endemic, the last year has been one in which SMU students have been able to resume many of the activities that contribute towards providing a transformative education. For example, they were able to attend many more events on campus and to travel overseas for internships, exchanges, and community service projects. Faculty too were able to attend academic conferences and meet with educational partners, business connections and research associates …


The Distributional Impacts Of Transportation Networks In China, Lin MA, Tang YANG 2022 Singapore Management University

The Distributional Impacts Of Transportation Networks In China, Lin Ma, Tang Yang

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper evaluates the distributional impacts of transportation networks in China.We show that the quality of roads and railroads vary substantially over time and space, and ignoring these variations biases the estimates of travel time. To account for quality differences, we construct a new panel dataset and approximate quality using the design speed of roads and railroads that varies by vintage, class, and terrain at the pixel level. We then build a dynamic spatial general equilibrium model that allows for multiple modes and routes of transportation and forward-looking migration decision.We find aggregate welfare gain and less spatial income inequality led …


The Value Of Fiduciary Duties: Evidence From En Bloc Sales In Singapore, Jianfeng HU, Kelvin F. K. LOW, Wei ZHANG 2022 Singapore Management University

The Value Of Fiduciary Duties: Evidence From En Bloc Sales In Singapore, Jianfeng Hu, Kelvin F. K. Low, Wei Zhang

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

This paper examines the impact of fiduciary duties on collective asset sales in the case of owners acting as delegates for other owners, thereby potentially inducing conflicts of interests. Our identification strategy exploits a unique legal shock in Singapore, which established fiduciary duties in those transactions in the real estate market known colloquially as en bloc sales. The imposition of fiduciary duties caused the price premium of units sold via en bloc sales to increase over units ineligible for en bloc sale, as well as over units that, although eligible for en bloc sale, are sold individually. In addition, this …


Identifying Knowledge Spillovers From Universities: Quasi-Experimental Evidence From Urban China, Li JING, Shimeng LIU, Yifan WU 2022 Singapore Management University

Identifying Knowledge Spillovers From Universities: Quasi-Experimental Evidence From Urban China, Li Jing, Shimeng Liu, Yifan Wu

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper studies the impact of universities on local innovation activity by exploiting a unique university expansion policy in China as a quasi-experiment. We take a geographic approach, empowered by geocoded data on patents and new products at the address level, to identify knowledge spillovers as an important channel. We obtain three main findings. First, university expansion significantly increases universities’ own innovation capacity, which results in a dramatic boom of local industry patents. Second, the impact of university expansion on local innovation activities attenuates sharply within 2 kilometers of the universities. Third, university expansion boosts nearby firms’ new products and …


The Impact Of Having Foreign Domestic Workers On Informal Caregivers Of Persons With Dementia: Findings From A Multi-Method Research In Singapore, Qi Yuan, Yunjue Zhang, Ellaisha Samari, Anitha Jeyagurunathan, Tee Hng TAN, Fiona Devi, Peizhi Wang, Harish Magadi, Richard Goveas, Li Ling Ng, Mythily Subramaniam 2022 Institute of Mental Health, Singapore

The Impact Of Having Foreign Domestic Workers On Informal Caregivers Of Persons With Dementia: Findings From A Multi-Method Research In Singapore, Qi Yuan, Yunjue Zhang, Ellaisha Samari, Anitha Jeyagurunathan, Tee Hng Tan, Fiona Devi, Peizhi Wang, Harish Magadi, Richard Goveas, Li Ling Ng, Mythily Subramaniam

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Background: Informal caregivers of persons with dementia (PWDs) sometimes engage foreign domestic workers (FDWs) to support their caregiving journey. However, there has not been much research to establish if this is really beneficial. The current study aims to investigate whether engaging FDWs specifically for caregiving of PWDs truly moderates caregiver stress and to explore caregivers’ experiences of engaging FDWs. Methods: A multi-method study design with a quantitative and qualitative sub-study was adopted. For the quantitative sub-study, 282 informal caregivers of PWDs were recruited. Propensity score matching analysis was used. For the qualitative sub-study, 15 informal caregivers with FDWs were interviewed. …


The Papua Conflict: The Different Perspectives Of The Indonesian Government And International Communities—Review From The English School Theory, Mohamad Rosyidin, Andi Akhmad Basith Dir, Fendy Eko Wahyudi 2022 Department of International Relations, Universitas Diponegoro

The Papua Conflict: The Different Perspectives Of The Indonesian Government And International Communities—Review From The English School Theory, Mohamad Rosyidin, Andi Akhmad Basith Dir, Fendy Eko Wahyudi

Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional

The West Papuan issue has become a flashpoint of conflict between Indonesia and the international community. However, studies on this subject have never been concerned about the causal root of differences between Indonesia and the international community over the West Papuan issue. There has not been a theoretical account of how this issue is framed in international politics. Existing literature tends to overlook the fundamental narrative, that is, the contrasting view between Indonesia and those who support West Papuan freedom. This paper aims to analyse the root cause of this debate. Using the English School approach in international relations, this …


Questioning China’S Peaceful Development: A Mahanian Sea Power Analysis Of Blue Water Navy Accumulation, Patricia Patricia, Putu Agung Nara I.P. Satya 2022 Parahyangan Catholic University

Questioning China’S Peaceful Development: A Mahanian Sea Power Analysis Of Blue Water Navy Accumulation, Patricia Patricia, Putu Agung Nara I.P. Satya

Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional

China has been rapidly accumulating naval capabilities for nearly 4 decades with the ambition of pursuing blue-water-navy forces through its People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). With its peaceful development policy, the acquisition of such powers has been interpreted as an anomaly and therefore resulted in an increase of security dilemmas between states. In the quest for explanations behind China’s actions, multiple scholars have examined this phenomenon by utilizing offensive realism, defensive realism, and Tirpitzian non-hegemonic naval theory. Thus, this paper brings another perspective by applying the Mahanian Sea Power approach. Consequently, the analysis established that China’s pursuit of blue-water-navy is …


Solidarity For Myanmar: #Milkteaalliance Indonesia’S Transnational Activism In Pressuring The Government Of Indonesia And Asean, Muhammad Anugrah Utama 2022 Department of International Relations, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Solidarity For Myanmar: #Milkteaalliance Indonesia’S Transnational Activism In Pressuring The Government Of Indonesia And Asean, Muhammad Anugrah Utama

Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional

The military coup in Myanmar on February 1, 2021, carried out by the Tatmadaw against top officials from the newly elected-government–in which National League for Democracy (NLD) Party made the majority–brought strong backlashes from civil society, one of which was the Milk Tea Alliance. This paper discusses the activism of Milk Tea Alliance Indonesia in pressuring the Indonesian government and ASEAN, especially during the ASEAN Special Summit. This paper is based on qualitative method using literature review on the case study of Milk Tea Alliance activism in Indonesia. By referring to the ‘Boomerang pattern’ framework on transnational advocacy network, this …


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