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Investigation Of Service Provision For Children With Cochlear Implants, Tara Ann Gjerstad 2011 University of Iowa

Investigation Of Service Provision For Children With Cochlear Implants, Tara Ann Gjerstad

Theses and Dissertations

Objective. As a result of newborn hearing screenings, an increasing number of infants are being identified with a hearing loss at birth or within a few months of life. The literature supports that early identification in conjunction with early intervention services have led to drastic improvements in speech and language outcomes for children who have a received a cochlear implant (CI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the amount, type, and quality of services that young children with CI(s) are receiving.

Methods. Participants in this study included 22 teachers of the deaf/hard of hearing (TD/HH ...


Cricothyroid Muscle Activity At Voicing Transitions, Sanyukta Jaiswal 2011 University of Iowa

Cricothyroid Muscle Activity At Voicing Transitions, Sanyukta Jaiswal

Theses and Dissertations

Alteration in the tension or stiffness of the vocal folds, mediated by the cricothyroid (CT) muscle activation, is one of the laryngeal strategies attributed to devoicing during speech production. While some studies have reported a consistent increase in CT activity associated with voiceless sounds in comparison to their voiced cognates during speech (Kagaya & Hirose, 1975; Dixit & MacNeilage,1981; Lofqvist, McGarr & Honda, 1984; Löfqvist et al., 1989; Hoole et al., 2004), other studies have suggested that closer relation of CT activity to supra-segmental characteristics of the utterance rather than voicing contrasts (Hirose & Gay, 1972; Hirose and Ushijima,1978; Collier, Lisker, Hirose & Ushijima, 1979). The purpose of this study was ...


The Contribution Of A Frequency-Compression Hearing Aid To Contralateral Cochlear Implant Performance, Ann Elizabeth Perreau 2011 University of Iowa

The Contribution Of A Frequency-Compression Hearing Aid To Contralateral Cochlear Implant Performance, Ann Elizabeth Perreau

Theses and Dissertations

Frequency-lowering signal processing in hearing aids has re-emerged as an option to improve audibility of the high frequencies by expanding the input bandwidth. However, few studies have investigated the usefulness of the scheme as a bimodal option for cochlear implant users. In this study, that question was posed. It was hypothesized that, following fitting and a period of adjustment to a frequency-compression hearing aid, sound localization and speech perception would be improved compared to conventional amplification. More specifically, more high-frequency cues would be perceived in the hearing aid ear using frequency compression, thereby providing better sensitivity to interaural level differences ...


The Hypothesis Of Apraxia Of Speech In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Lawrence D. Shriberg, Rhea Paul, Lois M. Black, Jan P. van Santen 2011 Sacred Heart University

The Hypothesis Of Apraxia Of Speech In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Lawrence D. Shriberg, Rhea Paul, Lois M. Black, Jan P. Van Santen

Speech-Language Pathology Faculty Publications

In a sample of 46 children aged 4-7 years with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and intelligible speech, there was no statistical support for the hypothesis of concomitant Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS). Perceptual and acoustic measures of participants' speech, prosody, and voice were compared with data from 40 typically-developing children, 13 preschool children with Speech Delay, and 15 participants aged 5-49 years with CAS in neurogenetic disorders. Speech Delay and Speech Errors, respectively, were modestly and substantially more prevalent in participants with ASD than reported population estimates. Double dissociations in speech, prosody, and voice impairments in ASD were interpreted as ...


The Effects Of Hearing Aid Circuitry And Speech Presentation Level On Acceptance Of Background Noise, Ashley Powers Boynton 2011 Louisiana Tech University

The Effects Of Hearing Aid Circuitry And Speech Presentation Level On Acceptance Of Background Noise, Ashley Powers Boynton

Doctoral Dissertations

The present study investigated the effects of hearing aid circuitry and speech presentation level on ANL and hearing in noise in 19 adult, bilateral hearing aid users. The acceptable noise level (ANL) procedure was used to assess acceptance of background noise. Conventional ANLs (i.e., measured at the participant's most comfortable listening level (MCL)) and ANLs at eight fixed speech presentation levels were obtained. Then global ANLs (i.e., ANLs averaged over eight fixed speech presentation levels) and ANL growth (i.e., the slope of the ANL function) were calculated Each measure was obtained in three conditions: unaided, aided ...


The Clinical Application Of Progressive Filtering In Normal And Disordered Populations, Sarah M. Johnson 2011 Louisiana Tech University

The Clinical Application Of Progressive Filtering In Normal And Disordered Populations, Sarah M. Johnson

Doctoral Dissertations

The present study examined the effect of progressive filter testing in children with normal auditory processing skills and children with (central) auditory processing disorders [(C)APD]. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a new screening procedure designed by the investigator called Progressive Filtering would differentiate between a control group (i.e. children with normal auditory processing skills) and an experimental group [children with (C)APD]. Twenty subjects (age 6 to 14 years) participated in the study. All subjects received an audiological examination, an auditory processing test battery, and the Progressive Filtering screening tool. Results indicated that ...


Mapping Cortical Morphology In Youth With Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome, Wendy R. Kates, Ravi Bansal, Wanda Fremont, Xuejun Hao, Anne Marie Higgins, Jun Liu, Robert J. Shprintzen, Bradley S. Peterson 2011 Sacred Heart University

Mapping Cortical Morphology In Youth With Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome, Wendy R. Kates, Ravi Bansal, Wanda Fremont, Xuejun Hao, Anne Marie Higgins, Jun Liu, Robert J. Shprintzen, Bradley S. Peterson

Speech-Language Pathology Faculty Publications

Objective: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) represents one of the highest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Insofar as up to thirty percent of individuals with this genetic disorder develop schizophrenia, VCFS constitutes a unique, etiologically homogeneous model for understanding the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

Method: Using a longitudinal, case-control design, we acquired anatomic magnetic resonance images to investigate both cross-sectional and longitudinal alterations in surface cortical morphology in a cohort of adolescents with VCFS and age-matched typical controls. All participants were scanned at two time points.

Results: Relative to controls, youth with VCFS exhibited alterations in inferior frontal, dorsal ...


Intelligibility Of Electrolarynx Speech Using A Novel Hands-Free Actuator, Brian Madden, Mark Nolan, Ted Burke, James Condron, Eugene Coyle 2011 Technological University Dublin

Intelligibility Of Electrolarynx Speech Using A Novel Hands-Free Actuator, Brian Madden, Mark Nolan, Ted Burke, James Condron, Eugene Coyle

Conference Papers

During voiced speech, the larynx provides quasi-periodic acoustic excitation of the vocal tract. In most electrolarynxes, mechanical vibrations are produced by a linear electromechanical actuator, the armature of which percusses against a metal or plastic plate at a frequency within the range of glottal excitation. In this paper, the intelligibility of speech produced using a novel hands-free actuator is compared to speech produced using a conventional electrolarynx. Two able-bodied speakers (one male, one female) performed a closed response test containing 28 monosyllabic words, once using a conventional electrolarynx and a second time using the novel design. The resulting audio recordings ...


Augmented Control Of A Hands-Free Electrolarynx, Brian Madden, James Condron, Eugene Coyle 2011 Technological University Dublin

Augmented Control Of A Hands-Free Electrolarynx, Brian Madden, James Condron, Eugene Coyle

Conference Papers

During voiced speech, the larynx acts as the sound source, providing a quasi-periodic excitation of the vocal tract. Following a total laryngectomy, some people speak using an electrolarynx which employs an electromechanical actuator to perform the excitatory function of the absent larynx. Drawbacks of conventional electrolarynx designs include the monotonic sound emitted, the need for a free-hand to operate the device, and the difficulty experienced by many laryngectomees in adapting to its use. One improvement to the electrolarynx, which clinicians and users frequently suggest, is the provision of a convenient hands-free control facility. This would allow more natural use of ...


Age-Related Changes In Listening Effort For Various Types Of Masker Noises, Jamie L. Desjardins 2011 Syracuse University

Age-Related Changes In Listening Effort For Various Types Of Masker Noises, Jamie L. Desjardins

Communication Sciences and Disorders - Dissertations

It is well established that older listeners have more difficulty understanding speech in background noise than younger listeners (e.g. Dubno et. al., 1984). Some have attributed this increased difficulty to peripheral hearing loss, while others suggest that older listeners may perceive listening in noise as difficult and effortful because it requires them to exert more cognitive resources (Desjardins et. al., 2009). The purpose of the present study was to directly evaluate the relationship between cognitive function, listening effort and speech recognition for a group of younger and older normal hearing adults, and a group of older adults with hearing ...


The Neural Underpinnings Of Prosody In Autism, Inge-Marie Eigsti, Jillian Schuh, Einar Mencl, Robert T. Schultz, Rhea Paul 2011 University of Connecticut - Storrs

The Neural Underpinnings Of Prosody In Autism, Inge-Marie Eigsti, Jillian Schuh, Einar Mencl, Robert T. Schultz, Rhea Paul

Speech-Language Pathology Faculty Publications

This study examines the processing of prosodic cues to linguistic structure and to affect, drawing on fMRI and behavioral data from 16 high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 11 typically developing controls. Stimuli were carefully matched on pitch, intensity, and duration, while varying systematically in conditions of affective prosody (angry versus neutral speech) and grammatical prosody (questions versus statement). To avoid conscious attention to prosody, which normalizes responses in young people with ASD, the implicit comprehension task directed attention to semantic aspects of the stimuli. Results showed that when perceiving prosodic cues, both affective and grammatical, activation of ...


Early Hearing Detection Andintervention: Diagnostic Hearing Assessment Practices, Karen F. Munoz, L. Nelson, N. Goldgewicht, D. Odell 2011 Utah State University

Early Hearing Detection Andintervention: Diagnostic Hearing Assessment Practices, Karen F. Munoz, L. Nelson, N. Goldgewicht, D. Odell

Communicative Disorders and Deaf Education Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Audibility As A Predictor Of Speech Recognition And Listening Effort, Ryan W. McCreery 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Audibility As A Predictor Of Speech Recognition And Listening Effort, Ryan W. Mccreery

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Two studies were conducted to evaluate how audibility influences speech recognition and measures of working memory in children with normal hearing. Specifically, audibility limitations related to background noise and limited bandwidth were analyzed, as these factors are characteristic of the listening conditions encountered by children with hearing loss who wear hearing aids.

In the first study, speech recognition was measured for 117 children and 18 adults with normal hearing. Stimulus bandwidth and the level of background noise were varied systematically in order to evaluate predictions of audibility based on the Speech Intelligibility Index. Results suggested that children with normal hearing ...


Music-Induced Hearing Loss From Portable Listening Devices: Evaluating The Factors That Influence Risk Behaviors, Cory David Farquhar Portnuff 2011 University of Colorado at Boulder

Music-Induced Hearing Loss From Portable Listening Devices: Evaluating The Factors That Influence Risk Behaviors, Cory David Farquhar Portnuff

Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This study investigated how people use portable listening devices (PLDs), such as MP3 players, through laboratory-based measures of chosen listening level (CLL), self-reports of listening habits, and with a field system for monitoring listening levels in real-world environments. Additionally, attitudes and beliefs about PLD use and hearing loss were assessed using the Listening Habits Questionnaire (LHQ), a survey based in the Health Belief Model. The aims of this research were to 1) quantify and describe listening habits of PLD users, 2) evaluate the relationships between laboratory measures, self-report measures, and real-world measures collected through datalogging, 3) observe for effects of ...


Fingerspelling As A Phonological Code For Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Students, Loriann Schwartz 2011 University of Colorado at Boulder

Fingerspelling As A Phonological Code For Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Students, Loriann Schwartz

Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Explored the relationship between fingerspelling and phonological awareness (PA) to look at the word internal knowledge of DHH students and their ability to manipulate the phonemic components of language through fingerspelling. Further analysis assessed relationships with vocabulary and reading. The Phonological Awareness Test for Deaf and Hard of Hearing (PAT-DHH) was developed for the present investigation, and includes subtests in alliteration, rhyming, elision, and blending words; each in fingerspelling and spoken conditions. Participants were 10 DHH students (kindergarten through fourth grade) attending bilingual educational programs for DHH students. Results confirmed that children are able to demonstrate PA skills in fingerspelling ...


Multi-Sensory Processing In Adults: An Eeg Study Of Latency And Amplitude In The N1 And P2 Peaks, Kerry Faith Williamson 2011 University of Colorado at Boulder

Multi-Sensory Processing In Adults: An Eeg Study Of Latency And Amplitude In The N1 And P2 Peaks, Kerry Faith Williamson

Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Research has shown that processing of modality specific stimuli begins early on in cortical processing, affecting the peaks of event related potentials that occur earlier in EEG waveforms. Processing of combined sensory inputs has been shown to affect the latency and amplitude of later occurring peaks, the N2 and P300, suggesting that sensory stimuli are processed in a combined manner in a later stage of cortical processing. Two of the earlier peaks, the N1 and P2, of auditory and visual event related potentials (ERPs) can be used to study the effects of multiple sensory inputs on the human sensory system ...


Augmentative And Alternative Communication Systems In The Classroom, Helen Angela Mezzomo 2011 Walden University

Augmentative And Alternative Communication Systems In The Classroom, Helen Angela Mezzomo

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Augmentative-alternative communication (AAC) systems are used to give voice to individuals who are nonverbal. As AAC systems become more complex and prevalent in the classroom expectations of school-based professionals expand. However, the roles of those expected to support AAC systems, primarily teachers and speech-language pathologists (SLPs), are not clearly defined. Without clearly defined roles, professionals may not provide needed support to students who use AAC. Dewey's theory of community suggests that role confusion leads to insufficient and ineffective services. The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative study was to determine how teachers and SLPs view their roles in supporting AAC ...


Intervention Intensity For Speech Sound Disorders: How Much And For How Long?, Elise Baker, A. Lynn Williams 2011 The University of Sidney

Intervention Intensity For Speech Sound Disorders: How Much And For How Long?, Elise Baker, A. Lynn Williams

ETSU Faculty Works

Seminar Outline 1) What is intervention intensity? 2) What do we know about the intensity of intervention for SSD in children? 3) How might SLPs use the evidence on intervention intensity in their everyday management of SSD in children?


Feasibility Of Group Voice Therapy For Individuals With Parkinson’S Disease, Jeff Searl, Kristel Wilson, Karen Haring, Angela M. Dietsch, Kelly E. Lyons, Rajesh Pahwa 2011 University of Kansas Medical Center

Feasibility Of Group Voice Therapy For Individuals With Parkinson’S Disease, Jeff Searl, Kristel Wilson, Karen Haring, Angela M. Dietsch, Kelly E. Lyons, Rajesh Pahwa

Special Education and Communication Disorders Faculty Publications

Purpose: The primary purpose was to demonstrate the feasibility of executing treatment tasks focused on increasing loudness in a group format for individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). A second purpose was to report preliminary pre-to-post treatment outcomes for individuals with PD immediately after they complete the group program. Methods: The group intervention is described. Fifteen adults with PD who participated in the group and three clinicians leading the group provided feedback about the execution of the intervention. The participants also provided voice samples and self-ratings of voice handicap once before completing the 8-week voice group and once immediately after ...


Stem Cell Replacement Therapy For The Mammalian Inner Ear: A Systematic Literature Review, Robin Warwick 2011 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Stem Cell Replacement Therapy For The Mammalian Inner Ear: A Systematic Literature Review, Robin Warwick

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Objective: The purpose of this investigation is to review current possible regeneration techniques for damaged hair cells of the inner ear in mammals. The avian has the ability to spontaneously regenerate damaged hair cells, and thus provides an animal model to simulate a similar response in the mammalian inner ear.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using a PubMed database search to address the following question What are the current investigations pertaining to regenerating hair cells using stem cell-based research? The articles were analyzed and rated at Level Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, or III level of evidence ...


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