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Experimental In-Vivo Models Used In Fat Grafting Research For Volume Augmentation In Soft Tissue Reconstruction, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, Raghu Appasani, Kylee Sullivan, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Janice F. Lalikos 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Experimental In-Vivo Models Used In Fat Grafting Research For Volume Augmentation In Soft Tissue Reconstruction, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, Raghu Appasani, Kylee Sullivan, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Janice F. Lalikos

Open Access Articles

As the popularity of fat grafting research increases, animal models are being used as the source of pre-clinical experimental information for discovery and to enhance techniques. To date, animal models used in this research have not been compared to provide a standardized model. We analyzed publications from 1968-2015 to compare published accounts of animal models in fat grafting research. Data collected included: species used, graft characteristics (donor tissue, recipient area, amount injected, injection technique), time of sacrifice and quantification methods. Mice were most commonly used (56% of studies), with the "athymic nude" strain utilized most frequently (44%). Autologous fat was ...


Letter, Jarrod Bailey 2017 Cruelty Free International

Letter, Jarrod Bailey

Opposition to Animal Research

In a recent publication in Lab Animal,1 a nonhuman primate (NHP) researcher at the California National Primate Research Center, USA, argued for the continued importance of experiments on macaques for better understanding HIV and AIDS, and for tackling the virus and the disease with therapies and vaccines. Though the stance of the author is far from surprising, given his background and current employer (an organisation which houses around 5000 monkeys for research), the paper, even as comprehensive as it is, is not sufficiently critical of NHP experiments and overlooks a number of their deficiencies and established problems with them ...


Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


Ablation Of Adipose-Ho-1 Expression Increases White Fat Over Beige Fat Through Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Fusion And Of Pgc1alpha In Female Mice, S Singh, I Grant, A Meissner, A Kappas, Nader Abraham 2017 New York Medical College

Ablation Of Adipose-Ho-1 Expression Increases White Fat Over Beige Fat Through Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Fusion And Of Pgc1alpha In Female Mice, S Singh, I Grant, A Meissner, A Kappas, Nader Abraham

NYMC Faculty Publications

Background Hmox1 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and function by regulating cellular heme-derived CO and bilirubin. Previous studies have demonstrated that global disruption of HO-1 in humans and mice resulted in severe organ dysfunction. Methods We investigated the potential role of adipose-specific-HO-1 genetic ablation on adipose tissue function, mitochondrial quality control and energy expenditure by generating an adipo-HO-1 knockout mouse model (Adipo-HO-1-/-) and, in vitro, adipocyte cells in which HO activity was inhibited. Adiposity, signaling proteins, fasting glucose and oxygen consumption were determined and compared to adipocyte cultures with depressed levels of both HO-1/HO-2 ...


A Review Of The Institute Of Medicine’S Analysis Of Using Chimpanzees In Biomedical Research, Robert C. Jones, Ray Greek 2017 California State University, Chico

A Review Of The Institute Of Medicine’S Analysis Of Using Chimpanzees In Biomedical Research, Robert C. Jones, Ray Greek

Robert C. Jones, Ph.D.

We argue that the recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine’s 2011 report, Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research: Assessing the Necessity, are methodologically and ethically confused. We argue that a proper understanding of evolution and complexity theory in terms of the science and ethics of using chimpanzees in biomedical research would have had led the committee to recommend not merely limiting but eliminating the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research. Specifically, we argue that a proper understanding of the difference between the gross level of examination of species and examinations on finer levels can shed light on important ...


Ivd Formation In Monodelphis Domestica, Emma C.B. Gray, Jen Maier, Karen Sears 2017 Parkland College

Ivd Formation In Monodelphis Domestica, Emma C.B. Gray, Jen Maier, Karen Sears

Phenotypic Plasticity Research Experience for Community College Students

The research summarized on this poster supports the use of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) as a lab animal for research into invertebral disc formation and degeneration. Preliminary data suggests that some genes involved in the formation and maintenance of the notochord in mice are the same in the short-tailed opossum. Data also suggests the ossification of the vertebral column of pups proceeds anteriorly to posteriorly and that much of the maturation of the nucleus puposus happens in the first ten days.


Candida And Pseudomonas Interact To Enhance Mucosal Infection In Transparent Zebrafish, Audrey C. Bergeron 2017 The University of Maine

Candida And Pseudomonas Interact To Enhance Mucosal Infection In Transparent Zebrafish, Audrey C. Bergeron

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Polymicrobial communities exist throughout the human body and include both fungi and bacteria. During disease, cross-kingdom interactions among bacteria, fungi, and/or the immune system can alter virulence and lead to complex polymicrobial infections. The fungus C. albicans is among the most commonly isolated fungi in the context of fungal-bacterial co-infections and is often accompanied by the bacterium P. aeruginosa at a variety of sites throughout the body including mucosal tissues such as the lung. In vitro, C. albicans and P. aeruginosa have a cyclic, bi-directional, and largely antagonistic relationship, but these interactions do not account for the role of ...


Letter To The Editor, Jarrod Bailey 2017 Cruelty Free International

Letter To The Editor, Jarrod Bailey

Validation of Animal Experimentation

It seems clear that heeding the opinions and recommendations of experienced neuroscientists such as Professor Beuter, the well-argued probable opinion of the time-travelling Parkinson, and Grimm and Eggel’s demands for high animal welfare and honest and realistic harm–benefit analyses, will be of paramount importance for the advancement and evolution of experiments involving NHPs, particularly in neuroscience. This will benefit animals and humans alike.


Letter -- Re: Biomedical Experiments Involving Non-Human Primates, Jarrod Bailey 2017 Cruelty Free International

Letter -- Re: Biomedical Experiments Involving Non-Human Primates, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, Ph.D.

One of the main motivations for my 2016 review was my frustration at the repeated, unsound case put forth by many of those who advocate for continued, and greater, invasive neuroscience on our primate cousins. In my view, this case is multiply and seriously flawed. It overlooks the opposition of the public to animal experiments, in particular to NHP neuroscience; it skews the balance of associated harms and proposed benefits by understating the former and overstating the latter; it assumes a default human relevance without critically questioning this assumption and without appreciating the abundant evidence against it; it plays down ...


Analysis Of Population Structure In A California Newt (Taricha Torosa) Metapopulation, Jessica Vincent 2017 Western Kentucky University

Analysis Of Population Structure In A California Newt (Taricha Torosa) Metapopulation, Jessica Vincent

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

As anthropogenic influences take an ever-increasing toll on the environment, understanding how environmental change affects species is paramount. Concern regarding decline in amphibian populations has spurred research examining the effects of habitat change on the dynamics of populations at landscape levels. One important goal is to understand how gene flow among populations is affected by changes in habitat. Biologists need to consider the relationship between gene flow and habitat alterations so that movements among individual breeding ponds can be maintained over time, reducing risk of local extinction events. This study focuses on patterns of gene flow among thirteen populations of ...


Evaluating The Social Behavior And Activity Patterns Of Clouded Leopards (Neofelis Nebulosa) At The Nashville Zoo: Research And Literature Review, Meghan Ryckeley 2017 Western Kentucky University

Evaluating The Social Behavior And Activity Patterns Of Clouded Leopards (Neofelis Nebulosa) At The Nashville Zoo: Research And Literature Review, Meghan Ryckeley

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The behavior of the elusive clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is not well understood. In captivity, they are prone to exhibit stress-related behaviors and are often aggressive to conspecifics when paired. The present study built on past research by examining clouded leopards at the Nashville Zoo at Grassmere (NZG) to determine their activity patterns and temperament. Twelve leopards were exposed to familiar and unfamiliar objects and people, as well as their reflection in a mirror over nine trials. The males were often more reactive than the females, and the 5-year olds more reactive than their younger counterparts. The mirror image and ...


Finding A Link Between Circadian Rhythms And The Immune System Of Captive Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Amber Bishop 2017 Western Kentucky University

Finding A Link Between Circadian Rhythms And The Immune System Of Captive Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Amber Bishop

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Circadian rhythms are commonplace in organisms and are normally controlled by a master clock. More recent evidence suggests that autonomous clocks operate in various systems in the body, including the immune system. This study looks for such a connection between the circadian rhythm and the immune system. In this study, captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were exposed to different light and dark cycles and blood samples were taken every six hours. Birds were exposed to 12 hours of light and then 12 hours of darkness (LD), 24 hours of darkness (DD), or 48 hours of DD. After collecting whole blood ...


Detection Of Tetracyclines In An Anaerobic Waste Digester Using Solid Phase Extraction And High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, Courtney Cruse 2017 Western Kentucky University

Detection Of Tetracyclines In An Anaerobic Waste Digester Using Solid Phase Extraction And High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, Courtney Cruse

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Antibiotics are introduced to livestock to encourage growth and for the treatment of diseases. These antibiotics are not completely metabolized by swine, and thus these antibiotics are excreted with their waste. This poses a potential risk to human health as these antibiotics, a potential link to antibiotic resistant bacteria, then enter the surface water, ground water, and soil. In collaboration with the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Bowling Green, Kentucky, this research is concerned with analyzing the degradation of tetracyclines in swine waste from an anaerobic digester. Waste samples obtained from a digester and swine waste at the USDA ...


Growth And Survival Of Salamanders Exposed To Different Formulations Of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, Jessica Johnson 2017 Western Kentucky University

Growth And Survival Of Salamanders Exposed To Different Formulations Of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, Jessica Johnson

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Amphibian populations have been experiencing rapid declines worldwide in the past few decades. There are many proposed causations, including the use of agricultural chemicals such as herbicides. Glyphosate based herbicides are one of the most widely used herbicides. This study looks at the effects of different brands of glyphosate-based herbicides, including those intended for aquatic use, on the survival and growth of axolotl salamander larvae. Out of four brands of glyphosate herbicide (Aquamaster, Aquaneat, Helosate plus, and Roundup Pro), the survival rates of Roundup Pro were the lowest. Most mortality occurred between the 3 mg/L and 6 mg/L ...


Characterization Of An 18f-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Probe For Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Of The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, Ahmed Abbas 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Characterization Of An 18f-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Probe For Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Of The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, Ahmed Abbas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cardiovascular disease affects 1.6 million Canadians, of whom one-third have heart failure (HF). HF is diagnosed by imaging investigations and detection of circulating biomarkers. Most of the current imaging strategies study morphologic and gross functional changes, but fall short of imaging molecular abnormalities associated with HF. Biomarkers offer molecular targets; however, clinical biomarkers circulate systemically and are not cardiac-specific. Thus, there is critical need for a biomarker that is endogenous to myocardial tissues. The growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), which binds the hormone ghrelin, is expressed by cardiomyocytes and is elevated in HF patients. This study characterized the ...


Effects Of Food Consumption On Cell Proliferation In The Brain Of Python Regius, Stacy Star Habroun 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Effects Of Food Consumption On Cell Proliferation In The Brain Of Python Regius, Stacy Star Habroun

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Neurogenesis is an important and vastly under-explored area in reptiles. While the ability to generate new brain cells in the adult mammalian brain is limited, reptiles are able to regenerate large populations of neuronal cells. Pythons exhibit a characteristic specific dynamic action (SDA) response after food intake with an increase in metabolic rate that facilitates processing the meal. Associated with this change in SDA, pythons (Python spp.) also exhibit impressive plasticity in their digestive and cardiovascular physiology due to the sheer magnitude of the increase in organ growth that occurs after a meal to speed digestion, absorption, and assimilation of ...


Investigation Into The Mechanism Of Ion Transport In Rio Negro Characiformes, Vineza D. Reduta 2017 University of San Diego

Investigation Into The Mechanism Of Ion Transport In Rio Negro Characiformes, Vineza D. Reduta

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Four fish species within the Characiform Order [(Rosy tetras (Hyphessobrycon rosaceus), Serpae tetras (Hyphessobrycon eques), Emperor tetras (Nematobrycon palmeri) and Penguin tetras (Thayeria obliqua)] are native to the ion-poor, acidic waters of the Rio Negro. In this paper, we focus on Wood’s revised Na+/NH4+ exchange model to gain better insight into the mechanisms of ion transport within the Characids. We exposed each species to two experimental treatments: (i) 1mM ammonia (high external ammonia [HEA]), to test coupling of Na+ uptake and ammonia excretion, and (ii) 100μM Acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor), to test coupling of Na+ uptake and ...


Measuring Fertilization In Populations Of Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus): Developing And Testing Methods In The Laboratory And Field, Skylar Bayer 2017 University of Maine

Measuring Fertilization In Populations Of Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus): Developing And Testing Methods In The Laboratory And Field, Skylar Bayer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Most marine organisms are broadcast spawners, releasing their sperm and eggs into the water column. Methods of measuring in situ fertilization have proven successful with a few model species, which are reviewed in my introductory chapter. However, many commercially exploited species, such as the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus, have been neglected. Sea scallop populations have greatly increased from fishing closures, but the mechanism behind this response is uncertain, particularly in regard to fertilization. In this dissertation I developed a methodology of measuring fertilization success and spawning events of P. magellanicus, tested it in laboratory and field settings, and developed a ...


Development Of Neurotensin-Based Radiopharmaceuticals For Neurotensin-Receptor-1-Positive Tumors Targeting, Yinnong Jia 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Development Of Neurotensin-Based Radiopharmaceuticals For Neurotensin-Receptor-1-Positive Tumors Targeting, Yinnong Jia

Theses & Dissertations

The neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) is overexpressed in many cancers, due to its role as a growth pathway. These NTR1-positive cancers include pancreatic, colon, prostate and breast cancers. In the radiopharmaceutical field, the overexpression of NTR1 in cancer has prompted the development of NTR1-targeted diagnostics and therapeutics. The neurotensin (NT) peptide exhibits low nanomolar affinity for NTR1 and has been the paradigm for NTR1-targeted agents. Since the 1980’s, radiolabeled NT analogs have been developed and evaluated for targeting NTR1-positive cancers. Since native NT is rapidly degraded in vivo by a variety of peptidases, a tremendous amount of effort has ...


Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ruffed lemur (Varecia spp.) color vision research was conducted using a multidisciplinary approach: psychophysics, genetic analysis, technology, and animal training. The behavioral manifestation of Varecia spp. trichromacy was shown using a touchscreen apparatus (SMARTA). Trichromats performed better than dichromats when discriminating red from green (G2 = 78.10, p < 0.001).


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