Functional Analysis And Treatment Of Self-Injurious Feather Plucking In A Black Vulture (Coragyps Atratus), Kristen L. Morris
Feather plucking (FP) is a maladaptive behavior observed in captive avian species. This self-injurious behavior results in damage to and removal of feathers and skin tissue, resulting in animal welfare and financial consequences. The etiology and maintenance of FP have been hypothesized through medical and environmental processes, yet a definitive solution has not been found. The current study investigated the environmental variables maintaining the FP of a Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus), as well as evaluated a function-based treatment for this behavior. The behavior was found to be maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of contingent attention. Treatment consisted of ...
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte
University Scholar Projects
Sickle cell disease (SCD) has been shown to be associated with decreased baseline immunity and thus increased susceptibility to infection. I sought to discern possible causes of this by looking into the correlations between SCD and hematopoiesis, the immune system and the neuroendocrine system, and ultimately by conducting experiments surrounding the impaired immune system of SCD. These experiments focused on the potential causes and effects of the diminution of B-1a cells in the SCD spleen. Adoptive transfers, infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and histologic imaging were conducted to establish if the diminution of the B-1a cells in the SCD spleen is ...
Annual Wormwood Leaf Inhibits The Adipogenesis Of 3t3-L1 And Obesity In High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats, 2017 New York Medical College
Annual Wormwood Leaf Inhibits The Adipogenesis Of 3t3-L1 And Obesity In High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats, Y Song, S Lee, S Jang, T Kim, Hong-Duck Kim, S Kim, C Won, J Cho
NYMC Faculty Publications
Annual wormwood (AW) (Artemisia annua L.) has anti-malarial, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-tumour, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of annual wormwood leaves (AWL) on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HFD-induced obese rats were treated with AWL, and its effect on gene expression was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blotting experiments. Treatment with AWL effectively prevented triglyceride accumulation during adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, AWL suppressed the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes through the downregulation of dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1- methylxanthine, and insulin (DMI)-induced serine/threonine ...
In Vitro Studies On Metabolism Of Salvinorin A, 2017 University of Mississippi
In Vitro Studies On Metabolism Of Salvinorin A, Lukasz M. Kutrzeba, Vardan T. Karamyan, Robert C. Speth, John S. Williamson, Jordan K. Zjawiony
John S. Williamson
Microbial transformation of natural products is a well established model for mammalian metabolism. Salvinorin A, a diterpenoid isolated from the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M (Lamiaceae), is a potent non-nitrogenous κ-opioid receptor agonist. The metabolism of salvinorin A has still not yet been well established. Thirty fungal species were screened for the ability to metabolize salvinorin A. We observed that salvinorin A undergoes fast hydrolysis of the acetate group at carbon atom C2, resulting in formation of the pharmacologically inactive product, salvinorin B. Ex vivo experiments were also performed using organelle fractions isolated from rat liver and brain. Crude ...
Data On Il-10r Neutralization-Induced Chronic Colitis In Lipocalin 2 Deficient Mice On Balb/C Background, 2017 The Pennsylvania State University
Data On Il-10r Neutralization-Induced Chronic Colitis In Lipocalin 2 Deficient Mice On Balb/C Background, Vishal Singh, Beng San Yeoh, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Thorsten Berger, Tak W. Mak, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications
The data herein is related to the research article entitled “Microbiota-inducible Innate Immune, Siderophore Binding Protein Lipocalin 2 is Critical for Intestinal Homeostasis” (Singh et al., 2016)  where we have demonstrated that C57BL/6 Lipocalin 2 deficient mice (Lcn2KO) developed chronic colitis upon anti-interleukin-10 receptor (αIL-10R) monoclonal antibody administration. In the present article, we evaluated the susceptibility of BALB/c Lcn2KO mice and their WT littermates to the αIL-10R neutralization-induced chronic colitis. Our data showed that αIL-10R mAb-treated BALB/c Lcn2KO mice exhibited severe chronic colitis (i.e., splenomegaly, colomegaly, colonic pathology, and incidence of rectal ...
Pnaktide Attenuates Steatohepatitis And Atherosclerosis By Blocking Na/K-Atpase/Ros Amplification In C57bi6 And Apoe Knockout Mice Fed A Western Diet, K Sodhi, K Srikanthan, P Goguet-Rubio, A Nichols, A Mallick, A Nawab, R Martin, P Shah, M Chaudhry, S Sigdel, M El-Hamdani, J Liu, Z Xie, Nader Abraham, J Shapiro
NYMC Faculty Publications
We have previously reported that the alpha1 subunit of sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase), acts as a receptor and an amplifier for reactive oxygen species, in addition to its distinct pumping function. On this background, we speculated that blockade of Na/K-ATPase-induced ROS amplification with a specific peptide, pNaKtide, might attenuate the development of steatohepatitis. To test this hypothesis, pNaKtide was administered to a murine model of NASH: the C57Bl6 mouse fed a "western" diet containing high amounts of fat and fructose. The administration of pNaKtide reduced obesity as well as hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Of interest, we ...
Role Of Energy Metabolism In The Thermogenic Gene Program, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Role Of Energy Metabolism In The Thermogenic Gene Program, Minwoo Nam
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
In murine and human brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondria are powerful generators of heat. Emerging evidence has suggested that the actions of mitochondria extend beyond this conventional biochemical role. In mouse BAT and cultured brown adipocytes, impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity is accompanied by attenuated expression of Ucp1, a key thermogenic gene, implying a mitochondrial retrograde signaling. However, few have investigated this association in the context of mitochondria-nucleus communication.
Using mice with adipose-specific ablation of LRPPRC, a regulator of respiratory capacity, we show that respiration-dependent retrograde signaling from mitochondria to nucleus contributes to transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming of BAT. Impaired respiratory ...
Mammary Extracellular Matrix Directs Differentiation Of Testicular And Embryonic Stem Cells To Form Functional Mammary Glands In Vivo, Robert D. Bruno, Jodie M. Fleming, Andrea L. George, Corinne A. Boulanger, Pepper Schedin, Gilbert H. Smith
Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications
Previously, we demonstrated the ability of the normal mammary microenvironment (niche) to direct non-mammary cells including testicular and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to adopt a mammary epithelial cell (MEC) fate. These studies relied upon the interaction of transplanted normal MECs with non-mammary cells within the mammary fat-pads of recipient mice that had their endogenous epithelium removed. Here, we tested whether acellular mammary extracellular matrix (mECM) preparations are sufficient to direct differentiation of testicular-derived cells and ESCs to form functional mammary epithelial trees in vivo. We found that mECMs isolated from adult mice and rats were sufficient to redirect testicular derived ...
Refining The Precautionary Framework, 2017 London School of Economics and Political Science
Refining The Precautionary Framework, Jonathan Birch
Most of the commentators so far agree that the precautionary principle can be usefully applied to the question of animal sentience. I consider various ways of refining my proposals in light of the suggestions. I amend BAR to implement C. Brown’s suggestion that the scope of animal welfare law should be extensible by phylogenetic inference from orders in which credible indicators of sentience are found. In response to C. Brown, Mallatt, and Woodruff, I amend ACT to allow that a single credible indicator may sometimes call for urgent further investigation rather than immediate protection. In response to Paez, I ...
Effects Of Chromium On Mouse Splenic T Lymphocytes And Effects Of Ethanol Exposure During Early Neurodevelopment On Behaviors In Mice, Lu Dai
Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology
The dissertation consists of three major projects with the focus on the immunotoxicity of chromium and the behavior disorders caused by early ETOH exposure respectively.
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is widely used in various industrial processes and has been recognized as a carcinogen. As the first line of host defense system, the immune system can be a primary target of Cr(VI). T cell population represents a major arm of the immune system that plays a critical role in host anti-tumor immunity. Dysfunction of T cells compromises host anti-tumor immunity resulting in oncogenesis. Using mouse splenic T cells as an ...
Effects Of Mound Nests Of The Ant Formica Podzolica On Soil Moisture, Nitrogen, And Vegetation, 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder
Effects Of Mound Nests Of The Ant Formica Podzolica On Soil Moisture, Nitrogen, And Vegetation, Madison Sankovitz
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Ants are widely regarded as ‘ecosystem engineers’ because they change the biological, chemical, and physical properties of the soil around their nests through nest construction and contributions to nutrient cycling. These processes were investigated in a species of alpine ant, Formica podzolica, to quantify its effects on soil structure and vegetation composition in an alpine ecosystem in Nederland, Colorado. Measurements of vegetation percent cover, biomass, species diversity and abundance, soil moisture and pH, and 15N in plants were taken at various distances from nests. A stable isotope analysis was utilized to determine the amount of 15N in vegetation ...
Animal Sentience And The Precautionary Principle, 2017 London School of Economics and Political Science
Animal Sentience And The Precautionary Principle, Jonathan Birch
In debates about animal sentience, the precautionary principle is often invoked. The idea is that when the evidence of sentience is inconclusive, we should “give the animal the benefit of the doubt” or “err on the side of caution” in formulating animal protection legislation. Yet there remains confusion as to whether it is appropriate to apply the precautionary principle in this context, and, if so, what “applying the precautionary principle” means in practice regarding the burden of proof for animal sentience. Here I construct a version of the precautionary principle tailored to the question of animal sentience together with a ...
Protein Recoding By Adar1-Mediated Rna Editing Is Not Essential For Normal Development And Homeostasis, 2017 Australian Catholic University
Protein Recoding By Adar1-Mediated Rna Editing Is Not Essential For Normal Development And Homeostasis, Jacki E. Heraud-Farlow, Alistair M. Chalk, Sandra Linder, Qin Li, Scott Taylor, Joshua M. White, Lokman Pang, Brian J. Liddicoat, Ankita Gupte, Jin Billy Li, Carl Walkley
Faculty of Health Sciences Publications
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing of dsRNA by ADAR proteins is a pervasive epitranscriptome feature. Tens of thousands of A-to-I editing events are defined in the mouse, yet the functional impact of most is unknown. Editing causing protein recoding is the essential function of ADAR2, but an essential role for recoding by ADAR1 has not been demonstrated. ADAR1 has been proposed to have editing-dependent and editing-independent functions. The relative contribution of these in vivo has not been clearly defined. A critical function of ADAR1 is editing of endogenous RNA to prevent activation of the dsRNA sensor MDA5 (Ifih1). Outside of this ...
The Asymmetric Cell Division Regulators Par3, Scribble And Pins/Gpsm2 Are Not Essential For Erythroid Development Or Enucleation, 2017 Australian Catholic University
The Asymmetric Cell Division Regulators Par3, Scribble And Pins/Gpsm2 Are Not Essential For Erythroid Development Or Enucleation, Christina B. Wölwer, Nathan Gödde, Luke B. Pase, Imogen A. Elsum, Krystle Y. B. Lim, Faruk Sacirbegovic, Carl Walkley, Sharon Ellis, Shigeo Ohno, Fumio Matsuzaki, Sarah M. Russell, Patrick O. Humbert
Faculty of Health Sciences Publications
Erythroid enucleation is the process by which the future red blood cell disposes of its nucleus prior to entering the blood stream. This key event during red blood cell development has been likened to an asymmetric cell division (ACD), by which the enucleating erythroblast divides into two very different daughter cells of alternate molecular composition, a nucleated cell that will be removed by associated macrophages, and the reticulocyte that will mature to the definitive erythrocyte. Here we investigated gene expression of members of the Par, Scribble and Pins/Gpsm2 asymmetric cell division complexes in erythroid cells, and functionally tested their ...
Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleulin-8 Receptor Genes And Their Relationship To Production Traits And Hair Coat Scores In Crossbred Cattle, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleulin-8 Receptor Genes And Their Relationship To Production Traits And Hair Coat Scores In Crossbred Cattle, Avery B. Deaton, Laura Meyer, Jeremy Powell, Charles F. Rosenkrans Jr.
Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences
Little is understood about how the diversity of genes, specifically the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and interleukin-8 receptor (CXCR2), are related to reproductive health and how this affects physical traits in cattle. Glucocorticoid receptors have been positively associated with higher milk yields, lactose content, feed intake, and feed conversion rates. Interleukin-8 genes are part of the innate immune response and help with many aspects of female reproductive health, such as protecting the embryo from the maternal immune system during pregnancy. The objective of this research was to identify polymorphisms in the GR and CXCR2 genes and to associate genotypes between the ...
The Effects Of Methamphetamine Exposure On Cardiovascular Development In Combination With Hypoxia In Danio Rerio, Sarah Donaldson
Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of methamphetamine combined with hypoxia on the development and function of the cardiovascular system in Danio rerio embryos. It was hypothesized that the combined effect of the drug and decreased oxygen concentration would result in decreased cardiac parameters due to underdevelopment of the ventricle and vessels resulting from cardiomyopathy and lack of blood flow to tissues. It was found that methamphetamine exposure correlated to an increase in stroke volume, caudal artery and vein diameters and RBC velocities alone, while having a multiplicative effect of increasing arterial RBC velocity when combined ...
Analyzing And Modeling The Dysfunction Of Inhibitory Neurons In Alzheimer’S Disease, 2016 University of South Florida
Analyzing And Modeling The Dysfunction Of Inhibitory Neurons In Alzheimer’S Disease, Carlos Perez, Jokubas Ziburkus, Ghamim Ullah
Physics Faculty Publications
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the abnormal proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein, resulting in increased production of a self-aggregating form of beta amyloid (Aβ). Several lines of work on AD patients and transgenic mice with high Aβ levels exhibit altered rhythmicity, aberrant neuronal network activity and hyperexcitability reflected in clusters of hyperactive neurons, and spontaneous epileptic activity. Recent studies highlight that abnormal accumulation of Aβ changes intrinsic properties of inhibitory neurons, which is one of the main reasons underlying the impaired network activity. However, specific cellular mechanisms leading to interneuronal dysfunction are not completely ...
Arkansas Animal Science Department Report 2016, 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Arkansas Animal Science Department Report 2016, Paul Beck, Jason Apple, Shane Gadberry, Beth Kegley, Charles Rosenkrans Jr.
No abstract provided.
Which Drugs Cause Cancer?, 2016 Animal Consultants International
Which Drugs Cause Cancer?, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe
Jarrod Bailey, Ph.D.
Animal tests yield misleading results.
Cancerous Contradictions: The Mis-Regulation Of Human Carcinogens Based On Animal Data, 2016 Animal Consultants International
Cancerous Contradictions: The Mis-Regulation Of Human Carcinogens Based On Animal Data, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe
Jarrod Bailey, Ph.D.
The regulation of human exposures to potential carcinogens constitutes society’s most important use of animal carcinogenicity data. However, for environmental contaminants of greatest U.S. concern, we found that in most cases (58.1%; 93/160) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considered the animal data inadequate to support a classification of probable human carcinogen or noncarcinogen.
The World Health Organisation’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is a leading international authority on carcinogenicity assessments. For chemicals lacking human exposure data (the great majority), IARC classifications of identical chemicals were significantly more conservative than EPA classifications ...